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The aim of the study was to use hemp flour for the production of bread and to determine their impact on selected chemical, texture, organoleptic characteristics, the color of the crumb, changes in the crumb texture, polyphenol profile, the total polyphenol and furan derivatives content. Bread with hemp flour was characterized by significantly higher protein content (13.38–19.29 g/100 g d.m.), in comparison to wheat bread (11.02 g/100 g d.m.). The share of 30 and 50% of hemp flour contributed to the reduction of organoleptic assessment of the bread. The hemp flour content significantly inhibited the changes in the hardness of bread crumb by reducing bread stalling index from 1.12 (wheat bread) to 0.05 (50% of the additive). The share of hemp flour influenced the color of the crumb by increasing its browning index from 29.69 (standard bread) to 46.26 (50% of the additive). The share of hemp flour influenced the polyphenols content by increasing from 256.43 (standard bread) to 673.59 mg GAE/kg (50% of the additive). Formation of such furan derivatives as furfuryl alcohol, furfuryl aldehyde as well as hydroxymethylfurfural was dependent on the participation of hemp flour. For industrial production, the share of hemp flour should not exceed 30%.
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... Dairy and meat products are no longer the main sources of protein in diets, with an increase in the number of plant-based protein products . In this context, non-traditional flours obtained from various raw products are attracting the interest of researchers and the food industry . These kinds of products are suitable for use in vegan or vegetarian diets and for consumers who are aware of the need to reduce the consumption of animal products due to their relation to climate change. ...
... The main individual phenolic compounds present in rice flour are phenolic acids such as vanillic, chlorogenic and ferulic acids and flavonoids such as epicatequin [87,89]. Finally, hemp flour showed TPC values similar to or slightly lower than those previously reported, ranging from 74.4 to 98.7 , but lower than the values reported by Irakli et al. . The most important phenols found in hemp flour are phenolic acids such as protocatechuic, p-hydroxybenzoic, cinnamic acid and p-coumaric [76,90]. ...
... However, previous studies have pointed out that soybean and hemp have a higher antioxidant capacity than peas, as observed in these commercial flours [73,75]. Indeed, hemp showed higher DPPH values than wheat, which means that this species has a higher antioxidant capacity than cereals, as has been observed in this study in rice . Other studies also found that chickpea has a higher antioxidant activity, measured by FRAP and ORAC methods, than rice , which is in agreement with the results obtained in this study for the ABTS method. ...
Nowadays, a wide range of non-traditional gluten-free products can be purchased. Although consumers identify all these as being similar, their nutritional composition can differ depending on the raw materials used and the production process itself. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the nutritional quality of ten commercially available flours made from rice, pea, chickpea, soybean and hemp. The proximate composition (moisture, fat, fiber, protein, starch and carbohydrates), the mineral composition (Na, Mg, P, K, Ca, Cr, Ni, Se, Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe, Cd, Pb), the phenolic composition (total phenols, total flavonoids, flavanones and dihydrofavonols, and total antioxidant capacity) and the fatty acid profile were analyzed. Results showed an important influence of the vegetable species but also of the brand on the flour composition. Soybean flours, followed by hemp, showed the highest phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. Hemp flour showed a low n6/n3 ratio, while pea flour contained a small amount of fat with a large amount of oleic acid and a satisfactory n6/n3 ratio.
... The composition of vegetable seeds and by-products obtained from the oil industry is generally characterized in terms of protein and fiber content, amino acids, and antioxidants. Hempseed cake and flours [11,12], walnut flour [5,13,14], grape seeds , and sunflower oilcakes  have a high content of protein, crude fiber, and amino acids. Also, a high content of protein is presented in rapeseed meal  and flaxseed . ...
...  studied the lipid-soluble antioxidant capacity of 14 different by-products (flour, meals, and groats) from the vegetable oil industry and it showed that these products can be valuable sources of phenolic compounds. Other studies have shown that sea buckthorn berries , hempseed cakes and flours [11,12], walnut flour [5,13,14], grape seed flour , rapeseed meal [18,20], sesame seeds [21,22], coriander seeds [23,24], and thistle seeds  are sources of natural antioxidants. ...
... flour [11,47], cookies fortified with raw or roasted hemp flour , sea buckthorn flour [19,49], and macarons fortified with walnut oilcake . The interest in these ingredients increased recently due to the fact that cost of these by-products is low compared to the one of the raw materials from which they are obtained. ...
The oil industry generates a high number of by-products which have the potential to be used in food formulation after they are properly treated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional potential of 14 different vegetable by-products from the oil industry (flour, meals, and groats) in terms of fatty acid composition and to investigate the effect of theoretical fortification of the bakery products with by-products high in ω-3. Results showed that some of the analyzed samples contain significant amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Organic walnut flour and grape seed flour had a linoleic acid content higher than 60%. By-products obtained from thistle and sesame had a linoleic acid content ranging between 47.32% and 54.72%. Higher linolenic content was obtained for hemp flour (33.22%), red grape seeds meals (33.62%), and golden flax meals (64.65%). By theoretical fortification of wheat and wholemeal flours with high ω-3 by-products in a proportion of 5, 10, and 15%, the ω-3 content increased (2.2- to 22-fold higher) while the ω-6/ω-3 ratio decreased from 5.22 to 0.52–2.86 for wheat flour, and from 16.80 to 0.81–5.53 for wholemeal flour. These vegetable by-products from the oil industry could represent valuable sources of essential fatty acids for the food application, representing valuable ingredients that could be added for the production of functional foods.
... Hemp is a valuable addition to food . Several applications of hemp in food, beverage and feed are shown in Table 5. Hemp seeds are a source of plant-based protein containing methionine, lysine and cysteine containing 20-25% protein, 25-35% lipids, 20-30% carbohydrates, 10-15% insoluble fibers, vitamins D and E and minerals such as phosphorus, potassium, sodium, magnesium, sulfur, calcium, iron and zinc [8,. Hemp flour increased the antioxidant properties of bread, with a darker color in bread products compared to the control ( Figure 5) , and is also used to make gluten-free bread . ...
... Several applications of hemp in food, beverage and feed are shown in Table 5. Hemp seeds are a source of plant-based protein containing methionine, lysine and cysteine containing 20-25% protein, 25-35% lipids, 20-30% carbohydrates, 10-15% insoluble fibers, vitamins D and E and minerals such as phosphorus, potassium, sodium, magnesium, sulfur, calcium, iron and zinc [8,. Hemp flour increased the antioxidant properties of bread, with a darker color in bread products compared to the control ( Figure 5) , and is also used to make gluten-free bread . Using hemp flour or hemp seed cake reduced the volume of wheat bread [119,120]. ...
