Article

Safety Assessment of Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary)-Derived Ingredients as Used in Cosmetics

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  • Cosmetic Ingredient Review
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Abstract

The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of 10 Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary)-derived ingredients and concluded these ingredients are safe as used in cosmetics when formulated to be nonsensitizing. The R officinalis-derived ingredients are most frequently reported to function in cosmetics as skin conditioning agents or as fragrance ingredients. The Panel reviewed the available animal and clinical data to determine the safety of these ingredients. Because final product formulations may contain multiple botanicals, each containing the same constituents of concern, formulators are advised to be aware of these constituents and to avoid reaching levels that may be hazardous to consumers. Industry should continue to use good manufacturing practices to limit impurities that could be present in botanical ingredients.

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... There is a large body of scientific literature in which the chemical composition of rosemary is discussed [9,11,15,23,37,[46][47][48], and this is increasing as more sophisticated methods of analysis are used to examine extracts [49]. In this work, we only study volatile essential oil (Rosmarini aetheroleum) and the non-volatile part of the leaf extract (Rosmarini folium), which are the two forms collected in the Royal Spanish Pharmacopoeia of 2015, which is equivalent to the current European Pharmacopoeia [8]. ...
... On the other hand, three different chemotypes can be differentiated: cineoliferum (with a high percentage of 1,8-cineole), camforiferum (with more than 20% camphor), and verbenoniferum (with more than 15% verbenone) [15,46]. There is a large body of scientific literature in which the chemical composition of rosemary is discussed [9,11,15,23,37,[46][47][48], and this is increasing as more sophisticated methods of analysis are used to examine extracts [49]. In this work, we only study volatile essential oil (Rosmarini aetheroleum) and the non-volatile part of the leaf extract (Rosmarini folium), which are the two forms collected in the Royal Spanish Pharmacopoeia of 2015, which is equivalent to the current European Pharmacopoeia [8]. ...
... They also reported six chemotypes depending on the dominant molecule and another six intermediates for the same genotype [51]. Fiume et al. [49] confirmed that the amount of carnosol and carnosic acid present in the extract varies with the method of extraction. The level of carnosol and carnosic acid found in a rosemary extract prepared from a partially deodorized ethanol extract of rosemary is between 5% and 7%, whereas in an extract prepared with supercritical carbon dioxide, the level increases up to 30%. ...
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This work is a bibliographical review of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) that focuses on the application of derivatives of this plant for cosmetic products, an application which has been recognized and valued since Ancient Egyptian times. Rosemary is a plant of Mediterranean origin that has been distributed throughout different areas of the world. It has many medicinal properties, and its extracts have been used (mainly orally) in folk medicine. It belongs to the Labiatae family, which contains several genera-such as Salvia, Lavandula, and Thymus-that are commonly used in cosmetics, due to their high prevalence of antioxidant molecules. Rosemary is a perennial shrub that grows in the wild or is cultivated. It has glandular hairs that emit fragrant volatile essential oils (mainly monoterpenes) in response to drought conditions in the Mediterranean climate. It also contains diterpenes such as carnosic acid and other polyphenolic molecules. Herein, the botanical and ecological characteristics of the plant are discussed, as well as the main bioactive compounds found in its volatile essential oil and in leaf extracts. Afterward, we review the applications of rosemary in cosmetics, considering its preservative power, the kinds of products in which it is used, and its toxicological safety, as well as its current uses or future applications in topical preparations, according to recent and ongoing studies.
... Antifungal (Özcan and Chalchat 2008), antiinflammatory (De Melo et al. 2011), antioxidant (Borrás-Linares et al. 2014Nieto et al. 2018), antimicrobial (Al Fadel and Al Laham 2013;Angioni et al. 2004;Mekonnen et al. 2016), antiangiogenesis (Kayashima and Matsubara 2012), anticancer (Ho et al. 1994;Petiwala et al. 2013;Tai et al. 2012;Wang et al. 2012), antidiabetic (Bakirel et al. 2008Khalil et al. 2012), antidepressant (Machado et al. 2013), neuroprotective (Kayashima and Matsubara 2012) and antiobesity activities (Cui et al. 2012;Ibarra et al. 2011) are the most important medicinal properties of rosemary. Flavonoids, phenolic acids and terpenoids are the most important secondary metabolites of this plant (Andrade et al. 2018;Fiume et al. 2018). The most important compounds of the rosemary essential oil are α-pinene, camphor, camphene, 1,8-cineole, borneol and linalool (Bajalan et al. 2017;Borges et al. 2018;Hussain et al. 2010;Mohammed et al. 2020;Takayama et al. 2016). ...
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Background Preharvest and postharvest conditions of medicinal plants strongly affect the quantity and quality of their secondary metabolites. Here, the effect of different harvesting times (5 am, 12 noon and 5 pm) and different drying methods (shade at 25 °C, oven at 60 °C and microwave at 180 W) on essential oil content and components, total phenol content and antioxidant activity of rosemary was monitored. Results Harvesting time only had a significant effect on the essential oil content and components; however, all investigated traits were significantly affected by drying methods. The essential oil content of plants harvested at 5 am and 5 pm was higher than those harvested at 12 noon. The highest amount of essential oil was obtained from shade (0.85–1.12%) and oven (0.66–1.04%) dried plants, respectively. Total phenol and antioxidant activity of oven dried plants were significantly lower than shade and microwave-dried plants. The number, type and amount of essential oil components were affected by harvesting time and drying method. α-Pinene, verbenone and camphor were the major components of the essential oils. Oxygenated monoterpenes were the main group of essential oil compounds in all treatments. The results of biplot and cluster analysis, based on the measured traits, placed the treatments in three separate clusters; I: shade dried, II: oven-dried, and III: microwave-dried plants. Conclusion Generally, to obtain the higher essential oil content, phenol and antioxidant activity, harvesting at 5 am and 5 pm and also shade drying are recommended; however, for reaching to essential oil with specific quality, different harvesting time and drying method could be used.
... The 1,8-cineole and α-pinene compounds are known for their antimicrobial activity against some microorganisms, such as Bacillus subtilis (Gram-positive), Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) [18], and Mycobacterium smegmatis (Gram-positive) [19]. Rosemary is used in the food industry as a preservative agent [20] and in cosmetics [4] as a stimulating and brightening agent [21], as well as a skin conditioning agent [22]. In Eastern Morocco, the production of rosemary generates about 81,000 days of work per year, with an equivalent value of $500,000 US. ...
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To ensure the better production and sustainable management of natural resources, a chemometric investigation was conducted to examine the effect of cooperative and harvesting periods on the crop yields and chemical compositions of Salvia rosmarinus Spenn essential oils in the Oriental region of Morocco. The samples were collected from three cooperatives over nine time periods from January 2018 to April 2019. The chemical composition of Salvia rosmarinus Spenn essential oils was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The data from this study were processed by multivariate analyses, including principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). The disc diffusion technique and a determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration were performed to study the antibacterial properties of the oils. Statistical analysis showed that the cooperative and harvest period have a significant effect on yields. The highest yield of essential oil was recorded in April 2019 at cooperative C1. The PCA and the HCA results were divided into two groups: Group A for the summer season and group B for the winter season. The samples collected during summer were characterized by a high amount of 1,8-cineole component and a high yield of essential oil, whereas the samples collected during winter were qualified by a high amount of α-pinene component and a low yield of essential oil. The anti-bacterial activity of Salvia rosmarinus Spenn essential oils showed that Mycobacterium smegmatis ATCC23857 and Bacillus subtilis ATCC 23857 are the most susceptible strains, stopping growth at 1/500 (v/v). The least susceptible strain is Escherichia coli ATCC25922, with an MIC value corresponding to 1/250 (v/v). The findings of this study could have a positive economic impact on the exploitation of rosemary in the Oriental region, especially during the best harvest periods, as they indicate how to obtain the best yields of oils richest in 1,8-cineole and α-pinene chemotypes. Citation: Annemer, S.; Farah, A.; Stambouli, H.; Assouguem, A.; Almutairi, M.H.; Sayed, A.A.; Peluso, I.; Bouayoun, T.; Talaat Nouh, N.A.T; El Ouali Lalami, A.; et al. Antimicro-bial Activity and Chemometric
... Past studies have shown that a diet rich in antioxidants and antiinflammatory agents, such as active ingredients in some herbs, can effectively treat NAFLD (Nikkhajoei et al., 2016). In general, rosemary in humans in the usual doses (2-10 g) showed no adverse side effects except for some allergic reactions (Fiume et al., 2018). In addition, no significant side effects were observed in mice up to 2,000 mg/kg body weight (Anadon et al., 2008). ...
