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As entrepreneurship education in India is catching fire, faculty members are trying to find indigenous case studies which connect with the next generation entrepreneurs. While there are many successful entrepreneurs, finding them and connecting their story to educational objectives of the entrepreneurship courses is not done. The paper attempts to fill this gap by providing the case study of "NaPanta "app and its founder. Through the case study, one can understand how to create a successful product by uniquely addressing customer pain points. 2306
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET)
Volume 9, Issue 11, November 2018, pp. 2306–2314, Article ID: IJMET_09_11_244
Available online at
ISSN Print: 0976-6340 and ISSN Online: 0976-6359
Scopus Indexed
Dr. Suman Kumar Naredla
Dept. of Business Management, NEST for Entrepreneurship in Science & Technology
SR Engineering College, Anathasagar (v), Hasanparthy (M), Warangal (Dist),
Telangana, INDIA – 506 371
Dr. P.V. Raja Shekar
Center for Creative Cognition, SR Engineering College, Anathasagar (v), Hasanparthy (M),
Warangal (Dist), Telangana, INDIA – 506 371
Mr. D Ramesh Babu
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, SR Engineering College, Warangal
Anathasagar (v), Hasanparthy (M), Warangal (Dist), Telangana, INDIA – 506 371
Prof. Sridhar Condoor
Dept. of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, Saint Louis University, USA
As entrepreneurship education in India is catching fire, faculty members are trying to
find indigenous case studies which connect with the next generation entrepreneurs. While
there are many successful entrepreneurs, finding them and connecting their story to
educational objectives of the entrepreneurship courses is not done. The paper attempts to
fill this gap by providing the case study of “NaPanta “app and its founder. Through the
case study, one can understand how to create a successful product by uniquely addressing
customer pain points.
Keywords: Pain points, unique selling proposition, market opportunities, unique
solution, entrepreneurship, startup, innovation
Cite this Article: Dr. Suman Kumar Naredla, Dr. P.V. Raja Shekar, Mr. D Ramesh Babu
and Prof. Sridhar Condoor, Uniquely Addressing Customer Pain Points - the Case Study of
Agritech App, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology, 9(11),
2018, pp. 2306–2314.
Entrepreneurial activity in terms of new startups, small businesses and innovation are critical to
the economical vibrancy of India. To realize the impact of a multitude of the Government of India
schemes such as Startup India and Make in India, this paper focuses on a key topic in
Dr. Suman Kumar Naredla, Dr. P.V. Raja Shekar, Mr. D Ramesh Babu and Prof. Sridhar Condoor 2307
entrepreneurship – identifying customer pain points and creation of a unique solution. The
success of any new venture depends on its uniqueness – how it differentiates from competitors
and value proposition – what utility customers drive for the price that they pay. An effective value
proposition helps customers to realize the value of the product and results in the success of the
While most entrepreneurial knowledge such as accounting can easily be codified and learned,
identifying customer pain points is both an art and science. Creating a unique product that
effectively addresses customer pain points can be effectively learned through a mix of theory,
case studies, and interactive experiences. This case study provides insights into a part of the value
proposition dealing with customer pain points and how it helps to craft the product design.
Aker (2011) [1] studied and stated that mobile phones significantly reduced information and
communiction costs to rural people. Rural farmers benefitted from this technology to get
knowledge and agriculture related information. Similarly, use of ICTs in agricultural extension
services especially mobile phone services in the agricultural sector has provided information on
market, weather, transport and agricultural techniques to contact with concern agencies and
Mittal S and Mehar M (2015) studied on assessment of farmer’s information networks in
India. They highlighted the role of modern ICT on the betterment of information networks to
Menale Kassie (2011) [3] estimated the causal effect on crop income and poverty status from
adoption of improved groundnut varieties (technology) in rural Uganda. Based on farm size and
educational status and using Propensity score matching estimations were made to calculate the
gains from adoption and to examine how those gains vary. While this method does not require
ad hoc assumptions about the functional form of impacts and exclusion restrictions, it only
eliminates selection bias on observable differences between adopters and non-adopters.
Z. Chunhua and Z. Bo, (2010) [4] while studying about approaches of Electronic agriculture
(E-Agr) discussed the benefits of promoting agricultural informationalization and development
of agricultural modernization. E-agriculture is the platform which provides sharing of
information to farmers. Science and technology could enhanced agricultural information became
more authoritative, timely, accurate, and in particular take advantage of convenience, timeliness,
etc. The modern information technology infrastructure facilitate the integration all types of
information and resources through technical facilities of communication tools, modern networks.