... Transverse cuts of bread. Explanatory notes: (A)-wheat bread, (B)-bread with 15% hempseed flour, (C)-bread with 30% hemp seed flour, (D)-bread with 50% hemp seed flour (Reproduced with permission from Mikulec et al. (2019)). ...
Hemp (Cannabis sativa Linn) is a high-yielding annual crop farmed for its stalk fiber and oil-producing seeds. This specialized crop is currently experiencing a revival in production. Hemp fiber contains pectin, hemicellulose and lignin with superior strength, while hemp seed oil contains unsaturated triglycerides with well-established nutritional and physiological properties. Therefore, focus on the utilization of hemp in various industries is increasing globally. This study reviewed recent applications of hemp components, including fiber and extract, in food, textile and packaging applications. Hemp fibers mainly consisting of cellulose derivatives have superior strength to be used as reinforcements in thermoplastic packaging and paper. Combined physical and chemical modifications of hemp fibers improved mechanical and barrier properties of composite materials. Physically and chemically processed hemp extracts have been used in food and non-food applications. Functional foods containing hemp oils deliver nutrients by their unsaturated lipids. High-quality hemp fiber with several fiber modifications has been applied in garments. Innovative applications of hemp components and by-products are increasing, thereby facilitating utilization of green sustainable biomaterials.
... Zhou and colleagues (Zhou et al. 2018) reported a reversal in memory loss caused by lipopolysaccharides (LPS, a constituent of Gram-negative bacteria) when the mice were fed hempseed's phenylpropionamides (TPA) extract. Hempseeds have been used in various daily products, including bread, pasta, and biscuits, to improve these foods' nutritional value, physiochemical, and sensory properties (Korus et al. 2017a, b;Mikulec et al. 2019;Teterycz et al. 2021;). Despite its nutritive potential, the use of whole hempseeds in food preparations is still underestimated due to technological constraints and the presence of several antinutritional factors and fibers content which may negatively affect the protein's solubility . ...
... The effect of the wheat bread enrichment with hempseed flour has been previously reviewed by . Briefly, different researchers reported that the addition of hempseed flour increases the nutritional value of the final product, providing a higher amount of proteins, dietary fiber, unsaturated fatty acids, including the essential fatty acids, as well as macro-and microelements, especially iron (Apostol et al. 2015;Korus et al. 2017a, b;Mikulec et al. 2019;Pojić et al. 2015). A significant increase in the total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of enriched bread compared to wheat bread was also found as the level of hempseed flour increased, reaching the maximum increment (over two-fold) for the bread sample containing 50% (w/w) hempseed flour (Mikulec et al. 2019). ...
... Briefly, different researchers reported that the addition of hempseed flour increases the nutritional value of the final product, providing a higher amount of proteins, dietary fiber, unsaturated fatty acids, including the essential fatty acids, as well as macro-and microelements, especially iron (Apostol et al. 2015;Korus et al. 2017a, b;Mikulec et al. 2019;Pojić et al. 2015). A significant increase in the total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of enriched bread compared to wheat bread was also found as the level of hempseed flour increased, reaching the maximum increment (over two-fold) for the bread sample containing 50% (w/w) hempseed flour (Mikulec et al. 2019). ...
Hemp is a crop that in recent years has received renewed attention and been cultivated in numerous countries after having been abandoned by many during the twentieth century. This ‘rebirth’ is due to numerous factors: its favorable agronomical characteristics, its image of being a sustainable crop, and the plasticity of the products it can provide. However, due to its absence for a long time, there is a lack of expert knowledge on cultivating hemp. There is a lack of scientific knowledge regarding the specificities of its biology, and the strong interaction between genotype and environment remains a limiting factor of hemp cultivation, affecting both the yield and quality of the biomass produced. In this chapter, we have discussed the ins and outs of the cultivation of hemp through a scientific prism to address the principal factors, environmental and genotypic, that drive the agronomical characteristics of a hemp crop. Thereafter, we have focussed on the best crop management practices for optimizing hemp cultivation in terms of yield and quality parameters of the different fractions of the biomass that hemp can provide.KeywordsAgronomyCrop managementCultivationEcophysiologyIndustrial hemp
... Despite the increase in the amount of solubilized phenol with the hydration pH, hydration in an alkaline medium seemed to lead to higher ratios of solubilized protein/phenols. According to literature data, hemp press-cakes contains about 1 to 3 mg of total phenols / g of protein (Galasso et al., 2016;Mikulec et al., 2019;Multari et al., 2016). In the present case, phenols have not been extracted from the aqueous protein extracts. ...
... La teneur élevée en phénols totaux par rapport aux données existant dans la littérature a déjà été expliquée dans le Chapitre IV.22.214.171.124 (Galasso et al., 2016;Hadnađev et al., 2018;Mikulec et al., 2019;Multari et al., 2016). L'augmentation de pureté des isolats protéiques après diafiltration semble alors due plus à l'élimination de composés solubles de petite taille comme des oses, des minéraux ou des peptides, qu'à l'élimination des phénols au vu des faibles quantités éliminées dans cette étape. ...
... Ces auteurs ont rapporté des taux de phénols totaux étonnement élevés, variant de 588 à 1063 mg/ 100 g en fonction des variétés. Des farines de chanvre ont été rapportées comme ayant 98 mg de phénols totaux/100 g de farine(Mikulec et al., 2019).Hadnađev et al. (2018), ont dosé les phénols totaux dans leur isolat de chanvre obtenu par solubilisation alcaline et précipitation au point isoélectrique et sur leur isolat de chanvre obtenu par micellisation. Ces auteurs ont obtenu respectivement des valeurs de phénols totaux de 139,9 mg/100 g et 101,3 mg/100 g. ...