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Experimental and some clinical studies have shown beneficial effects of rosemary leaf on liver function and biochemical parameters. The present study aimed to examine the impact of rosemary leaf powder with a weight loss diet in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. In a randomized double-blinded clinical trial, 110 patients were randomly assigned to receive either 4 g rosemary leaf or placebo (starch) powders for 8 weeks. In addition, all participants in the study were given weight loss diet and physical activity recommendations. Compared with baseline, alanine aminotransferase (p < .001), aspartate aminotransferase (p < .001), alkaline phosphatase (p < .001), gamma glutamyltransferase (p < .001), fasting blood glucose (p < .001), fasting insulin (p < .001), insulin resistance (p < .001), total cholesterol (p = .003), triglyceride (p < .001), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p < .001), and anthropometric indices (weight, body mass index, and waist circumferences) decreased significantly in the rosemary and placebo group with weight loss. However, after 8 weeks, no significant difference between the rosemary and placebo groups was detected in the variables as mentioned above except homeostasis model assessment of β-cell dysfunction (p = .014). The findings of the current clinical trial study revealed that rosemary group did produce changes, but they were not statistically different from those produced by the diet/activity intervention alone.
... It has been used in cosmetics, the fragrance industry, aromatherapy, and the food industry as a preservative [40,41]. Still, ingestion of a large amount of rosemary essential oil may cause gastroenteritis and nephritis [42]. Therefore, removing the essential oil components from the RE would allow better safety to use it for food or medicinal purposes. ...
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Background Oxytocin (OXT), a neuropeptide involved in mammal reproductive and prosocial behaviors, has been reported to interact with various stressor-provoked neurobiological changes, including neuroendocrine, neurotransmitter, and inflammatory processes. In view of disturbances in psychosocial relationships due to social isolation and physical distancing measures amid the COVID-19 pandemic, being one of the triggering factors for the recent rise in depression and anxiety, OXT is a potential candidate for a new antidepressant. Methods In this present study, we have aimed to investigate the effects of oral administration of Rosmarinus officinalis extract (RE), extracted from distillation residue of rosemary essential oil, on central OXT level in the context of other stress biomarkers and neurotransmitter levels in mice models. Tail suspension test (TST) and elevated plus maze test (EPMT) following LPS injection were employed to assess depressive- and anxiety-like behavior in mice, respectively. Findings Pretreatment with RE for seven days significantly improved behavior in TST and EPMT. Whole-genome microarray analysis reveals that RE significantly reversed TST stress-induced alterations in gene expressions related to oxytocinergic and neurotransmitter pathways and inflammatory processes. In both models, RE significantly increased central Oxt and Oxtr expressions, as well as OXT protein levels. RE also significantly attenuated stress-induced changes in serum corticosterone, brain and serum BDNF levels, and brain neurotransmitters levels in both models. Interpretation Altogether, our study is the first to report antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like activities of RE through modulating oxytocinergic system in mice brain and thus highlights the prospects of RE in the treatment of depressive disorders of psychosocial nature.
... No other indications of toxicity have been documented. [142] In these studies, the doses of tested extracts were as high as 14.1 g/kg body weight and examined up to 5 days. In some studies, doses up to 400 mg/kg body weight were tested for up to 3 months (dietary). ...
Article
Artificial preservatives have long been used by the meat industry to control chemical, microbial, and enzymatic degradation activities; and to enhance the shelf life, safety, and quality of meat products. However, the reported toxicological and carcinogenic effects of these additives; and consumer preferences towards natural or plant-based food preservatives have insisted the meat industry to look for their natural alternatives. Rosemary is one of the most promising, versatile, and most studied natural preservatives that have been reported to reduce the rate of oxidative reactions and microbial growth in meat products, thereby extending their shelf life. The promising biological and functional characteristics of rosemary are due to the presence of bioactive compounds like phenolic diterpenes, flavonoids, and triterpenes. These bioactives are well renowned for their antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and neuroprotective properties. This review highlights the use of rosemary in a diverse range of meat products, including in their packaging. Encapsulation of rosemary and its mechanism of action have also been discussed
... Despite that several studies have demonstrated that 0.1% rosemary leaf extract applied topically could cause skin erythema, our data contradicted with their results [50,51]. Moreover, Monice et al. stated that it is safe to use rosemary leaf extract up to the 10 mL/kg and the pretreatment with 10 to 1000 µg/cm 2 of the rosemary extract could significantly reduce ear edema caused by 25 ng/cm 2 of 12-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate in mice [52]. All the participants of the current study had negative reaction according to the International Contact Dermatitis Research Group criteria. ...
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The multiple W/O/W emulsion supplemented with the extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis L., Avena sativa L. and Linum usitatissimum L. was prepared in the study, its active compounds were determined by HPLC and its safety was evaluated in vitro by the means of reconstituted human skin model EpiDerm™ for the assessment of its irritation, phototoxicity and early skin inflammation effects and by the 48 h human skin patch test for its skin irritation and allergenic potential. The microbiological challenge test of W/O/W emulsion was performed to ensure its preservation efficiency. The results showed that the W/O/W emulsion loaded with self-preserving plant-based bio-actives had no irritant potential, was not phototoxic and did not provoke skin inflammation or sensitization and thus could be used as a safe base for cosmetic products. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that the safety evaluation of cosmetic ingredients of natural or organic origin could be easily performed using reconstructed human skin model EpiDerm™ similar to the well-defined chemicals used in the cosmetics industry.
... Rosemary extracts have been proposed and used as bioactive, antioxidant additives in food, cosmetics, packaging, etc. [48][49][50][51][52]. Their worldwide market is expected to present an annual growth rate of roughly 3.7% over the next five years, and will reach 260 million US$ in 2024 from 210 million US$ in 2019 [53]. ...
Article
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Rosemary, oregano, pink savory, lemon balm, St. John’s wort, and saffron are common herbs wildly grown and easily cultivated in many countries. All of them are rich in antioxidant compounds that exhibit several biological and health activities. They are commercialized as spices, traditional medicines, or raw materials for the production of essential oils. The whole herbs or the residues of their current use are potential sources for the recovery of natural antioxidant extracts. Finding effective and feasible extraction and purification methods is a major challenge for the industrial production of natural antioxidant extracts. In this respect, the present paper is an extensive literature review of the solvents and extraction methods that have been tested on these herbs. Green solvents and novel extraction methods that can be easily scaled up for industrial application are critically discussed.
... Rosemary essential oil was reported to possess strong antioxidant and antimicrobial properties as well as wound healing activity [10,12]. Moreover, topical application of tea tree and rosemary essential oils has been well documented with satisfactory safety and efficacy [6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15] Chitosan [16] confers a plethora of privileges owing to its biocompatibility, biodegradability, film-forming, penetration-enhancement, wound healing and anti-microbial characteristics [16], Several studies provided adequate evidence for the synergistic effects of CS with essential oils to prevent infection and enhance wound healing [17]. The positively charged surface groups of CS, which can interact with the bacterial negatively charged groups, account for its antimicrobial effect [18], while essential oil bactericidal effect can be ascribed to its phenolic and aldehydic content [19]. ...
Article
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The present study investigates the wound healing potential of three chitosan-based topical preparations loaded with either tea tree essential oil, rosemary essential oil or a mixture of both oils in vivo. Essential oils of M. alternifolia and R. officinalis were analyzed using GC/MS. Essential oil-loaded chitosan topical preparations were formulated. Wound healing potential was evaluated in vivo using an excision wound model in rats. GC/MS analysis of M. alternifolia and R. officinalis essential oils revealed richness in oxygenated monoterpenes, representing 51.06% and 69.61% of the total oil composition, respectively. Topical application of chitosan-based formulation loaded with a mixture of tea tree and rosemary oils resulted in a significant increase in wound contraction percentage compared to either group treated with individual essential oils and the untreated group. Histopathological examination revealed that topical application of tea tree and rosemary oil combination demonstrated complete re-epithelialization associated with activated hair follicles. The high percentage of oxygenated monoterpenes in both essential oils play an important role in the antioxidant and wound healing potential observed herein. Incorporation of tea tree and rosemary essential oils in chitosan-based preparations in appropriate combination could efficiently promote different stages of wound healing.
... Rosemary essential oil has different pharmacological properties as analgesic (2), anti-inflammatory (3), antioxidative (4,5), antitumor (6), antibacterial (7) and hepatoprotective (5) activities. Moreover, it is widely used in para-pharmaceutical, cosmetic and perfume industries as well as in flavoring and preservation of several food products (8, 9). ...