Electronic farmers, rural electronics, and agricultural electronics together comprise E-Agri. More
Ecommerce applications were discussed by several researchers [5-7].
Ahl H (2006) [8] presented their research on needs of new directions for women
entrepreneurs. They pointed out the research results which are inconclusive regarding treating
women being secondary to men, which a tendency to recreate this ides. They used discourse
analysis to suggest new research directions which doesn’t reproduce women’s subordination and
captures richer and more women’s entrepreneuship aspects.
Birley, S. (1987) [9] discussed on Female entrepreneurs, whether they are really any
different?. They have studied literature on female entrepreneurs to find significant differences of
data of male and female entrepreneurs. They concluded that choices of market-entry made, is
significant. They stressed on the point of strategy of economic recovery giving example of United
Kingdom’s Government Department of Trade and Industry was re-named as the Department of
Uniquely Addressing Customer Pain Points - the Case Study of Agritech App 2308
Bruni A etal (2004) [10] studied on description of the processes that position people as ‘men’
and ‘women’ within entrepreneurial practices and as ‘entrepreneurs’ within gender practices,
relying on an ethnographic study carried out in small enterprises in Italy. Their analysis shows
enactment of gender and entrepreneurship as situated practices and how gendered identity codes
are kept, transgressed changed by constantly and sliding between different symbolic spaces. They
highlighted processes of footing and gender commodification, doing ceremonial and remedial
work managing the dual presence, boundarykeeping the symbolic construction of gender and
entrepreneurship:,. We then propose a final metaphor which conveys a summary image of these
processes. They concluded with how possible forms of entrepreneurship exist, the same way as
different forms of gender.
Das M (2000)[11] studied on the problems of women entrepreneurs in India.They studied
small and medium enterprises owned and managed by women entrepreneurs in Tamilnadu and
Kerala, two southern Indian states. They also discussed about the work-family conflicts faced by
the women entrepreneurs during settingup and operation of businesses owned by the
entrepreneurs. Found that problems faced Indian woman entrepreneurs are similar to western
countries women entrepreneurs. Also found that Indian women had lower work-family conflicts.
Nayyar et al (2007) [12] studied about the causes and constraints faced by women entrepreurs
in the entrepreneurial process. They studied hundred women entrepreneurs in four zines of
Himachal Pradesh through snowball sampling technique. The units were General stores, Carper
manufacturing units, boutiques, nursing homes, boutiques, handlooms and beauty parlours. They
found transport facility issues, tough competition from larger units, non-availability of raw
material, lack of sleep and rest, poor location of their units etc are the few important issues faced
by the women entrepreneurs. They suggested for selfhelp mutually aided groups can support
Ramesh Babu et al (2016) [13] discussed about the entrepreneurial opportunities in rural areas
like fruit and vegetable preservation and women contributions in these areas.
Several technical, financial, commercial, family support issues are studied in detail by Chaudhary
R (2012), Coleman S (2002), Goyal Meenu (2011), Anitha Mehta (2011), Singh Surinder pal
(2008), Hanuman prasad and BL Varma (2006)[14-19]. They have highlighted about the
constraints to women in entrepreneurial activities.Several other technological issues were studied
and reported [20-23]
Naveen V Kumar hails from a rural background. He comes from Shyampet, a small village in
Warangal district, Telangana. His father and mother raised Naveen and his two siblings in a
comfortable affluent environment. The family succumbed by sudden demise of his father in 1997
when Kumar was 13 years old. Their living style was significantly altered as there were no family
members who could work and earn an income. Family savings lasted for couple of years. Kumar
managed to complete his degree and start post-graduation (MBA). During his post-graduation
studies, Naveen spent eight months with a single meal a day. By the age of 20 years, he has seen
the easy and difficult sides of life. Situations made him more vigilant and better forecaster.
Kumar joined ICICI Bank as a Trainee Executive and spent most of his time Medium, Small and
Micro Enterprises (MSME) business segments. During this time he understood the working of
the MSME sector. In his five years at ICICI Bank, he evaluated 800+enterprises, analyzed their
balance sheets, and learned from their experiences. He identified their key challenges are less
return on field produce and high investment. Out of his interest and expertise in banking sector,
he founded ‘Apna Loan Bazaar’, a Fintech startup works as Retail Loan Aggregator in India and
registered his firm ALB (Aspiration-Loyal – Brave) Private Limited. Naveen fell in love with his
Startup, but he was advised by TiE Hyderabad.