Les protéines végétales sont une option cohérente pour nourrir la planète tout en limitant le réchauffement climatique. Les protéines courantes (blé, soja et maïs) ne seront bientôt plus suffisantes pour répondre à l’augmentation de la demande en protéines. Cette thèse porte sur la valorisation d’une nouvelle source de protéine végétale pour l’alimentation humaine, à partir d’un coproduit de l’huilerie : les protéines de chanvre issues de tourteau de presse. Pour répondre à cet objectif les trois axes suivis sont : la définition des conditions d’extraction, l’étude des propriétés physicochimiques des isolats extraits selon les conditions définies et l’étude de leurs propriétés émulsifiantes. Les données de la littérature relatives à l’extraction des protéines de chanvre sont peu nombreuses et peu détaillées. Les protéines y sont généralement extraites à partir de tourteau délipidé au solvant, par solubilisation alcaline (pH 10), précipitation isoélectrique (pH 5), neutralisation (pH 7) et lyophilisation. Ces isolats protéiques semblent posséder de faibles solubilités sur une large gamme de pH, probablement à cause de fortes interactions entre les protéines au point isoélectrique qui en insolubilise une partie. L’extraction souhaitée dans notre étude est une extraction à partir de tourteau brut (sans solvant), sans précipitation isoélectrique et permettant d’extraire simultanément les globulines et les albumines. L’impact de conditions d’extraction sur la qualité et la quantité de protéines extraites est déterminé. Les conditions d’hydratation étudiées sont différents pH (2 à 12), forces ioniques (0 à 500 mM de NaCl) et ratios massiques tourteau/eau (2 à 22%). Les impacts d’une étape de purification par ultrafiltration et du mode de séchage (atomisation ou lyophilisation) sont également étudiés. Seuls des pH alcalins ≥10 permettent l’extraction simultanée des globulines et des albumines avec des rendements ≥40%. En revanche de tels pH solubilisent également des composés phénoliques qui peuvent se complexer aux protéines. Une étape de diafiltration par ultrafiltration est nécessaire pour augmenter la pureté protéique à plus de 80% et l’atomisation ne semble pas dénaturante. L’extraction à pH 10 permet d’obtenir des protéines natives. A l’état brut elles montrent de bonnes aptitudes émulsifiantes. Une dénaturation thermique réduit fortement leurs propriétés émulsifiantes. L’extraction à pH 12 dénature les protéines certainement suite à une charge de surface élevée qui induit leur dépliement. Des agrégats impliquant probablement des phénols via des liaisons covalentes sont formés. Cependant la solubilité de ces protéines de même que leurs propriétés émulsifiantes sont meilleures que celles des protéines extraites à pH 10. A travers ce manuscrit nous discutions et tentons de comprendre les différences observées entre les protéines extraites à pH 10 et à pH 12.
... Correction of the protein content in flour is achieved by the introduction of various natural additives, including oilseed meal. The addition of oilseed meal to wheat flour not only enhances the nutritional and biological value of the latter, but also improves the technological and organoleptic characteristics of flour products obtained from similar combined products . ...
... In , the results on the use of hemp flour in bread production have been presented. The authors found that the introduction of hemp flour from 30 to 50 % of the total mass of flour contributed to the reduction of stale breadcrumbs; affected the color of the crumb, increasing the darkening index from 29.69 (standard bread) to 46.26 (50 % of the additive); increased the protein content to 13.38-19.29 g/100 g compared with wheat bread (11.02 g/100 g). ...
... In contrast to , the authors of  scientifically substantiated the formulation of sunflower halva with the addition of a special-purpose protein-fat mixture. A spe-of the world's population lacks protein in the diet. ...
The analysis of the main methods of increasing the nutritional and biological value of wheat flour has been conducted. Considerable attention is paid to the issue of adjusting the protein content in flour due to additives. The relevance of improving the amino acid composition of flour protein is emphasized. The feasibility of comprehensive studies for the development of food system formulations with a balanced amino acid composition based on wheat flour and oilseed meal is substantiated.
The amino acid content has been experimentally determined and the biological value of raw materials proteins for food systems which are sunflower and soybean meal has been calculated. The mixture composition of sunflower and soybean meal with an improved amino acid composition has been scientifically substantiated. It has been found that the protein composition of the meal mixture is maximally close to the reference in terms of the content of leucine, lysine and the amount of sulfur-containing amino acids (methionine, cystine). The score of isoleucine, tryptophan, phenylalanine and tyrosine in the protein composition of oilseed meal is 1.1–1.47 times higher than the reference.
The amino acid composition has been calculated and the biological value of the protein of food systems containing 80–90 % wheat flour and 10–20 % composition of soybean and sunflower meal with improved amino acid composition has been determined. It has been found that the formulation of the food system containing 20 % of the composition of meal mixture and 80 % of wheat flour has the greatest biological value in comparison with wheat flour. In this food system, the limited amino acids – lysine and sulfur-containing (methionine and cystine) are the closest to the reference one and are 67.68 % and 70.12 %.
The fatty acid composition has been experimentally determined. The biological effectiveness of the fats of the developed food systems has been calculated. The closest to the fatty acid ratio recommended by nutritionists is the food system with a ratio of meal mixture: wheat flour of 20:80.
The resulting formulations of food systems will be useful in technologies of flour products with high biological value.
... In this regard, Pojic and colleagues  showed that the bread volume was significantly impaired as the level of hemp flour increased. This result was found also by Hrušková and co-workers  and by Švec and colleagues  for bread enriched with 10%, 15%, or 20% of hempseed flour, and was confirmed also by Mikulec and others  for bread containing 15%, 30%, or 50% of hempseed flour, as well as by Wang and colleagues  for bread enriched with 5%, 10%, or 15% extruded hemp-rice flour (EHR), made by the extrusion of the whole hempseeds (30%) together with the rice flour (70%). According to the authors, the decrease in the bread's volume could be due to the partial replacement of wheat flour with a non-glutinous one, that may dilute the gluten protein of wheat flour and prevent its extension, or to the increased content of fibre, which reduces the ability to retain fermentation gases. ...
... The addition of hempseed flour to the wheat flour also changed the physical and rheological properties of the bread's crust and crumb. The color of both of them became darker after the hempseed flour addition [166,169,172,173]. Švec and colleagues  asserted that the 5% enrichment has conferred a pleasant coffee brown colour, which intensified to dark brown by increasing the amount of hempseed flour, whereas, Wang and co-workers  observed a significantly decreased in the lightness of both crust and crumb only for the breads enriched with an EHR amount of at least 10%, since the 5%-EHR bread did not show any significant colour's differences compared to the control bread. ...