Article
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This study is the first to investigate the deterpenation of Tunisian Rosmarinus officinalis L. leaf essential oil using hydrodistillation kinetic model and its effect on antioxidant activity. The essential oil yield was a subject of mathematical modeling and qualitative differences in the volatile composition of rosemary essential oil, and the obtained fractions were determined by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy. Totally, 42 volatile compounds were identified with the predominance of oxygenated monoterpenes (40.41–91.25%) especially including 1,8-cineole, camphor and endo-borneol. Monoterpene hydrocarbons varied from 12.94% to 42.98% and mainly comprised α-pinene and camphene. These results were treated by statistical multivariant analysis to fix out the appropriate conditions for the best deterpened essential oil. Significant correlations were observed between the separated fractions and antioxidant activities highlighted by a simultaneous increase of both antiradical potential and oxygenated sesquiterpene levels.
... Rosemary essential oil has different pharmacological properties as analgesic (2), anti-inflammatory (3), antioxidative (4,5), antitumor (6), antibacterial (7) and hepatoprotective (5) activities. Moreover, it is widely used in para-pharmaceutical, cosmetic and perfume industries as well as in flavoring and preservation of several food products (8, 9). ...
Article
This study is the first to investigate the deterpenation of Tunisian Rosmarinus officinalis L. leaf essential oil using hydrodistillation kinetic model and its effect on antioxidant activity. The essential oil yield was a subject of mathematical modeling and qualitative differences in the volatile composition of rosemary essential oil, and the obtained fractions were determined by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy. Totally, 42 volatile compounds were identified with the predominance of oxygenated monoterpenes (40.41–91.25%) especially including 1,8-cineole, camphor and endo-borneol. Monoterpene hydrocarbons varied from 12.94% to 42.98% and mainly comprised α-pinene and camphene. These results were treated by statistical multivariant analysis to fix out the appropriate conditions for the best deterpened essential oil. Significant correlations were observed between the separated fractions and antioxidant activities highlighted by a simultaneous increase of both antiradical potential and oxygenated sesquiterpene levels.
Chapter
Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Rosemary) is a medicinal and aromatic herb belonging to the Lamiaceae family. The geographical distribution of the plant covers especially the Mediterranean Region and regions with a Mediterranean climate. In addition, it has been cultured in many countries around the world so far. The aerial components of the plant, particularly the leaves, are rich in both volatile and nonvolatile phytochemicals: terpenes, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, alcohols, and esters. Phenolic compounds such as carnosol, carnosic acid, and rosmarinic acid in its content have been associated with the plant’s anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antihyperglycemic, antithrombotic, and antioxidant activities. The antimicrobial and antioxidant bioactivities of its essential oil have been utilized and accepted as a safe conservator in the food industry. While the bioactivity of the plant has been proven by in vivo and in vitro experiments, the results of clinical studies support the existence of these bioactivities. The potential of rosemary to be transformed into herbal medicine is considerable. In this chapter, we present an overview of the distribution, ethnobotany, bioactive and nutritional composition and available extraction techniques, scientific evidences, clinical and toxicological studies, available commercial formulations, and challenges and future recommendations as potential drug candidate of rosemary.KeywordsRosemaryPhenolic compoundsRosmarinic acidBiological activity Toxicity
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Natural, plant-derived antioxidants can be used to prolong the shelf life of food or cosmetics, or as health-promoting additives. Although their extraction from plants has been extensively studied, purification and formulation processes need further research to allow their exploitation. In the present work, rosemary extracts were obtained by successive extractions with acetone and water or single extraction by either an acetone:water or ethanol:water mixture. The extracts were analyzed by HPLC-DAD, and rosmarinic acid, carnosic acid, carnosol, and several flavonoids were identified and quantified. The extracts obtained by water or aqueous mixtures of organic solvents were encapsulated in maltodextrin combined with gum arabic with a high encapsulation yield (90–100%) and efficiency (97%) for rosmarinic acid and flavonoids. The acetone extract, rich in carnosic acid, was transformed to oil solution and either encapsulated or formulated in emulsion. The shelf life of encapsulated products was tested over a period of six months, and the results showed high retention of rosmarinic acid (88%) and lower of flavonoids (54–80%). Carnosic acid presented lower retention either encapsulated in solid powder (65–70% after one month at ambient temperature) or in emulsion (48% after 20 days of storage at 15 °C), while it was partially transformed to carnosol.
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Geleneksel olarak sıklıkla kullanılan tıbbi bitkilerin bilinçsiz kullanımı bazı komplikasyonlara neden olabilmektedir. Bitkilerin toksisite testlerinin detaylı olarak araştırıl-ması bitkisel ürünlerin olası etkilerinin belirlenmesi, takviye edici gıdaların üretiminde uygun dozun ayarlanması açısından önem arz etmektedir. DVD-SNO®, devedikeni tohumu (Silybum marianum), biberiye (Rosmarinus officinalis), zerdeçal (Curcuma longa), şahtere (Fumaria officinalis), hindiba (Cichorium intybus) ve sinirli ot (Plan-tago majör) bitkilerinin kombinasyonuyla hazırlanmış bitkisel bir gıda takviyesidir. DVD-SNO® içeriğindeki bu bitkilerin geleneksel olarak kombine halde ya da ayrı ayrı kullanımları yaygındır ve sağlık için faydalı oldukları düşünülmektedir. Bu çalışmada Remember Regeneration Terapy Method (RTM) kullanılan DVD-SNO® ürününün akut ve sub-akut toksisitesinin belirlenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Deney grup-larında 250-300 g ağırlığında sekiz aylık Wistar albino dişi sıçanlar kullanılmıştır. Çalışma ISO 10993-11, ISO 10993-2 ve ISO 10993-12 uluslararası test standartlarından yararlanılarak tasarlanmıştır. Kontrol grubuna salin, deney gruplarına 13,3 mg/mL DVD-SNO® takviye edici gıda ürünü gavaj yoluyla verilmiştir. Uygulama süreleri sonunda (akut toksisite için bir gün ve sub-akut toksisite için yedi gün, sub-akut sonrası toksisite için 14 gün) hayvanlardan kan ve doku örnekleri alındı. Kan örnekleri biyokimyasal ve hematolojik parametreler için analiz edildi. Kalp, karaciğer, akciğer, böbrek ve dalak dokularının histopatolojisi incelendi. İncelenen tüm parametreler, akut ve sub-akut toksisite açısından kontrol ve uygulama grupları arasında önemli bir farklılık taşımadığı görüldü. Sonuç olarak, DVD-SNO® ürününün günlük kullanım dozu akut ve sub-akut toksisite göstermemiştir.
Chapter
In recent years, the interest of consumers around the world is increasing toward the use of herbal products for personal and beauty care. Essential oils (EOs) play a major role in cosmetic and personal health care industries. EOs are natural fragrance liquid that contains a natural chemical, which imparts the plants its essence. They have been isolated from different forest-based and elsewhere available plant species. Usually, they are obtained from different plant parts such as leaves (Cymbopogon jwarancusa and Cymbopogon citratus), flower (Lavandula angustifolia and Salvia rosmarinus), bark (Canella winterana and Cassia cinnamon), wood (Santalum album), roots (Valeriana officinalis, and Sassafras albidum), seeds (Myristica fragrans and Anethum graveolens), and fruits (Juniperus communis, Citrus limon, Citrus sinensis, and Citrus bergamia). The chemical composition of EOs may differ depending on the geographical location, climatic conditions, plant species, and so on. These oils find their application in cosmetic products, shampoo, soap, perfume, detergents, etc. Currently, approximately 3000 EOs are known; among this 17,500 aromatic flora or plants possess EOs. Some of the main plant families that contain EOs are Lamiaceae, Rutaceae, Myrtaceae, Zingiberaceae, and Asteraceae. This chapter provides an overview of the role of forest-based and elsewhere available plant species in terms of EOs production and their cosmetic and personal health care applications.