Dr. Suman Kumar Naredla, Dr. P.V. Raja Shekar, Mr. D Ramesh Babu and Prof. Sridhar Condoor 2309
The motivation for the current case study came when Kumar was visiting his village and
witnessed a famer’s suicide. The reason for the suicide is too agnostic; a dealers old a concocted
pesticide to the farmer that literally killed the crop. This incident was Kumar’s entrepreneurial
call for action. Kumar spent a lot of time thinking about how to best address farmers’ problems.
These thoughts manifested in the form of an app for Farmers. He continuously worked with
farmers to co-design the app and worked from December 2016 to March 2017 to implement the
app. On June 2
2017, he launched the app “NaPanta” which means My Crop.
“Effective communication is the need of the hour in Indian agriculture as it can fill the gaps in
the entire system. The expertise and solutions to the problems in farming upheld with the
agricultural officer/scientists hardly reaches to the farmer. There is huge gap between the actual
on-field situations and government supported activities! To fill in these gaps we developed the
app and offered it to the farmers for free! Also it is designed primarily to serve small and marginal
farmers,” says Mr. Naveen Kumar V.
Pain points are difficulties either real or perceived experienced by the customer during the use
[24]. In the case of the farmer, these pain points include the problems faced by him/her including
uncertainties, fertilizer and pesticide application difficulties. By identifying pain points, an
entrepreneur can craft an appropriate value proposition which attracts the customer to buy the
product [25]. These pain points are often identified based on ethnographic studies [26] – where
the designer spends time to understand the customer problems by observing the customer’s life.
Based on the insights on the customer’s needs and perceived values, entrepreneurs can develop
effective solutions. As it solves a pain point and has a clear value proposition, the market more
likely to adopt the product/service.
Farmer is spending 20% of his valuable time on
Seed identification and procuring
Fertilizer dealer identification and procurement
Pesticide dealer identification and procurement
Identification of cold storages
Insurance schemes offered by Government
Farm equipment arrangement
More important, the farmer often doesn’t get the right price.
The difficulties faced by the farmer are due to several gaps between farmer, middlemen,
agriculture research institutes or universities and Government. These gaps manifest in the form
of pain points for the farmer leaving him with:
A lack of awareness about critical farming know-how – Farmers are often unawareof
major issues like nature of soil and weather conditions. A proper fertilizer usage for a
specific crop and timely diagnosis of pest and disease can increase the productivity
up to 30 percent.
A lack of actionable intelligence–In some cases, farmers are aware of the problems,
but don’t know how to solve. For instance, they may get information from the soil
analysis from the government lab, but are not sure what fertilizer to apply. The
government agencies can’t recommend the name of any fertilizer or pesticide trade
name as it can viewed as promoting a particular brand but it can only give the
chemical names. This information while totally correct, however, a farmer has to
depend on the dealer for trade product for the chemical suggested by the Govt
Uniquely Addressing Customer Pain Points - the Case Study of Agritech App 2310
agencies. Hence there is a chance of mis-selling the wrong product to farmer by a
A lack of awareness of market opportunities: The critical problem faced by farmers is
not getting the right price for the crop. Other issue related to the opportunities include
market prices for produce, insurance costs, available cold storage facilities, and dealer
networks for fertilizers, pesticides
Figure.1.a Figure.1.b Figure.1.c
App shows on its opening screen, a clear value proposition –
15% more farm produce with 20% less investment.
“Farmer is no more interested in theory and verbal comprehension! He is interested in facts
and factual attained by other farmers on their field. Give him the information, guidance and
service he requires, and then, there will be boom in Indian agriculture for sure.
The pain points and how the app addresses these pain points are provided in the table below.
Dr. Suman Kumar Naredla, Dr. P.V. Raja Shekar, Mr. D Ramesh Babu and Prof. Sridhar Condoor 2311
Table 1. Customer pain points and solution strategies employed in NaPanta App
Category Pain Point Solution Strategy
Weather information A lack of awareness about the weather
leading to wasted resources.
The app provides five-day forecast at crop
location. Using this feature, the farmer can plan
his activity and save money.