... Regarding the textural properties of bread crumb, Pojic and co-workers  found that the presence of hempseed flour as an ingredient of the bread's mixture significantly decreased the crumb cohesiveness and increased the crumb chewiness and hardness. Analogously, Mikulec and others  found an increase in the hardness of the crumb after the addition of hempseed flour, on the baking day. Contrarily, Wang and colleagues  showed that the 15% EHR-bread displayed significantly lower hardness compared to the samples enriched with a lower EHR amount (i.e., 5% and 10%), whereas, in their later publications , the same authors observed no significantly differences on the crumb hardness in the whole hempseeds powder-containing breads, and this might be attributed to the influence of hemp oil, which probably enhanced crumb texture and crust tenderness. ...
Hempseeds, the edible fruits of the Cannabis sativa L. plant, were initially considered a by-product of the hemp technical fibre industry. Nowadays, following the restorationing of the cultivation of C. sativa L. plants containing an amount of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) <0.3% or 0.2% (industrial hemp) there is a growing interest for the hempseeds production due to their high nutritional value and functional features. The goal of this review is to examine the scientific literature concerning the nutritional and functional properties of hempseeds. Furthermore, we revised the scientific literature regarding the potential use of hempseeds and their derivatives as a dietary supplement for the prevention and treatment of inflammatory and chronic-degenerative diseases on animal models and humans too. In the first part of the work, we provide information regarding the genetic, biochemical, and legislative aspects of this plant that are, in our opinion essential to understand the difference between “industrial” and “drug-type” hemp. In the final part of the review, the employment of hempseeds by the food industry as livestock feed supplement and as ingredient to enrich or fortify daily foods has also revised. Overall, this review intends to encourage further and comprehensive investigations about the adoption of hempseeds in the functional foods field.
... Previous studies showed that, in optimal quantities, hemp flour added to wheat flour improves the nutritional value and effect physical and sensory characteristics (Poji c et al., 2015, Apostol et al., 2015, Rusu et al., 2021. Mikulec et al. (2019) found higher protein content and reduced organoleptic assessment in bread containing hemp flour. Hemp flour also significantly reduced the hardness of breadcrumbs' colour of the crumb and controlled both furan derivatives and polyphenols content (Mikulec et al., 2019), reducing proofing time for bread dough and baking time (Lukin and Bitiutskikh, 2017). ...
... Mikulec et al. (2019) found higher protein content and reduced organoleptic assessment in bread containing hemp flour. Hemp flour also significantly reduced the hardness of breadcrumbs' colour of the crumb and controlled both furan derivatives and polyphenols content (Mikulec et al., 2019), reducing proofing time for bread dough and baking time (Lukin and Bitiutskikh, 2017). ...
Edible hemp products or superfood refers to Cannabis sativa or industrial hemp. In general, hemp is a rich source of functional metabolites, such as Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), Cannabidiol (CBD), and other cannabinoids. Hemp has been widely used in food products, such as bread, cookies, meatballs, energy bars, cooking oil, snacks, and crackers. Hemp has been used for development of cosmetics and supplements. However, the use of hemp is far below its potential because of major challenges such as non‐cost‐effective extraction and isolation, stability and toxicity of the extracts, and legislation related to the use of the extracts. This narrative review comprehensively analyses major phytochemicals in hemp and hemp extracts, and also discusses the most common challenges in applications of hemp derived phytochemicals and hemp extracts in food and pharmaceutical products like stability, toxicity, legal limitations, isolation/extraction, and purification. In addition, this review outlines current applications of hemp extracts and proposes future trends for utilising hemp phytochemicals and extracts in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical products to increase applications of hemp extracts and their phytochemicals for health benefits.
... Bread is one of the oldest food products and a staple of the human diet in many countries [1,2]. In recent years, food-related health concerns have increased consumer demand for functional foods, foods with improved nutritional quality and products with reduced allergens for preventing food and age-related diseases . Hemp and its byproducts from oil production are often used as additional raw materials in breads because of their high protein content and value, as well as their overall high nutritional value. ...
... Hemp and its byproducts from oil production are often used as additional raw materials in breads because of their high protein content and value, as well as their overall high nutritional value. The protein fraction of hemp is similar to egg white, with a high amount of arginine . Furthermore, hemp is a gluten-free raw material, which is why it is also often added to gluten-free dough mixtures . ...
Hemp and hemp seed press cake—a by-product of hemp oil production—are high-protein, gluten-free raw materials that are often used to enhance the nutritional value of breads. The addition of hemp materials, however, often negatively impacts the technological parameters of breads. Consequently, this study investigated whether and how much the addition of various by-products of hemp seed press cakes to wheat bread mixtures adversely affects the texture and colour profile. The texture profile and colour were determined using a texture analyser and tristimulus measurements. The particle size of raw materials was also measured. Principal component analysis was then used to visualise the correlation between all measured values as well as nutritional parameters. The results showed that the addition of only 1% of some hemp raw materials caused significant technological changes (p > 0.05). Hemp raw materials increased bread hardness and decreased elasticity. The colour of breads containing 1% hemp was also visibly darker than the reference bread. The addition of more hemp led to further darkening and the deterioration of the technological parameters of the products. Consequently, while various hemp materials have high nutritional value, a balance with sensory properties, e.g., textural and colour, has to be reached.
... The utilization of hempseeds in the food industry is developing rapidly because of the growing awareness of the value of agri-food by-products and the negative impact of animal-derived protein on the environment . The research on hempseeds in the food industry mainly includes the baking industry , extruded food , beverages , and meat products . Hempseed cake is the by-product of the oil extraction process and is also rich in fiber, protein, polyphenols, vitamins, and essential amino acids . ...
... Similar results were reflected in a previous study when 20% hemp flour was added to the cookie sample, and the TPC was increased significantly from about 0.41 to 1.22 mg GAE/g . Similarly, the addition of 15% hempseed flour significantly increased the TPC value of wheat bread from 256.43 to 563.63 mg GAE/kg sample . In terms of DPPH and ABTS free radical assays (Table 4), results showed that the influence on DPPH inhibition activity was not significant, while there was a significant increase in ABTS inhibition rate (p < 0.05). ...