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Nowadays, almost 300 essential oils (EOs) are commonly traded in the world market, with a prediction to be worth over $14 billion in 2024. EOs are natural preservatives for food products in order to reduce the activity of pathogenic microorganisms, therefore their use as an antioxidant or a preservative in foods has been encouraged. They are not only considered as antimicrobial or flavoring agents, but are also incorporated into food packaging materials. There are several types of EOs which have been approved as food additives by the Food and Drug Administration. Hence, it is important to use safe EO products to minimize possible adverse effect risks such as nausea, vomiting, necrosis, nephropathy, mucous membrane, and skin irritation. This review article gives information about some EOs that are used in the food industries and the types of some allergenic compounds and biocides which could make the EOs hazardous or may cause allergenic reactions in the human body. Besides, some analysis techniques of possible allergenic compounds or biocides in EOs were introduced and supported with the most relevant studies. The overall conclusion from the study is that pregnant women, patients taking drugs (e.g., diabetics) or the having a history of allergy are the most prone to be affected from EO allergenic components. As regards to biocides, organochlorine and organophosphorus types of pesticides that are carried over from the plant may be found mostly in EOs. The most common allergic reaction is skin sensitization and irritation if the EO components are oxidized during storage or transportation. Moreover, drug interactions are one of the other possible adverse effect. Hence, determination of biocides and possible allergenic component concentrations is an essential factor when they are used as a preservative or flavoring agent. The most prominent analysis techniques are gas and liquid chromatography because most of the allergens and biocides are mainly composed of volatile components. Practical Application Determining of the essential oil's content will be crucial if oils are used for food preservation or flavoring because they may have some hazardous effects, such as nausea, vomiting, necrosis and nephropathy. Therefore, after applying them to the food products, consumers (especially pregnant women) should be informed about their concentration levels and their possible adverse effects are taken into account when they are consumed over toxic limit. For this reason, we reviewed in our study that some allergenic components, biocides and toxic limits of EOs to be used in food products. In addition to this, recent analytical techniques have been explained and discussed which methods are suitable for analysis.
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The use of medicinal plants by the general population is an old and still widespread practice, which makes studies of their mutagenicity essential. Rosmarinus officinalis, long used in folk medicine, is used as an antispasmodic in renal colic and dysmenorrhoea, in relieving respiratory disorders, to stimulate growth of hair and has choleretic, hepatoprotective and antitumerogenic activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clastogenic potential of the Rosmarinus officinalis hidro-alcoholic extract in vivo on bone marrow cells of Wistar rats by evaluating the induction of chromosome aberrations and micronuclei induction on polychromatic erythrocytes. The extract was administered by gavage at doses of 6.43, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight. Experimental and control animals were submitted to euthanasia 24 h after the treatment. R. officinalis extract did not induce statistically significant increases in the average numbers of micronucleus or chromosome aberrations in the test systems employed.
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The essential oils of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) from three locations in Lebanon were extracted by steam distillation and their chemical composition was determined by GC/MS. The plants were collected during two years at either flowering stage or after. The oils obtained did not show appreciable differences in their composition in relation to geographical region. The three oil samples were found to be rich in α-pinene (18.8–38.5%) and 1,8-cineole (19.1–25.1%). The Lebanese oils had particularly high levels of α-terpineol (2.9–11.2%) and geraniol (1.8–9.3%). Although the results obtained did not indicate a large variation of oil composition in relation to harvest time (flowering and after flowering), some reproducible differences were noticeable. A parallel study on rosemary leaves and flowers from one of the three locations showed that their oils had the same chemical composition.
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This paper focuses on characterization of the components of Iranian rosemary essential oil using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Multivariate curve resolution (MCR) approach was used to overcome the problem of background, baseline offset and overlapping/embedded peaks in GC-MS. The analysis of GC-MS data revealed that sixty eight components exist in the rosemary essential oil. However, with the help of MCR this number was extended to ninety nine components with concentrations higher than 0.01%, which accounts for 98.23% of the total relative content of the rosemary essential oil. The most important constituents of the Iranian rosemary are 1,8-cineole (23.47%), α-pinene (21.74%), berbonone (7.57%), camphor (7.21%) and eucalyptol (4.49%).
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Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary) oil is widely used by the cosmetic, food, and pharmaceutical industries as a fragrance component of soaps, creams, lotions, and perfumes. Although it is popular, potential harmful side-effects of the oil have been described. We investigated the genotoxic and mutagenic potential of essential oil of R. officinalis in rodents, using comet, micronucleus and chromosome aberration assays. The animals were treated by gavage with one of three dosages of rosemary oil (300, 1000 or 2000 mg/kg). Liver and peripheral blood cells were collected from Swiss mice 24 h after treatment for the comet assay (genotoxicity endpoint), along with bone marrow cells for the micronucleus test (mutagenicity endpoint). Bone marrow cells were collected from Wistar rats 24 h after oil treatment for the micronucleus and chromosome aberration assays. Based on the comet assay, all three doses of rosemary oil induced significant increases in DNA damage in the mouse cells. There was a significant increase in micronucleated cells and chromosome aberrations only at the two higher doses. We conclude that rosemary essential oil provokes genotoxic and mutagenic effects when administered orally.
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Commercially available St. John's wort supplement (SJWS) composed of an herbal mixture of St. John's Wort (SJW), Rosemary (RM) and Spirulina (SP) is used as a dietary supplement for the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Although the minor ingredients, (RM and SP) are proven antioxidants, their quantity is quite insignificant as compared to the SJW, which is the major ingredient. Most of the toxic effects of SJWS are attributed to the main constituents of SJW which differ due to the influence of light (hypericin) and variations in temperature above freezing point (hyperforin). However, there are no reports on toxicity of SJWS maintained at room temperature in pharmacies and supermarkets. In view of the folkloric importance, immense (prescribed or unprescribed) use and a paucity of literature on SJWS, it was found worthwhile to (1) determine the genotoxic effects of SJWS in somatic and germ cells of mice and (2) investigate the role of biochemical changes, as a possible mechanism. The protocol included the oral treatment of mice with different doses (380, 760 and 1520 mg/kg/day) of SJWS for 7 days. The following experiments were conducted: (i) cytological studies on micronucleus test, (ii) cytogenetic analysis for meiotic chromosomes, (iii) cytological analysis of spermatozoa abnormalities, (iv) quantification of proteins and nucleic acids in hepatic and testicular cells and (v) estimation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and nonprotein sulfhydryl (NP-SH) in hepatic and testicular cells. The treatment increased the frequency of micronuclei in polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) in the femora. It caused aberrations in chromosomes of testes and induced spermatozoa abnormalities. These changes might be attributed to the epigenetic mechanisms as revealed by an increase in concentrations of MDA and depletion of nucleic acids and NP-SH levels in both hepatic and testicular cells observed in the present study. Since, the samples of SJWS used were not drawn from extremities of light and temperature; the observed effect might not be related to the main constituents of SJW. However, these changes might be ascribed to the combined effect of terpenes, tannins, quercetin and flavonoids present in SJW.
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A methanol extract of the leaves of the plant Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary) was evaluated for its effects on tumor initiation and promotion in mouse skin. Application of rosemary to mouse skin inhibited the covalent binding of benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] to epidermal DNA and inhibited tumor initiation by B(a)P and 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA). Topical application of 20 nmol B(a)P to the backs of mice once weekly for 10 weeks, followed 1 week later by promotion with 15 nmol 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) twice weekly for 21 weeks, resulted in the formation of 7.1 tumors per mouse. In a parallel group of animals that were treated topically with 1.2 or 3.6 mg of rosemary 5 min prior to each application of B(a)P, the number of tumors per mouse was decreased by 54 or 64%, respectively. Application of rosemary to mouse skin also inhibited TPA-induced ornithine decarboxylase activity, TPA-induced inflammation, arachidonic acid-induced inflammation, TPA-induced hyperplasia, and TPA-induced tumor promotion. Mice initiated with 200 nmol DMBA and promoted with 5 nmol TPA twice weekly for 19 weeks developed an average of 17.2 skin tumors per mouse. Treatment of the DMBA-initiated mice with 0.4, 1.2, or 3.6 mg of rosemary together with 5 nmol TPA twice weekly for 19 weeks inhibited the number of TPA-induced skin tumors per mouse by 40, 68, or 99%, respectively. Topical application of carnosol or ursolic acid isolated from rosemary inhibited TPA-induced ear inflammation, ornithine decarboxylase activity, and tumor promotion. Topical application of 1, 3, or 10 mumol carnosol together with 5 nmol TPA twice weekly for 20 weeks to the backs of mice previously initiated with DMBA inhibited the number of skin tumors per mouse by 38, 63, or 78%, respectively. Topical application of 0.1, 0.3, 1, or 2 mumol ursolic acid together with 5 nmol TPA twice weekly for 20 weeks to DMBA-initiated mice inhibited the number of tumors per mouse by 45-61%.