Sharing of information
A discussion of common problems within
and across the villages helps to identify
best practices.
Agri Forum feature in the app help farmers to
connect and discuss best practices.
Crop management A lack of detailed knowledge on how to
manage crops.
Provides a step-by-step guidance for more than
100 crops on how to protect against numerous
Accounting The estimated expenses and actual
incurred during farming is hard to track.
The app enables the farmer to manage his/her
financial resources by keeping track of expenses
while keeping an eye on the big picture.
Soil information
The type of crop to be planted, and type
and quantity of fertilizer to be used by
any farmer depends on the soil
conditions. But, unfortunately many
times farmers are not aware of soil
conditions and/or nearest test facilities.
The App provides soil testing laboratories
Information in farmer location. Also educate the
farmer, how to select the soil sample in their
crop land for soil testing.
Pesticide information
A lack of know-how on the appropriate
type and quantity of pesticide to use for
a particular insect, disease, weeds, etc.
The app provides information on pesticide
formulations and usage. It helps farmer to
protect his produce and at the same time
prevents overdosing.
Fertilizer calculator
A lack of actionable intelligence on what
fertilizer and how much to apply for the
optimal results.
Right mix of fertilizer is crucial for a better farm
produce. The app suggests scientifically proven
mixes of fertilizers based on the soil condition,
crop and budget.
Crop insurance
A lack of crop insurance programs from
the government.
The app educates the farmer on importance of
insurance. It provides details about Central and
State Government insurance schemes.
Fertilizer dealers
Obtaining reliable, safe, potent
pesticides. Often, farmers get cheated
by inferior pesticide, which can lead to
crop loss.
The app helps locate nearby Government
approved dealers. Using this feature, farmers
can get reliable, safe, potent pesticides from
approved dealers.
Market prices
One major lacuna in farming
administration across nation is
uncertainty of prices and lack of
information on market prices prevailing
on that day for any type of farm
This app caters to 3800 plus market prices
updates on daily basis, makes the farmer more
knowledgeable and empowered. Further, the
historical trends help farmers to make informed
decision on whether to sell or wait. Thus, the
app helps farmers realize better prices and
Cold storage
A lack of awareness of storage facilities
and cost to store the produce to sell at a
time when the price is right.
The app lists cold storage facilities information
including storage capacity and contact
Thus, NaPanta app provides a one-Stop solution for farmers to reduce expenses, manage
crop, increase yield and get the best prices.
Uniquely Addressing Customer Pain Points - the Case Study of Agritech App 2312
Figure.2.a Figure.2.b Figure.2.c
Further, the App is developed in two languages (Telugu and English) to allow farmers with
little education to read in the local dialect. Also, the app doesn’t need internet connection for most
functions (crop management and pest control).
The paper provided all the key details in the entrepreneur’s life from early difficulties to the call
for action. The call for action manifested in the form an App. The App reached 50,000+ farmers
within its first three months. Its early success is based on the usefulness of information, ease of
use and value provided to the farmer. As one farmer said “the App brings high-level scientific
knowledge of researchers to easily actionable-information for the betterment of farmers.”
Acknowledgement for Project's Paper is:
The authors acknowledge Department of Science and Technology, Government of India for
financial support vide Reference No: DST/NSTMIS/05/230/2016-17 under NSTMIS to carry out
this work. The authors also acknowledge the Management and Principal of S R Engineering
College, Warangal Urban for their continuous support by providing all the necessary facilities.
Mr. Naveen Kumar V for sharing his Startup story. ABI–ICRISAT and CIE@IIIT-H for
Incubating the NaPanta Startup. TiE Hyderabad for Mentoring and Networking NaPanta Startup
Dr. Suman Kumar Naredla, Dr. P.V. Raja Shekar, Mr. D Ramesh Babu and Prof. Sridhar Condoor 2313
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... Technical aspects of agricultural projects and project management are thoroughly discussed by several researchers. Refrigeration and insulation requirements for ripening of mango and banana in controlled environment chambers are thoroughly given by several researchers[17][18][19][20]. Vapour tight coatings are made as per the manufacturer's recommendations.[21] ...
