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Dossiê Geografia, saúde e ambiente : uma abordagem da complexidade dos problemas atuais na saúde = Dossier Géographie, santé et environnement : une approche de la complexité des questionnements actuels en santé

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The prevention and control of mosquito-borne diseases, such as malaria, are important health issues in tropical areas. Malaria transmission is a multi-scale process strongly controlled by environmental factors, and the use of remote-sensing data is suitable for the characterization of its spatial and temporal dynamics. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is well-adapted to tropical areas, since it is capable of imaging independent of light and weather conditions. In this study, we highlight the contribution of SAR sensors in the assessment of the relationship between vectors, malaria and the environment in the Amazon region. More specifically, we focus on the SAR-based characterization of potential breeding sites of mosquito larvae, such as man-made water collections and natural wetlands, providing guidelines for the use of SAR capabilities and techniques in order to optimize vector control and malaria surveillance. In light of these guidelines, we propose a framework for the production of spatialized indicators and malaria risk maps based on the combination of SAR, entomological and epidemiological data to support malaria risk prevention and control actions in the field.
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Esta nota de pesquisa, redigida especialmente para publicação no Boletim de análise político-institucional do Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica e Aplicada (Ipea), tem como objetivo apresentar a pesquisa que dá título a este texto. A pesquisa, que teve início em 2015, está sendo conduzida no âmbito da presidência do Ipea por uma equipe de técnicos de planejamento e pesquisa de várias diretorias do instituto e com a colaboração de pesquisadores de várias universidades no país. Ela conta com apoio institucional da Secretaria do Programa de Aceleração do Crescimento do Ministério do Planejamento, Orçamento e Gestão (MP) e também da Escola Nacional de Administração Pública (Enap). Esta pesquisa tem dois objetivos: i) compreender em profundidade os fatores de ordem institucional que constrangem ou habilitam a execução de projetos de investimento em infraestrutura no Brasil contemporâneo; e ii) identificar e avaliar as inovações institucionais criadas e adotadas nos últimos anos, tanto pelo setor público quanto pelo setor privado, para a superação dos constrangimentos na execução dos projetos. A seguir, são apresentados a justificativa e os objetivos da pesquisa. Na seção 2, sua estratégia metodológica. Por fim, a seção 3 expõe os resultados que se espera com tal iniciativa.
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We created a new dataset of spatially interpolated monthly climate data for global land areas at a very high spatial resolution (approximately 1 km 2). We included monthly temperature (minimum, maximum and average), precipitation, solar radiation, vapour pressure and wind speed, aggregated across a target temporal range of 1970–2000, using data from between 9000 and 60 000 weather stations. Weather station data were interpolated using thin-plate splines with covariates including elevation, distance to the coast and three satellite-derived covariates: maximum and minimum land surface temperature as well as cloud cover, obtained with the MODIS satellite platform. Interpolation was done for 23 regions of varying size depending on station density. Satellite data improved prediction accuracy for temperature variables 5–15% (0.07–0.17 ∘ C), particularly for areas with a low station density, although prediction error remained high in such regions for all climate variables. Contributions of satellite covariates were mostly negligible for the other variables, although their importance varied by region. In contrast to the common approach to use a single model formulation for the entire world, we constructed the final product by selecting the best performing model for each region and variable. Global cross-validation correlations were ≥ 0.99 for temperature and humidity, 0.86 for precipitation and 0.76 for wind speed. The fact that most of our climate surface estimates were only marginally improved by use of satellite covariates highlights the importance having a dense, high-quality network of climate station data.
The prevention and control of mosquito-borne diseases, such as malaria, are important health issues in tropical areas. Malaria transmission is a multi-scale process strongly controlled by environmental factors, and the use of remote-sensing data is suitable for the characterization of its spatial and temporal dynamics. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is well-adapted to tropical areas, since it is capable of imaging independent of light and weather conditions. In this study, we highlight the contribution of SAR sensors in the assessment of the relationship between vectors, malaria and the environment in the Amazon region. More specifically, we focus on the SAR-based characterization of potential breeding sites of mosquito larvae, such as man-made water collections and natural wetlands, providing guidelines for the use of SAR capabilities and techniques in order to optimize vector control and malaria surveillance. In light of these guidelines, we propose a framework for the production of spatialized indicators and malaria risk maps based on the combination of SAR, entomological and epidemiological data to support malaria risk prevention and control actions in the field.