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The potent antioxidant properties of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) extracts have been attributed to its major diterpene, carnosic acid. Carnosic acid has received considerable attention in food science and biomedicine, but little is known about its function in the plant in vivo. We recently found that highly oxidized diterpenes increase in rosemary plants exposed to drought and high light stress as a result of the antioxidant activity of carnosic acid (S. Munné-Bosch, K. Schwarz, L. Alegre [1999] Plant Physiol 121: 1047-1052). To elucidate the significance of the antioxidant function of carnosic acid in vivo we measured the relative amounts of carnosic acid and its metabolites in different compartments of rosemary leaves. Subcellular localization studies show that carnosic acid protects chloroplasts from oxidative stress in vivo by following a highly regulated compartmentation of oxidation products. Carnosic acid scavenges free radicals within the chloroplasts, giving rise to diterpene alcohols, mainly isorosmanol. This oxidation product is O-methylated within the chloroplasts, and the resulting form, 11,12-di-O-methylisorosmanol, is transferred to the plasma membrane. This appears to represent a mechanism of a way out for free radicals from chloroplasts. Carnosic acid also undergoes direct O-methylation within the chloroplasts, and its derived product, 12-O-methylcarnosic acid, accumulates in the plasma membrane. O-methylated diterpenes do not display antioxidant activity, but they may influence the stability of the plasma membrane. This study shows the relevance of the compartmentation of carnosic acid metabolism to the protection of rosemary plants from oxidative stress in vivo.
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Ingestion of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) by two groups of adult Sprague-Dawley rats at levels of 250 and 500 mg/kg body wt for 63 days was investigated for its effects on fertility. Body weight and absolute and relative testes weights were not affected, but the average weights of epididymides, ventral prostates, seminal vesicles, and preputial glands decreased significantly. A significant decline in spermatogenesis in testes due to a decrease in the number of primary and secondary spermatocytes and spermatids in treatment group 2 (500 mg/kg) is attributed to a significant decrease in testosterone. Sperm motility and density were also significantly decreased in the cauda epididymis and in the testes of rosemary-treated male rats in group 2. In addition, the treatment markedly increased the number of fetal resorptions in female rats impregnated by group 2 males, thereby reducing their fertility.
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Since the use of vegetal derivatives in cosmetics is becoming generalised, much more attention has to be turned to the exact composition, toxicology, and possible interactions of these complex products. In this paper we analyse the nature and composition of two kinds of components of Rosmarinus officinalis L.: the essential oil and the phenolic fraction, their antioxidant and antimicrobial activity, the influence on human behaviour of the fragrance and the possible toxicology of the extracts.
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The hepatoprotective and antimutagenic effects of the rosemary essential oil and the ethanolic extract were investigated using carbon tetrachloride and cyclophosphamide as hepatotoxic and mutagenic compounds, respectively. Our results revealed that i.g. administration of the rosemary ethanolic extract (0.15g/100 g BW) to rats for 3 weeks produced the most pronounced hepatoprotective effect compared to silymarin (reference compound) due to the amelioration of most of the studied serum and liver parameters and confirmed by histopathological examination of the liver tissue. Pretreatment of mice for 7 days with the rosemary essential oil (1.1 mg/g BW) followed by i.p. injection with cyclophosphamide reduced significantly the induced mitodepression in the bone marrow cells of the animals. The potential hepatoprotective and antimutagenic activities of the rosemary ethanolic extract and essential oil, respectively, are attributed to the presence of a relatively high percentage of phenolic compounds with high ant...
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Rosmarinic acid is an ester of caffeic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid. It is commonly found in species of the Boraginaceae and the subfamily Nepetoideae of the Lamiaceae. However, it is also found in species of other higher plant families and in some fern and hornwort species. Rosmarinic acid has a number of interesting biological activities, e.g. antiviral, antibacterial, antiinflammatory and antioxidant. The presence of rosmarinic acid in medicinal plants, herbs and spices has beneficial and health promoting effects. In plants, rosmarinic acid is supposed to act as a preformed constitutively accumulated defence compound. The biosynthesis of rosmarinic acid starts with the amino acids l-phenylalanine and l-tyrosine. All eight enzymes involved in the biosynthesis are known and characterised and cDNAs of several of the involved genes have been isolated. Plant cell cultures, e.g. from Coleus blumei or Salvia officinalis, accumulate rosmarinic acid in amounts much higher than in the plant itself (up to 36% of the cell dry weight). For this reason a biotechnological production of rosmarinic acid with plant cell cultures has been proposed.
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The cutaneous reactions of commercially available absolutes, concretes and extracts used as raw materials in the fragrance industry were examined in detail. Using epicutaneous and photo patch tests on undiluted products, the concentration at which the irritant activity and phototoxicity was no longer observed was determined for 42 different raw materials. Further-more, the allergic reaction to the test substances by subjects previously sensitized by Peru balsam oil and/or perfumes and other fragrance materials also was determined. It was found that extracts that should be used at restricted concentrations because of their phototoxic or irritant activity were the absolutes of Aleppo pine needle, juniper, Kuberose laurel leaf, nutmeg, tarragon (estragon), rae, clove bud, jasmin, sage, lavender, lavandin, thyme, immortelle and wild chamomile.
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New developments in the realm of skin rejuvenation such as phytotherapy are at an astounding increasing pace in the cosmeceutical market. Yet, many of these products that are classified as cosmeceuticals are tested less vigorously and do not have to be approved by the Food and Drug Administration to establish efficacy and safety. Thus, as clinicians, we must ask the question, “Is there science-based evidence to validate the mechanism of these new treatments?” We assessed the top anti-aging creams currently on the market specifically evaluating their botanical ingredients. Some of the most common botanicals that are hot off the market are: Rosmarinus officinalis, Vitis vinifera (grape seed extract), Citronellol, Limonene, Oenothera biennis (evening primrose), Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice extract), Aframomum angustifolium seed extract, Diosgenin (wild yam), N6 furfuryladenine (kinetin), and Ergothioneine. Through researching each of these botanical ingredients, we have concluded that randomized controlled trials are still needed in this area, but there is promise in some of these ingredients and science to validate them.
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In the present study the chemopreventive effects of water soluble AquaROX(®) 15 and oil soluble VivOX(®) 40 rosemary extracts against 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide (NQNO) and 2-amino-3-methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-F]quinoline (IQ) induced mutagenicity in the reverse mutation assays with Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and against t-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH), benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) induced DNA damage in HepG2 cells were studied, applying the comet assay. The results showed comparable protective effect of AquaROX and VivOX against oxidative DNA damage, whereas protection against indirect active genotoxic carcinogens was more efficient by VivOX.
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The composition of the essential oil of Rosemary was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). 22 components, which constitute 97.41% of the oil, were identified. The major constituents were 1,8-Cineole (26.54%) and α-Pinene (20.14%). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) and time-kill dynamic processes against three Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis), three Gram-negative bacteria (Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli) and two fungi (Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger) were determined for the oil, 1,8-Cineole and α-Pinene. The oil showed pronounced antibacterial and antifungal activity than 1,8-Cineole and α-Pinene against all of the tested microbes. Furthermore, the survival rates and morphological changes of S. aureus after treatment with different concentrations of the essential oil were assessed by flow cytometry (FCM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM).
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The absorption, distribution and elimination of carnosic acid, the main antioxidant found in rosemary was studied, in vivo, in rats. Therefore, carnosic acid was administrated in a single dose, intravenously (20.5 ± 4.2 mg/kg) and orally (64.3 ± 5.8 mg/kg), to four and nine rats, respectively. Blood samples were collected at different time points, and plasma concentrations of carnosic acid were determined using LC-MS. Furthermore, total collection of urine and feces was done during 4 h and 24 h for the intravenous and oral administrations, respectively. After euthanizing the rats, intestinal content, liver and muscle tissue were sampled to determine carnosic acid concentrations. The bioavailability of carnosic acid, after 360 min, was 40.1%. Traces of carnosic acid were found in the rats intestinal content, liver and muscle tissue of abdomen and legs. The recovery of carnosic acid in the feces, 24 h after oral administration, was 15.6 ± 8.2%. Carnosic acid is absorbed into the bloodstream after oral administration in rats and is therefore bioavailable. It was found that carnosic acid in vivo is present in its free form and that its main elimination route is the fecal route.