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Controlled atmosphere storage technology is used widely for storing apples for long term. The very basic need of the construction of the chambers is gas tightness. Low oxygen and high carbon dioxide levels are to be maintained to reduce the respiration and transpiration losses of fruits stored in the Controlled Atmosphere (CA) chambers. Gas tightness becomes important to maintain low oxygen levels. This paper presents the first of its kind of results for gas tightness test results of CA chambers in India. The CA chambers are constructed with factory build Poly Urethane Foam (PUF) panels and assembled at the cold/CA storage site. Ribbstyle make paint along with non-woven cloth is used to join the gaps of the insulation panels. Before storing apples in the chambers, gas tightness test is conducted for checking leakages from the walls. As per the international standard for gas tightness, pressure drop from 10 mm of water column to 3 mm of water column is permitted in 30 minutes of time of inflation. Rate of pressure drop is modeled mathematically, and results are presented. Based on the results of this pneumatic test, future work may be taken up to categorize CAS chambers as Ultra low oxygen storage (less than 0.5% O 2), Low oxygen (0.5-2.5% O 2) and High oxygen (2.5-15% O 2) storage chambers and are used for relevant apples.
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The objective of this research work is to study the artificial intelligence (AI)-based product benefits and problems of the agritech industry. The research variables were developed from the existing review of literature connecting to AI-based benefits and problems, and 90 samples of primary data from agritech industry managers were gathered using a survey of a well-structured research questionnaire. The statistical package of IBM-SPSS 21 was utilized to analyze the data using the statistical techniques of descriptive and inferential statistical analysis. Results show that better information for faster decision-making has been ranked as the topmost AI benefit. This implies that the executives of agritech units have a concern about the quality of decisions they make and resistance to change from employees and internal culture has been ranked as the topmost AI problem.
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Cold stores and controlled atmosphere stores are used for long term preservation of fruits, vegetables, grains and dry fruits. Suitable fire fighting systems are required for safe operation of these facilities. Storage structure, chemicals used as refrigerants, fruit packing materials are the major source of fire accidents. Based on a technical study in fifty cold stores/controlled atmosphere stores, analysis is done to show the status of these stores from fire safety point of view. Technical equipment, refrigeration systems, type of refrigerants used for cooling compressors, fire fighting arrangements available in existing cold stores are discussed. Recommendations are made for making cold stores safe from fire hazard in the light of global change in adopting hydrocarbon refrigerants.
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Mango fruits need to be ripened artificially using ethylene in thermally insulated refrigerated chambers. The present experiments were conducted to determine the kinetics of cooling rates (with respect to time) of mangoes during unsteady state cooling before ripening the fruits. Ethylene based ripening systems becoming popular due to safe and healthy ripening unlike ripening using calcium carbide. Three different lots 4, 6 and 10 Metric Tons of mangoes placed in perforated plastic crates were cooled first to the desired optimum temperature for ripening. Temperature profiles of mangoes were monitored and recorded with a data logger. Time taken for the mangoes to reach the optimum set temperature of 16.80C is 16, 20 and 26 hours for 4, 6 and 10 MT respectively. During the unsteady state cooling (from approximately 30 oC to 16 oC), rate of cooling is modeled using three mathematical equations, viz. linear, exponential and polynomial. Experimental data of pre-cooling is fitted to the predicted values. Best fitting models are proposed based on highest R2 values for all three different quantities of mangoes pre-cooled. The results will be helpful for deciding the timing for ethylene injection and design of refrigeration equipment for part loads of the ripening chambers.
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MANET is a set of independent mobile devices which communicate through constrained wireless links over a relative bandwidth. Due to the mobility of devices, the topology of the network may change rapidly and unpredictably over time, making multicast routing and route maintenance a very crucial task. Plenty of protocols have been proposed for the construction of virtual backbone, but they have limitations in terms of control overhead, delay, throughput, energy consumption and mobility. As a part of multicast routing, virtual backbone construction has been proposed and classified into three different techniques: Tree-based virtual backbone, Cluster-based virtual backbone and Dominating Set-based virtual backbone. Upon this classification, plenty of protocols are available, and each protocol has some limitations in terms of control overhead, delay, throughput, energy consumption and mobility. Besides this, no existing backbone protocol has the scope of recovery of link failures. In order to overcome the limitations of existing protocols, our proposed protocol An Efficient Backbone Based Quick Link Failure Recovery Multicast Routing Protocol, it's a four phase protocol: Group Formation, Backbone Construction, On-demand Route Discovery and Route Maintenance. The main aim of the proposed protocol is to construct an efficient robust backbone to overcome the limitations of existing protocols and to provide a mechanism for the quick recovery of link failures by generating an alternate path from the point of failure to the destination, which can be adoptable in any sort of environment.