Hempseed (Cannabis sativa L.) cake is a by-product after cold-pressing of oil from the hempseed, which is rich in protein and fiber. This study investigated the effect of hempseed cake incorporation on the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of reconstructed potato chips. Varying levels of hempseed cake (0, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%) were added, and the results showed that the addition of hempseed cake at 20% level significantly increased the protein and total dietary fiber content from 2.74 ± 0.62 g/100 g to 9.66 ± 0.28 g/100 g and from 2.76 ± 0.31 g/100 g to 13.57 ± 0.42 g/100 g, respectively. In addition, a 20% reduction in lipid content was observed in the 20% hempseed cake addition group. Furthermore, lightness value (L*) was significantly reduced from 72.23 ± 1.22 to 46.40 ± 1.76, while the hardness was enhanced with a higher level of hempseed cake supplementation in the potato chips sample. Compared with the control (no hempseed cake), the supplement of 20% cake increased the total phenolic content from 0.19 ± 0.01 to 0.26 ± 0.01 mg GAE/g. The ABTS radical scavenging rate was also significantly enhanced with the increased levels of hemp cake. However, the peroxide value and TBARS results showed that the addition of hempseed cake accelerated the lipid oxidation in the sample, possibly due to the highly unsaturated fatty acid residues in the hempseed cake. The results suggested that more research is needed for the incorporation of hempseed cake in potato chips.
... Hemp seeds are good source of plantbased protein for example, 2-3 table spoons of hemp seeds gives nearly 11g of protein, containing methionine, lysine and cysteine. Hemp seeds contain 20-25% proteins of biological value equal to hen's egg white (Mikulec et al. 2019), 25-35% of lipids, 20-30% carbohydrates, 10-15% insoluble fibers and minerals such as phosphorus, potassium, sodium, magnesium, sulfur, calcium, iron, and zinc (Deferne and Pate 1996;Callaway 2004;Galasso et al. 2016). The seeds contain nonmedicinal levels (<0.3%) of psychoactive compound known as δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). ...
... Hemp flour and oil are used in several certified foods of high nutritional values due to their content in minerals, vitamins (mostly A, C Fig. 4 A schematic pathway of the full spectrum CBD from seed to product Environ Sci Pollut Res and E complexes), carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids (Ferrante et al. 2019). Hemp flour influenced protein content and antioxidant properties of bread (Mikulec et al. 2019). It is also used for gluten-free bread production (Korus, Witczak, Ziobro and Juszczak 2017). ...
Rising human population has increased the utilization of available resources for food, clothes, medicine, and living space, thus menacing natural environment and mounting the gap between available resources, and the skills to meet human desires is necessary. Humans are satisfying their desires by depleting available natural resources. Therefore, multifunctional plants can contribute towards the livelihoods of people, to execute their life requirements without degrading natural resources. Thus, research on multipurpose industrial crops should be of high interest among scientists. Hemp, or industrial hemp, is gaining research interest because of its fastest growth and utilization in commercial products including textile, paper, medicine, food, animal feed, paint, biofuel, biodegradable plastic, and construction material. High biomass production and ability to grow under versatile conditions make hemp, a good candidate species for remediation of polluted soils also. Present review highlights the morphology, adaptability, nutritional constituents, textile use, and medicinal significance of industrial hemp. Moreover, its usage in environmental conservation, building material, and biofuel production has also been discussed.
... This decrease is due to the low humidity of the hemp flour used 4.49% for hemp flour variety Dacia Secuieni, respectively 4.98% for hemp flour variety Zenit . The same decreasing trend was reported by Mikulec et al.  for hemp bread, but they started from a higher humidity of the control sample (45.36%). ...
... The reported differences were due to the variety from which the hemp seeds come. Slightly higher results, for bread with 15% addition of hemp flour Mikulec et al.  reports a percentage of 13.38%, and in our case the samples reach up to 10.7% and 10.45%. However, it should be noted that the control sample in their case had a percentage of 11.02%, with an increase of 3.36% to the addition of 15% hemp flour, and in our case the increase in the percentage of protein for the samples with 15% addition was 1.69%, respectively 1.94%. ...
Hemp flour from Dacia Secuieni and Zenit varieties was added to bread in different proportions (5%, 10%, 15% and 20%) to improve its nutritional properties. The purpose of this paper was to present the advanced nutritional characteristics of these bread samples. The selected varieties of hemp, accepted for human consumption, met the requirements for the maximum accepted level of THC in seeds. The protein content of new products increased from 8.76 to 11.48%, lipids increased from 0.59 to 5.41%, mineral content from 1.33 to 1.62%, and fiber content from 1.17 to 5.84%. Elasticity and porosity decreased from 95.51 to 80% and 78.65 to 72.24%, respectively. K, Mg, Ca, P, Mn and Fe are the main mineral substances in bread with addition of hemp flour from the Dacia Secuieni and Zenit varieties. The total amount of unsaturated fatty acids in the bread samples with hemp flour ranged from 67.93 g/100 g and 69.82 g/100 g. Eight amino acids were identified, of which three were essential (lysine, phenylalanine, histidine). Lysine, the deficient amino acid in wheat bread, increased from 0.003 to 0.101 g/100 g. Sucrose and fructose decreased with the addition of hemp flour, and glucose has not been identified. The amount of yeasts and molds decreased in the first 3 days of storage. Regarding the textural profile, the best results were obtained for the samples with 5% addition. In conclusion, bread with the addition of hemp flour has been shown to have superior nutritional properties to wheat bread.
... A 20% hemp flour addition increased the protein content from 8.55 to 11.81%. A study by Mikulec et al. (2019) reported that use of 0% to 50% hempseed flour in bread samples increased the protein content from 11.02% to 19.29%. According to the results, cookies made with 20% raw hemp flour had 19.39% fat content and cookies incorporating 20% roasted hemp flour had 19.56% fat content. ...
... These results are compatible with other roasting studies with seeds and it was stated that the product's antioxidant activity increased as a result of the release of phenolic fractions due to heat treatment effects and the formation of new components with antioxidant activity by the Maillard reaction (Carciochi et al., 2016). In another study, Mikulec et al. (2019) stated that the addition of hemp flour openly contributed to enhancing the antioxidant properties of products. ...
There has been a resurrection of interest in traditionally cultivated hemp seeds as an alternative food ingredient source over the last few years. Hemp seeds are an excellent food source in terms of protein, dietary fiber, omega fatty acids, vitamins and minerals. In this way, hemp flour allows the development of a product with a high nutritional content for human nutrition.
This study aimed to investigate the effects of using raw and roasted hemp flour instead of wheat flour (0-5-10-15-20%) in cookies in terms of physical, chemical and sensorial properties.