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The materials assessed in this report have close structural relationships and similar biochemical and toxicity profiles. They generally participate in the same pathways of metabolic detoxication. The terpene alcohols are dermally absorbed, and a significant amount can be retained briefly within the epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous tissue. Some have a penetration enhancing effect in vitro. Few data are available from which to characterize the oral bioavailability of the terpene alcohols. For the assessment of potential oral exposures, bioavailability is therefore assumed to be 100%. Based on the data reviewed, the terpene alcohols are expected to undergo extensive conjugation and metabolism by well-characterized pathways, primarily in the liver, to form more polar compounds that are excreted mainly in the urine and to a lesser extent in the feces. They form generally innocuous end products: primary alcohols are metabolized to corresponding aldehydes and acids, and ultimately to CO2, and secondary alcohols are conjugated with glucuronide and excreted. Unsaturated alcohols may undergo further oxidation at the point of unsaturation or be oxidized to the corresponding acid prior to conjugation and excretion in the urine. A few materials, however, may generate α,β-unsaturated metabolites or hydroperoxides. The acute dermal toxicity of the terpene alcohols is very low, with LD50 values in rabbits reported to be greater than 2000 mg/kg body weight. The acute oral toxicity is likewise low with LD50 values generally greater than 1000 mg/kg body weight. Dermal repeated dose toxicity studies have been conducted only with linalool and α-bisabolol and indicated, apart from local effects, a low magnitude of systemic toxicity with NOAELs of 250 and 200 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively. Slight effects on body weight and food consumption were observed at a dose level of 1000 mg/kg body weight/day. The liver and kidneys were the only target organs affected in oral repeated dose toxicity studies. The magnitude of systemic toxicity is considered to be low with NOAELs generally greater than 50 mg/kg body weight/day. Hence, it can be assumed that efficient detoxication mechanisms are in place to prevent significant toxicity. Terpene alcohols have been extensively tested in genotoxicity studies in vitro. Ames and other bacterial mutation data demonstrate no mutagenic activity of this group of compounds. A few positive results have been obtained in chromosome aberration studies in vitro, but these materials showed no evidence of genotoxicity in vivo. The relevance of the positive findings is, therefore, limited. Reproductive and developmental toxicity data are limited but give no indication of a relevant adverse effect on reproductive function or the developing organism. NOAELs for maternal and developmental toxicity are far in excess of current human exposure levels and raise no safety concern. At concentrations likely to be encountered by consumers, these chemicals are considered non-irritating to human skin. Their potential for eye irritation under the present maximum use concentrations is considered minimal. Cases of sensitization, mostly in dermatitis patients, have been reported for many of the assessed terpene alcohols. Due to their sensitizing effects, 6,7-dihydrogeraniol, hydroabietyl alcohol and isopropyl-2-decahydronaphthalenol have been prohibited for use in fragrance materials. Restrictions exist for farnesol, geraniol, citronellol and rhodinol (3,7-dimethyl-7-octen-1-ol). Sclareol and linalool must comply with specific purity criteria if used as fragrance materials. No test results were available for some materials. 2(10)-Pinen-3-ol and 2,6-dimethyloct-3,5-dien-2-ol do not have structural alerts for topical effects (Ford et al., 2000). Based on structural elements that indicate a potential for sensitization, 3,7-dimethyl-4,6-octadien-3-ol, should be regarded as a potential sensitizer until tested. Based on the UV spectra and review of phototoxic/photoallergy data, terpene alcohols would not be expected to elicit phototoxicity or photoallergy under the current conditions of use as a fragrance ingredient.
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Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae), popularly known as rosemary, is used for food flavoring and in folk medicine as an antispasmodic, analgesic, antirheumatic, diuretic, and antiepileptic agent. Few studies have shown the anti-inflammatory effects of rosemary essential oil (REO). This study evaluated the effects of REO on leukocyte migration through in vivo leukocyte migration and in vitro chemotaxis assay. REO was analyzed by using gas chromatography-mass spectometry, and the main components identified were camphor (27.59%), 1,8-cineole (15.74%), α-pinene (16.58%), and β-myrcene (10.02%). In rats, administration of REO reduced the number of leukocytes that rolled, adhered, and migrated to the scrotal chamber after carrageenan injection. All doses of REO tested significantly inhibited leukocyte chemotaxis induced by casein. The effects of REO on leukocyte migration highlight an important mechanism of the anti-inflammatory action of rosemary.
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This study was aimed at examining the effect of an ointment containing essential oils (EO) on the severity of adjuvant arthritis (AA), an experimental model of human rheumatoid arthritis (RA), in Lewis rats and to define the underlying mechanisms. At the onset of AA, the rats received topical application twice daily of an ointment containing 20% EO or placebo ointment. The synovial fluid (SF) and synovium-infiltrating cells (SIC) of rats were tested for pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β. The hind paws and skin were examined histologically. The activity/level of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and anti-mycobacterial heat-shock protein 65 (Bhsp65) antibodies were tested. Arthritic rats treated with ointment containing EO developed less severe clinical arthritis compared with the controls, and this activity was attributable to EO and not to the carrier oil. The levels of TNF-α and IL-1β, and the activity of MMPs in SF and SIC-lysate were significantly reduced in EO-treated arthritic rats compared with the controls. However, the levels of anti-Bhsp65 antibodies were unaffected by treatment. Thus, topical dermal delivery of EO-containing ointment down-modulates the severity of AA in Lewis rats by inhibiting defined mediators of inflammation. Such ointments should be tested in patients with RA and other arthritic conditions.
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Calendula officinalis extract, C officinalis flower, C officinalis flower extract, C officinalis flower oil, and C officinalis seed oil are cosmetic ingredients derived from C officinalis. These ingredients may contain minerals, carbohydrates, lipids, phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins, coumarins, sterols and steroids, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, triterpenes, tocopherols, quinones, amino acids, and resins. These ingredients were not significantly toxic in single-dose oral studies using animals. The absence of reproductive/developmental toxicity was inferred from repeat-dose studies of coriander oil, with a similar composition. Overall, these ingredients were not genotoxic. They also were not irritating, sensitizing, or photosensitizing in animal or clinical tests but may be mild ocular irritants. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel concluded that these ingredients are safe for use in cosmetics in the practices of use and concentration given in this amended safety assessment.
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In the present study, we evaluated the effects of extracts and purified compounds from fresh leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Pretreatment with the major anti-inflammatory compounds, carnosic acid (CA) and carnosol (CS), inhibited phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced ear inflammation in mice with an EC(50) of 10.20 μg/cm(2) and 10.70 μg/cm(2), respectively. To further understand the anti-inflammatory mechanism of these compounds, we analyzed the in vivo expression of several inflammation-associated genes in mouse skin by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Our data showed that CA and CS reduced the expression of IL-1β and TNF-α but had less effect on fibronectin and ICAM-1 expression. Interestingly, both compounds selectively inhibited COX-2 but not COX-1. Histopathological analysis of hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained tissue revealed a marked reduction in leukocyte infiltration and epidermal ulceration of PMA-treated ears when ears were pretreated with ethanolic extracts or pure CA. In vitro, we showed that ethanolic extract, carnosic acid and carnosol significantly inhibited the overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) in a dose-dependent manner in the RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cell line. For the first time in vivo, we showed that CA and CS differentially regulate the expression of inflammation-associated genes, thus demonstrating the pharmacological basis for the anti-inflammatory properties reported for CA and CS.
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Exposure to compounds in consumer products can be assessed using the computer program ConsExpo (Consumer Exposure). Given the huge number of consumer products, it is not possible to calculate the exposure for each separate product, so a limited number of groups containing similar products are defined. The information for each group of products is described in a fact sheet. Paint, cosmetics, children's toys and cleaning products are examples fact sheets, which have been published already. This fact sheet covers the use of cosmetics by consumers. In the fact sheet 35 product categories are described, including shampoo, make-up, lipstick, deodorant and toothpaste. To assess exposure of compounds in the cosmetics default values for all 35 product categories have been determined. Voor de conversie van het computerprogramma ConsExpo 3.0 naar 4.0 is de factsheet cosmetica aangepast en herzien en nu ook in het Engels beschikbaar. ConsExpo 4.0 is een computerprogramma, dat gebruikt kan worden om de blootstelling van mensen aan stoffen in consumentenproducten uit te rekenen. Hierbij wordt rekening gehouden met verschillende blootstellingsroutes (dus via de huid, via inhalatie en via orale opname). Bij het ConsExpo programma hoort ook een database, waarin standaardwaarden voor vele product typen en voor een groot aantal blootstellingsscenarios worden aangeboden. De beschrijving van deze achtergrondinformatie bij deze standaardwaarden wordt gerapporteerd in zogenoemde 'factsheets'. In dit rapport, Factsheet Cosmetica, is de meest recente informatie bijeengebracht om de blootstelling aan stoffen uit cosmetica te berekenen. De verschillende typen cosmetica zijn verdeeld in 35 categorieen, bijvoorbeeld shampoo, make-up, lippenstift, tandpasta en deodorant. Voor iedere categorie wordt de samenstelling en gebruik van producten uit die categorie beschreven. Daarnaast wordt aangegeven welk model of modellen van ConsExpo het meest geschikt is om de blootstelling uit te rekenen en worden voor alle gegevens die nodig zijn voor de berekening standaardwaarden ingevuld. Naast deze factsheet cosmetica zijn er ook factsheets voor ongediertebestrijdingsmiddelen, verf, reinigingsmiddelen en desinfectantia.