Entrepreneurship is the core of economic development. It is a multi- dimensional task and essentially a creative activity. Entrepreneur is key factor of entrepreneurship. Women entrepreneurship is a recent phenomenon and in the process have to face various problems. Therefore, this study was conducted on hundred women entrepreneurs selected through random and snowball sampling technique from four zones of Himachal Pradesh. Nursing homes, boutiques, handloom units, beauty parlours carpet making units and general stores were the enterprises selected for study. The objectives of the endeavour were to ascertain the financial, marketing and production constraints faced by women in their enterprises; assessment of their health status, work place facilities and to develop guidelines for becoming a successful entrepreneur. Poor location of unit, tough competition from larger and established units, lack of transport facility, lack of rest and sleep and non-availability of raw material were the significant problems faced by entrepreneurs. The factors causable to these problems were; difficulty in affording own vehicle, not being popular, heavy schedule of work and long working hours. Common entrepreneurial problems can be dealt by formulating self-help mutually aided groups. Support mechanism such as institutional credit need to be strengthened to keep entrepreneurs aware about loaning schemes/credit facilities for further expansion.
Agriculture can serve as an important engine for economic growth in developing countries, yet yields in these countries have lagged far behind those in developed countries for decades. One potential mechanism for increasing yields is the use of improved agricultural technologies, such as fertilizers, seeds and cropping techniques. Public-sector programs have attempted to overcome information-related barriers to technological adoption by providing agricultural extension services. While such programs have been widely criticized for their limited scale, sustainability and impact, the rapid spread of mobile phone coverage in developing countries provides a unique opportunity to facilitate technological adoption via information and communication technology (ICT)-based extension programs. This article outlines the potential mechanisms through which ICT could facilitate agricultural adoption and the provision of extension services in developing countries. It then reviews existing programs using ICT for agriculture, categorized by the mechanism (voice, text, internet and mobile money transfers) and the type of services provided. Finally, we identify potential constraints to such programs in terms of design and implementation, and conclude with some recommendations for implementing field-based research on the impact of these programs on farmers’ knowledge, technological adoption and welfare.
Multicast routing is a crucial task in mobile ad-hoc networks due to the dynamic adaption of network topology. Currently plenty of protocols in existence for routing, still the route maintenance is challenging because of the high mobility of nodes causing frequent link failures. To overcome the problems of route maintenance, various mechanisms were proposed, but none of the protocol provides better solution to find an alternate path from the point of link failure. So there is a dire need of a protocol that generates an alternate path in case of a link failure over the network. In this paper, a Localized Route Recovery (L2R) protocol is initiated to generate an alternate path for link failures in backbone networks. To ensure link failure recovery L2R is implemented, the upstream node initiates local route discovery to generate an alternate path to the destination. The simulation results of L2R yielded the better results in comparison with the existing link failure recovery protocols, increasing packet delivery ratio, throughput, minimizing overhead and delay of transmission.
This paper deals the conceptual knowledge of search engine marketing (SEM) or ecommerce, literature review, current and future aspects of e-commerce in Indian context. This paper discussed about the top motivator factors of shopping online. The present development would be a valuable addition to researcher and academicians; and useful theory for practitioners, advertisers, and entrepreneurs.
This study profiles women entrepreneurs who own and manage small to medium sized enterprises in two states in southern India- Tamil Nadu and Kerala. It examined the problems these women faced during the setting up and continued operation of their businesses, and the workfamily conflicts that these women faced. It also looked at their reasons for starting a business and the selfreported reasons for their success. The initial problems faced by these women seem similar to those faced by women in western countries. However, Indian woman entrepreneurs faced lower levels of workfamily conflicts and seem to differ in their reasons for starting and succeeding in business
This paper evaluates the ex post impact of adopting improved groundnut varieties on crop income and poverty in rural Uganda. The study utilizes cross-sectional data of 927 households, collected in 2006, from seven districts in Uganda. Using propensity score matching methods, we find that adopting improved groundnut varieties (technology) significantly increases crop income and reduces poverty. The positive and significant impact on crop income is consistent with the perceived role of new agricultural technologies in reducing rural poverty through increased farm household income. This study supports broader investment in agriculture research to address vital development challenges. Reaching the poor with better technologies however requires policy support for improving extension efforts, access to seeds and market outlets that simulate adoption.