The results showed significant differences (p < 0.05) in some chemical and physical properties among cookies. The addition of raw and roasted hemp flour significantly (p < 0.05) affected the color parameters of the cookie samples; L* and b* values decreased and a* values increased. The cookie formulation with increased hemp flour (raw or roasted) resulted in an increase in ash, protein, fat, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity values in the cookie samples, and the highest values were observed with a 20% level. The raw and roasted hemp flour content significantly decreased the hardness and resulted in softer cookies. For sensory evaluation, the cookies supplemented with raw hemp flour up to 20% and roasted hemp flour up to 15% were found to be more desirable by the panelists in terms of overall acceptability.
The results showed the effects of the process applied to the seed and the usability of hemp seed in the product formulation. The nutritional values of hemp seed in the cookie samples demonstrated that it can be used as an alternative ingredient in the development of functional foods.
... A pGI of 54.97 ± 3.75 was found in the hemp-containing YL, which was lower than that previously found in YL products made with oat flakes , quinoa , and emmer , while it is comparable with that observed in pulse-derived products . Thanks to its antioxidant properties, hemp flour was previously used to improve the functional features of wheat bread . In this work, and according to previous research , a slight but significant increase (+8%) in antioxidant activity toward the ABTS + radical was found in the aqueous extract of the product. ...
Plant-based milk alternatives have gained massive popularity among consumers because of their sustainable production compared to bovine milk and because of meeting the nutritional requests of consumers affected by cow milk allergies and lactose intolerance. In this work, hemp flour, in a blend with rice flour, was used to design a novel lactose- and gluten-free yogurt-like (YL) product with suitable nutritional, functional, and sensory features. The growth and the acidification of three different lactic acid bacteria strains were monitored to better set up the biotechnological protocol for making the YL product. Hemp flour conferred the high fiber (circa 2.6 g/100 g), protein (circa 4 g/100 g), and mineral contents of the YL product, while fermentation by selected lactic acid bacteria increased the antioxidant properties (+8%) and the soluble fiber (+0.3 g/100 g), decreasing the predicted glycemic index (−10%). As demonstrated by the sensory analysis, the biotechnological process decreased the earthy flavor (typical of raw hemp flour) and increased the acidic and creamy sensory perceptions. Supplementation with natural clean-label vanilla powder and agave syrup was proposed to further decrease the astringent and bitter flavors. The evaluation of the starter survival and biochemical properties of the product under refrigerated conditions suggests an estimated shelf-life of 30 days. This work demonstrated that hemp flour might be used as a nutritional improver, while fermentation with a selected starter represents a sustainable and effective option for exploiting its potential.
... The brown index (BI) is generally affected by the oxidation of the phenolic compounds in the 8 HPCF supplement, with the quinone compounds changing to brown. Probiotic yoghurt contains9 little or no long-chain menaquinones. Their amount may increase, depending on how much of 0 the additive is put into it. ...
The purpose of this article is to present possibilities for obtaining a new type of probiotic yoghurt enriched by adding hemp press cake flour (HPCF) in different amounts (2 %, 4 %, 6 %, 8 % and 10 %). Hemp press cake is a by-product that remains after the cold pressing of industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.). The Principal component analysis showed that the amounts of 4 to 10 % had a significant effect, and the amount of 2 % HPCF had no effect on the physicochemical characteristics of probiotic yoghurt. By the resulting regression model and linear programming algorithm was determined the amount of 4.04 % HPCF as the most appropriate in probiotic yoghurt, which was also confirmed in the sensory analysis. The amount of total polyphenols and antioxidant activity significantly increased with the addition of hemp press cake flour from 41.46 mg GAE/mL and 32.2 % DPPH inhibition to 111.16 mg GAE/mL to and 55.6 % DPPH inhibition in probiotic yoghurt with 10 % HPCF.
The production of this report was funded by the Scottish Environment, Food and Agriculture Research Institutes (SEFARI) Gateway, as part of their fellowship scheme, which are bespoke opportunities coconstructed with key partners to deliver solutions to priority policy and practice needs. By adopting desk-based research, primary and secondary data analysis, the first part of the report aims to summarize, collate, and synthesize results from existing research on hemp production worldwide. It gathers online data from published scientific and grey literature, and government published data such as FAOSTATS, EUROSTAT, and HMRC data. The second part of the report relies on secondary data from the Global New Product Database (GNPD) which contains information on hemp-based products launched by major retail supermarkets and manufacturers from 1997 to 2021 in Europe and North America. This information was used to assess trends in product development in the hemp market. The final part of the report analyses the supply chains for hempseed and fibre in Scotland using primary data collect from farmers in Aberdeen, Aberdeenshire, and along the Scottish borders. The information obtained was used to assess the strength, weakness, opportunities and threats faced by the sector. The report concluded with strong and time bound recommendations necessary to advance the Scottish hemp sector.
... The increase in the volume and the slowdown in the processes of the staling of the bread led to the extension in the shelf life of the bread . Replacing the wheat flour with hemp seed flour in bakery products resulted in an increase in the content of protein and polyphenolic compounds, while it led to a decrease in the volume of bread and the rate of staling . Nowadays, alternative protein sources receive serious attention in recent research all over the world. ...
(1) Background: Hemp seeds are a source of plant-based protein, making them an appropriate supplement to a plant-based diet. The current work was focused on the preparation of the protein isolate from the hemp seeds with eco-friendly and cheap technology. Moreover, it evaluated the physicochemical and functional properties of hemp protein isolate for its potential application in food manufacturing. (2) Methods: The protein content of hemp seeds has been isolated through two main steps: (1) extraction of the protein content of an alkaline pH (10–12); (2) precipitation of the extracted protein on an acidic pH as an isoelectric point (pH = 4.5). (3) Results: The edastin protein is the most predominant protein in the protein profile with a molecular weight of 58.1 KDa beside albumin with a molecular weight of 31.5 KDa. The FTIR spectrum detected the absorption peaks of the amide I at 1750 and 1600 cm−1, which pointed to C=O stretching while N-H stretching at 1650–1580 cm−1. The peak at 3250 is found to be related to N-H stretching of the aliphatic primary amine (3400–3300 cm−1) and the N-H stretching for the secondary (II) amine appeared at 3350–3310 cm−1. The Hemp protein isolate (HPI) showed a high content of arginine (15.52 g/100 g), phenylalanine + tyrosine (9.63 g/100 g), methionine + cysteine (5.49 g/100 g), leucine + isoleucine (5.21 g/100 g), and valine (4.53 g/100 g). It contains a moderate level of threonine (3.29 g/100 g) and lysine (2.50 g/100 g) with tryptophan as the limiting amino acid (0.22 g/100 g). The HPI showed an appropriate water-and-oil holding capacity (4.5 ± 2.95 and 2.33 ± 1.88 mL/g, respectively). The foaming capacity of the HPI was increased with increasing the pH values to reach the maximum value at pH 11 (67.23 ± 3.20%). The highest emulsion ability index of the HPI was noted at pH 9 (91.3 ± 2.57 m2/g) with low stability (19.15 ± 2.03). (4) Conclusion: A strong positive correlation (r = 0.623) was shown between protein concentration and solubility. The current easy-to-use, cheap, and eco-friendly technology provides the industrial sector with a cheap protein isolate for manufacturing protein-rich diet and beverages. The HPI showed a good nutritional quality and functional properties that might be helpful in utilizing it in different food products such as beverages and bakery products.