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The effects of four essential oils (rosemary, ylang, lilacin, and peppermint oils), and three plant oils (jojoba oil, corn germ oil, and olive oil) on the permeation of aminophylline were studied using human skin. The permeation effects of these oils were compared with those of three chemical penetration enhancers. Although, all oils enhanced the permeation of aminophylline, their effects were less than that of ethanol. Jojoba oil was found to be the most active, causing about a 32% peak height decrease of N-H bending absorbances in comparison with the control, while peppermint, lilacin, rosemary, and ylang oils caused 28%, 24%, 18%, and 12% peak height decreases, respectively. Microemulsions containing 10% jojoba oil and 30% corn germ oil were found to be superior vehicles for the percutaneous absorption of aminophylline. Comparision with results obtained from high-performance liquid chromatography shows good agreement.
Article
A ternary antioxidant vitamin mix consisting of ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol and lecithin as well as a rosemary extract with carnosic acid and carnosol as the two major active ingredients were shown to exhibit strong antimutagenic effects in Ames tester strain TA102. This strain has been shown to be highly sensitive to reactive oxygen species. Mutagenicity was induced by the generation of oxygen radicals by tert-butyl-hydroperoxide (tBOOH) or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2); therefore, the antimutagenic property of the above substances was attributed to their antioxidant properties. In the case of the vitamin mix, ascorbic acid was held responsible for this inhibitory property, whereas for the rosemary extract carnosic acid was identified as the antimutagenic agent. Since oxygen radicals are known to be involved in the multiprocess of carcinogenicity, it is concluded that these antioxidants might exhibit anticarcinogenic properties.
Article
The effect of dietary intake of an extract of the spice plant Rosmarinus officinalis L. on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary tumorigenesis and on the in vivo formation of mammary DMBA-DNA adducts was evaluated. Supplementation of a semi-purified diet with 1.0% (by wt.) rosemary extract resulted in a significant (47%) decrease in mammary tumor incidence compared to controls. In subsequent studies, dietary supplementation with 0.5% and 1.0% rosemary extract inhibited total in vivo binding of DMBA to mammary epithelial cell DNA by an average of 42%. This decrease in total binding was not due to a uniform decrease in the formation of all mammary DMBA-DNA adducts. The formation of two major adducts derived from the anti-diastereomer of DMBA and bound to deoxyguanosine (anti-dGuo) was significantly decreased at both dietary rosemary concentrations. The formation of the syn-dGuo adduct also was inhibited, whereas formation of the syn-dAdo adduct was unaffected by consumption of the rosemary extract. These studies suggest that use of rosemary extract and its individual antioxidative constituents as chemopreventative agents for experimental mammary tumorigenesis warrant further investigation.
Article
Extracts of rosemary, Rosmarinus officinalis L., have been used in folk medicine as a diuretic, an emenagogue, an antispasmodic and its aqueous extract does not present toxicity to man, presenting, however, abortive effects. In order to evaluate if this plant induces abortion and/or interferes with the normal development of the concepts, doses of 26 mg of a 30% (w/v) R. officinalis aqueous extract (13 mg solids/ml) made with leaves, flowers and stem were administered daily by gavage during two different periods of Wistar rat pregnancy. One group of animals (N = 12) received the extract from days 1 to 6 of pregnancy (preimplantation period) and another group (N = 14) received the same extract from days 6 to 15 of pregnancy (organogenic period). Control groups (N = 12) received saline in the same volume and during the same periods as their respective experimental groups. The animals were sacrificed at term. The treatment of the dams during either the preimplantation or the organogenic period did not cause significant changes in the postimplantation loss or in the number of anomalies or malformations of the term fetuses, which also showed a similar degree of development when compared with the respective controls. The percent of preimplantation loss in the group treated before embryo implantation increased, although the difference was not significant compared to the control. This result suggests that rosemary extract may present an anti-implantation effect without interfering with the normal development of the concept after implantation.
Article
A 56-year-old man, working in a food processing factory, developed contact dermatitis of his hands, forearms, and face after the introduction of a new herb extract (Rosmanox) made from the leaves of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis). He reacted to carnosol, the main constituent of Rosmanox. 226 controls were negative. To our knowledge, this is the 1st reported case of contact dermatitis from carnosol.
Article
We evaluated the effects of a methanol extract from the leaves of the plant Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary) on the metabolism and action of estradiol and estrone. Treatment of female CD-1 mice with 2% rosemary in AIN-76A diet for 3 weeks increased the liver microsomal 2-hydroxylation of estradiol and estrone by approximately 150%, increased their 6-hydroxylation by approximately 30% and inhibited the 16alpha-hydroxylation of estradiol by approximately 50%. Treatment of female CD-1 mice with 2% rosemary diet for 3 weeks also stimulated the liver microsomal glucuronidation of estradiol and estrone by 54-67% and 37-56%, respectively. In additional studies, feeding 2% rosemary diet to ovariectomized CD-1 mice for 3 weeks inhibited the uterotropic action of estradiol and estrone by 35-50% compared with animals fed a control diet. The results of this study showed that feeding female mice a 2% rosemary diet increased the liver microsomal oxidation and glucuronidation of estradiol and estrone and inhibited their uterotropic action.
Article
The use of plants is as old as the mankind. Natural products are cheap and claimed to be safe. They are also suitable raw material for production of new synthetic agents. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis Linn.) is a common household plant grown in many parts of the world. It is used for flavouring food, a beverage drink, as well as in cosmetics; in folk.medicine it is used as an antispasmodic in renal colic and dysmenorrhoea, in relieving respiratory disorders and to stimulate growth of hair. Extract of rosemary relaxes smooth muscles of trachea and intestine, and has choleretic, hepatoprotective and antitumerogenic activity. The most important constituents of rosemary are caffeic acid and its derivatives such as rosmarinic acid. These compounds have antioxidant effect. The phenolic compound, rosmarinic acid, obtains one of its phenolic rings from phenylalanine via caffeic acid and the other from tyrosine via dihydroxyphenyl-lactic acid. Relatively large-scale production of rosmarinic acid can be obtained from the cell culture of Coleus blumei Benth when supplied exogenously with phenylalanine and tyrosine. Rosmarinic acid is well absorbed from gastrointestinal tract and from the skin. It increases the production of prostaglandin E2 and reduces the production of leukotriene B4 in human polymorphonuclear leucocytes, and inhibits the complement system. It is concluded that rosemary and its constituents especially caffeic acid derivatives such as rosmarinic acid have a therapeutic potential in treatment or prevention of bronchial asthma, spasmogenic disorders, peptic ulcer, inflammatory diseases, hepatotoxicity, atherosclerosis, ischaemic heart disease, cataract, cancer and poor sperm motility.
Article
The hepatoprotective and antimutagenic effects of the rosemary essential oil and the ethanolic extract were investigated using carbon tetrachloride and cyclophosphamide as hepatotoxic and mutagenic compounds, respectively. Our results revealed that i.g. administration of the rosemary ethanolic extract (0.15 g/100 g BW) to rats for 3 weeks produced the most pronounced hepatoprotective effect compared to silymarin (reference compound) due to the amelioration of most of the studied serum and liver parameters and confirmed by histopathological examination of the liver tissue. Pretreatment of mice for 7 days with the rosemary essential oil (1.1 mg/g BW) followed by i.p. injection with cyclophosphamide reduced significantly the induced mitodepression in the bone marrow cells of the animals. The potential hepatoprotective and antimutagenic activities of the rosemary ethanolic extract and essential oil, respectively, are attributed to the presence of a relatively high percentage of phenolic compounds with high antioxidant activity (according to our chemical studies).
Article
Keywords:rosemary;Rosemarinus officinalis;plants;herbs;spices;foods;allergic contact cheilitis;labiatae;corticosteroids;hydrocortisone
Article
The distribution of six compounds with three different polyphenol skeletons have been studied in Rosmarinus officinalis: phenolic diterpenes (carnosic acid, carnosol, and 12-O-methylcarnosic acid), caffeoyl derivatives (rosmarinic acid), and flavones (isoscutellarein 7-O-glucoside and genkwanin), each showing a characteristic behavior and distribution during the vegetative cycle. Only in leaves were all six compounds present, and the highest accumulation rate was related with the young stages of development. Rosmarinic acid showed the highest concentrations of all the polyphenols in all organs. The distribution of this acid in leaves, flowers, and stems suggests that in the first stages of flower growth, levels were due to in situ biosynthesis, and in the last stages, the contribution of transport phenomena was increased. The antioxidant activity of six extracts with different polyphenolic composition was evaluated in aqueous and lipid systems. The results clearly suggest that rosemary extracts are excellent antioxidants in both aqueous and lipid systems.
Article
Patch testing for suspected sensitivity to cosmetics and other personal care products is usually done by testing with nonirritating products "as is" and by panels of antigens likely to contain causative ingredients. Most allergic reactions are reportedly due to sensitivity to either fragrances or preservatives. Although most preservatives found in patients' products are available for patch testing, only a small number of fragrance ingredients are available, and fragrance components are seldom labeled. Most personal care products contain many other ingredients, and unless the patient reacts to the whole product and the ingredients are obtained from the manufacturer, most of these are seldom tested. To investigate the importance of testing with these other ingredients. Investigators reviewed patch-test records of patients who presented with eruptions compatible with the use of their personal care products and who were tested with available ingredients that were listed on the labels of products they were using. This allowed testing with many ingredients in products that are too irritant for "as is" testing. Some of the results included those of persons who were tested in other series, so these were separated. Of patch tests with 52 cosmetic ingredients also tested in other series, 3.4% produced at least one+or greater reaction. Of those antigens tested only when present in products used by the patient, 55 of the 121 ingredients produced at least one+reaction, and about 3.6% of the test results were positive. Adding ingredients found in the patient's personal care products to patch tests done on those compatible with exposure increases the positive yield in patch testing, and the number of positive results is likely to increase as more ingredients are available for testing.
Article
We report a rare case of allergic contact dermatitis due to an extract of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis). A 23-year-old woman had begun to notice itchy erythema on her face around one month before presentation. She used various cosmetics and a cleansing gel containing rosemary leaf extract. From the patch test results, she reacted positively to the cleansing gel (1% in distilled water) and the rosemary leaf extract (0.1% in distilled water), one of its ingredients.
Article
Rosemary, a plant belonging to the labiate family, is frequently used in the making of cosmetics and also for medicinal purposes. There are few reported cases of contact dermatitis due to this plant. Here we present 1 case and asses the existence of cross-reactivity with plants from the same family. 53-year-old man with several episodes of a pruritic and erythematous eruption that resulted in peeling of the skin, after applying rosemary alcohol, on the chest reported. Epicutaneous tests were done with the standard European series (GEIDC), with the commercial plant series (Bial-Aristegui) and with plants from the labiate family. Results were positive for 3 of 4 labiate species tested. we present a case of rosemary contact dermatitis, where we have found cross-reactivity with 3 of 4 species tested from the same family.
Article
The present investigation was undertaken to explore the anti-tumor promoting activity of Rosemarinus officinalis on two-stage skin carcinogenesis, induced by a single topical application of 7, 12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene and promoted by treatment of croton oil for 15 weeks in Swiss albino mice. Oral administration of Rosemary leaf extract at a dose of 1,000 mg/ kg b. wt. / day at pre, peri and post-initiational phases, was found to be effective in decreasing the tumor incidence (50, 41.7, 58.3%, respectively) in comparison to the control (100%). Furthermore, the cumulative number of papillomas, tumor yield and tumor burden were also found to be reduced in R. officinalis-treated animals. This was associated with significant alteration in liver lipid peroxidation and glutathione (GSH) levels.
Article
The chemopreventive potential of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) on 7,12-dimethlybenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) initiated and croton oil promoted mouse skin tumorigenesis was assessed. The modulatory effects of R. officinalis was monitored on the basis of the average latency period, tumor incidence, tumor burden, tumor yield, tumor weight and diameter as well as lipid peroxidation and glutathione level. The results indicate that R. officinalis leaves extract could prolong the latency period of tumor occurrence, decrease the tumor incidence, tumor burden and tumor yield. The average weight and diameter of tumors recorded were comparatively lower in the rosemary extract treated mouse groups. The level of lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced in blood serum and liver. Furthermore, depleted levels of glutathione were restored in RE-administered animal groups. Thus, at a dose rate of 500 mg/kg body wt/mouse, the oral administration of rosemary extract was found to be significantly protective against two-stage skin tumorigenesis.
Article
In the present study, the effects of extracts and polyphenol-rich fractions as well as monomer polyphenols identified in them, from both red and white grapes, on mitomycin C (MMC) induced sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in human peripheral blood lymphocytes were investigated. The grape extracts and two of the three polyphenol-rich fractions promoted MMC-induced SCEs at concentrations from 75 to 300 microg/mL. However, none of the extracts or fractions alone induced SCEs. Thus, these results suggest caution especially with regard to the use of grape extracts as dietary supplements. On the other hand, the fact that these extracts were not genotoxic alone may indicate a selective activity against genetically damaged cells. This is the first study regarding the clastogenic effects of grape extracts in human cells. Moreover, from the tested polyphenols, caffeic acid, gallic acid, and rutin hydrate enhanced MMC-induced clastogenicity, whereas ferulic acid, protocatechuic acid, (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, and trans-resveratrol had no effect at concentrations between 5 and 100 microM. The differences in the chemical structures of the tested polyphenols may account for their differential effects on MMC clastogenicity.
Article
Naturopathic physicians commonly make dietary and/or dietary supplement recommendations for breast cancer prevention. This placebo-controlled, parallel-arm, pilot study tested the effects of two naturopathic interventions over five menstrual cycles on sex steroid hormones and metabolic markers in 40 healthy premenopausal women. The intervention arms were as follows: combination botanical supplement (Curcuma longa, Cynara scolymus, Rosmarinus officinalis, Schisandra chinensis, Silybum marinum, and Taraxacum officinalis; n = 15), dietary changes (3 servings/d crucifers or dark leafy greens, 30 g/d fiber, 1-2 liters/d water, and limiting caffeine and alcohol consumption to 1 serving each/wk; n = 10), and placebo (n = 15). Early-and late-follicular phase serum samples from cycles 1 and 5 were analyzed for estrogens (estrone, estrone-sulfate, total estradiol, and free estradiol), androgens (dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate, androstenedione, total testosterone, and free testosterone), sex hormone-binding globulin, and metabolic markers (insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3, and leptin). Serum samples collected during the mid-luteal phase of cycles 1 and 5 were analyzed for total estradiol, free estradiol, and sex hormone-binding globulin. Urine samples collected during the late follicular phase of cycles 1 and 5 were analyzed for 2-hydroxyestrone and 16alpha-hydroxyestrone. During the early follicular phase, compared with placebo, the botanical supplement decreased dehydroepiandrosterone (-13.2%; P = 0.02), dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (-14.6%; P = 0.07), androstenedione (-8.6%; P = 0.05), and estrone-sulfate (-12.0%; P = 0.08). No other trends or statistically significant changes were observed. When comparing dietary changes with placebo, no statistically significant differences were observed. Overall, in this pilot study, the naturopathic interventions had no substantial effects on estrogen measures. Early-follicular phase androgens decreased with the botanical supplement.
Article
A comparison of the human health risk to consumers using one of two types of toilet rimblock products, either a p-dichlorobenzene-based rimblock or two newer fragrance/surfactant-based alternatives, was conducted. Rimblock products are designed for global use by consumers worldwide and function by releasing volatile compounds into indoor air with subsequent exposure presumed to be mainly by inhalation of indoor air. Using the THERdbASE exposure model and experimentally determined emission data, indoor air concentrations and daily intake values were determined for both types of rimblock products. Modeled exposure concentrations from a representative p-dichlorobenzene rimblock product are an order of magnitude higher than those from the alternative rimblock products due to its nearly pure composition and high sublimation rate. Lifetime exposure to p-dichlorobenzene or the subset of fragrance components with available RfD values is not expected to lead to non-cancer-based adverse health effects based on the exposure concentrations estimated using the THERdbASE model. A similar comparison of cancer-based effects was not possible as insufficient data were available for the fragrance components.