... Crude protein of whole hemp seed was found 20.40% which is slightly lower than black soyabean. Hemp seeds contain 20-25% proteins of biological value equal to hen's egg white (Mikulec et al.2019) . Hemp seed proteins contain all the essential amino acids for human health and the protein fraction of hemp is highly digestible (Farinon et al. 2020)  . ...
The present work was undertaken to study the physicochemical and nutritional properties of hemp seeds. Hemp, a wild plant, is scantly cultivated for fibre and its seeds are an undervalued co-product resulting from the cultivation of industrial hemp. The underutilized seeds of hemp can be used to enhance the nutritional value of staple foods in terms of plant-based protein, good quality fat and fibre. Different physicochemical and nutritional characteristics of whole hemp seed were analyzed. The seed weight, seed volume, hydration and swelling capacity, bulk density and pericarp color were found to be 19.29 g, 18.66 ml, 0.03 g/seed, 0.07 ml, 0.56 g/ml, and light olive brown color respectively. The nutritional composition results revealed that whole hemp seed has good quality of crude protein (20.40%) and crude fat (28.70%). Whole hemp seed has good amount of dietary fibre (26.83 g/100 g) and fair amount of in vitro protein digestibility (66.69%) whereas, total phenolic content was very high (221.31 mgGAE/100 g) and a very little amount of -tocopherol (0.05 mg/100 g) was present.
... hempseeds flour would reduce the bread sensory assessment . The low content of hempseed components led to a great volume, optimal shape and high elasticity of bread, thus becoming popular among tasters . ...
Owing to its nutritional and medicinal value, hemp has been cultivated to provide since ancient times. This review aims to map the scientific literature concerning the main functional components and the chemical composition of hemp plant. It is generally acknowledged that each organ of the hemp plant embodies a valuable source, and among them the most pivotal part is the edible fruits hempseeds. Hempseeds are rich in easily digestible proteins, fats, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and insoluble fiber, which are of high nutritional value. Furthermore, the beneficial effects have increased researchers’ interests in hempseeds-containing foods. Developed as an indispensable ingredient, hempseed is also a significant supplement in various products, such as bakery food, drinks, snacks and culinary products. Overall, this review intends to promote the further in-depth investigation of approved hemp plants and expand the range of hempseeds adoption in the functional foods field.
... This study found that fortifying wheat bread with moringa seed powder resulted in a significant increase in protein and vitamin A content, which could be of tremendous nutritional benefit to poor countries since many people cannot afford high animal protein meals due to their high cost and can also reduce vitamin A deficiency. Bread formulation was also done by replacing part of wheat flour with hemp seed powder (15%, 30%, and 50%) and it was recommended that for industrial use share of hemp seed flour should not exceed 30% (Mikulec et al., 2019). A reduction in bread volume was observed from its 30% and 50% ...
Traditionally, vegetables are consumed as ingredients of daily household meals. Before cooking, vegetables are washed thoroughly, unpeeled, and deseeded, followed by chopping into desired shapes and sizes. Vegetable peels and seeds are also byproducts of various food industries. If they are not used, they will contribute significantly to global garbage. On the other hand, developing novel functional foods and food ingredients out of unorthodox sources has become a trending issue among researchers. The focus of this review was to access the utility of seed flour from sixteen commonly eaten seed‐bearing vegetables such as ash gourd (Benincasa hispida), bitter gourd (Momordica charantia), bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria), buffalo gourd (Cucurbita foetidissima), capsicum (Capsicum annuum), drumstick (Moringa oleifera), Gnetum (Gnetum gnemon), hemp (Cannabis sativa), lady’s finger (Abelmoschus esculentus), noni (Morinda citrifolia), pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica), pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima), ridge gourd (Luffa acutangular), snake gourd (Trichosanthes cucumerina), spine gourd (Momordica dioica), and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) have been presented. A complete picture of the nutritional qualities, phytochemical constituents, health benefits of these vegetable seeds, and their impact on the fortification of ready‐to‐eat foods have been illustrated. The development of functional food goods (bakery products, milk products, cereal‐based products, and meat products) from food waste (vegetable seeds) is extensively discussed in this study. It also highlights possible research gaps related to this field.
... Hemp seeds are a rich source of vitamins A, C, and E, minerals, and β-carotene and contain approximately 30% protein, 25% starch, and 30% oil . They are pressed to obtain oil, and the meal is processed into flour . There is also a great interest in the positive health-promoting effects of non-psychoactive cannabinoids, i.e., cannabidiol (CBD) and its precursor cannabidiolic acid (CDBA) . ...
In the last decade, the demand for edible niche oils has increased. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize the seeds hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) varieties: ‘Finola’ (FIN-314)’, ‘Earlina 8FC’, and ‘Secuieni Jubileu’, and cold and hot pressed oils were prepared from each seed. The seeds were examined for moisture content, granulometric distribution, bulk density, and fat content. Seeds were pressed without and with preconditioning (60 °C), and oil yield and pressing time were recorded. The oil was filtered through cellulose membranes. Oil–water content, oil color, fatty acid profile, and sterol content were studied. From the study conducted, there are significant differences in the parameters of oil recovery and its quality compared to ‘Finola’ seed oil, which is widely reported in the literature. ‘Finola’ oil yield was the lowest, with an average of 79% compared to ‘Earlina’ (82%) and ‘S. Jubileu’ (84%). All oil samples contained a comparable amount of sterols, with campesterol (0.32 mg/g), β-sitosterol (1.3 mg/g) and Δ5-avenasterol (0.15 mg/g) predominating. From the organoleptic evaluation, it was evident that both varieties hemp oils and marc (‘Earlina’ and ‘S. Jubileu’) were not bitter like the “Finola” oil and marc. More detailed studies in this direction have to be undertaken.
... Phenolic content of hemp flour was 10 times higher than those obtained by Ertas et al. , who reported that raw hemp flour contains 0.405 mg GAE/g. In contradiction with our results, Mikulec et al.  reported that hemp flour is characterized by a polyphenol content of 0.98 mg GAE/g. Walnuts are recognized for their high antioxidant capacity, being associated with a high phenolic content. ...
The present study presents the use of photochemiluminescence assay (PCL) and 2,2 diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) methods for the measurement of lipid-soluble antioxidant capacity (ACL) of 14 different byproducts obtained from the vegetable oil industry (flour, meals, and groats). The research showed that the analyzed samples contain significant amounts of phenolic compounds between 1.54 and 74.85 mg gallic acid per gram of byproduct. Grape seed flour extract had the highest content of total phenolic compounds, 74.85 mg GAE/g, while the lowest level was obtained for the sunflower groats, 1.54 mg GAE/g. DPPH values varied between 7.58 and 7182.53 mg Trolox/g of byproduct, and the highest antioxidant capacity corresponded to the grape seed flour (7182.53 mg Trolox/g), followed by walnut flour (1257.49 mg Trolox/g) and rapeseed meals (647.29 mg Trolox/g). Values of ABTS assay of analyzed samples were between 0 and 3500.52 mg Trolox/g of byproduct. Grape seed flour had the highest value of ABTS (3500.52 mg Trolox/g), followed by walnut flower (1423.98) and sea buckthorn flour (419.46). The highest values for FRAP method were represented by grape seed flour (4716.75 mg Trolox/g), followed by sunflower meals (1350.86 mg Trolox/g) and rapeseed flour (1034.92 mg Trolox/g). For CUPRAC assay, grape seed flour (5936.76 mg Trolox/g) and walnut flour (1202.75 mg Trolox/g) showed the highest antioxidant activity. To assess which method of determining antioxidant activity is most appropriate for the byproducts analyzed, relative antioxidant capacity index (RACI) was calculated. Depending on the RACI value of the analyzed byproducts, the rank of antioxidant capacity ranged from −209.46 (walnut flour) to 184.20 (grape seed flour). The most sensitive methods in developing RACI were FRAP (r = 0.5795) and DPPH (r = 0.5766), followed by CUPRAC (r = 0.5578) and ABTS (r = 0.4449), respectively. Strong positive correlations between the antioxidant capacity of lipid-soluble compounds measured by PCL and other methods used for determining antioxidant activity were found (r > 0.9). Analyses have shown that the different types of byproducts obtained from the vegetable oil industry have a high antioxidant activity rich in phenolic compounds, and thus their use in bakery products can improve their nutritional quality.
... The addition of 15% hemp flour resulted in an increase in hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and furfuryl aldehyde concentration. In contrast to wheat bread, an increase in hemp flour concentration led to the reduction in HMF level, as well as aldehyde and furfuryl alcohol concentration in the trial bread . ...
Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is a herbaceous anemophilous plant that belongs to the Cannabi-naceae family. The cannabis seed (hemp) has long been utilized as a food source and is commercially important as an edible oil source. In this review, the positive and negative health effects of cannabis, the relationship between cannabis and various diseases, and the use of cannabis in various food products have been discussed. In addition, the scientific literature on the potential use of cannabis and its derivatives as a dietary supplement for the prevention and treatment of inflammatory and chronic degenerative diseases in animals and humans has been reviewed. Cannabis is being developed as a key ingredient in a variety of food items, including bakery, confectionery, beverages, dairy, fruits, vegetables, and meat. Hemp seeds are high in readily digestible proteins, lipids, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), insoluble fiber, carbs, and favorable omega-6 PUFA acid to omega-3 PUFA ratio and have high nutritional value. The antioxidants of cannabis, such as polyphenols, help with anxiety, oxidative stress, and the risk of chronic illnesses, including cancer, neurological disorders, digestive problems, and skin diseases. Cannabis has been shown to have negative health impacts on the respiratory system, driving, and psychomotor functions, and the reproductive system. Overall, the purpose of this research is to stimulate more in-depth research on cannabis's adaptation in various foods and for the treatment of chronic illnesses.
... In a study on energy bars made from extruded rice and whole hemp powder, bars with the highest hemp share (40%) had the lowest overall acceptability, while those with the lowest (20%) were the preferred product . Therefore, on the one hand, a negative correlation was determined between the addition of hemp flour to wheat bread and gluten-free biscuits and the results of the sensory evaluation [36,37]. The reasons for the negative reception of those products were a bitter aftertaste, hay-like aroma, and an undesirable dark green colour. ...
Hemp cake, a by-product of cold pressing oil from hemp seeds, is a nutritious ingredient that could be used for the production of new or reformulated meat products. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of inclusion of 0.9%, 2.6%, 4.2%, and 7.4% (w/w) hemp cake (Cannabis sativa L.) on the physicochemical and textural properties, oxidation, and sensory acceptance of cooked and vacuum-packed meatballs during refrigerated storage. The addition of 7.4% hemp cake enhanced the amount of dry matter and reduced the content of water. Lightness (L*) and redness (a*) values reduced significantly with higher levels of hemp supplementation. Regardless of the amount of hemp additive, pH, color parameters did not differ significantly during the 12 days of storage. Hemp cake significantly decreased protein and lipid oxidation: the inhibitory effect of adding 7.4% hemp cake on protein carbonyl group formation and TBARS values reached 11.16% and 36.5%, respectively, after 10 days of storage. Sensory analysis revealed that meatballs prepared with 0.9% and 2.6% hemp cake gained higher overall scores. The results indicate that hemp cake, a material considered mainly as waste, may be destined for food purposes and be an alternative ingredient for the production of sustainable meat products.
... Therefore, hemp-seed and oil are valuable additions to human diets. Besides the oil, hemp flour made from seeds is becoming increasingly popular, because the flour is gluten-free and suitable for celiacs (Korus et al. 2017;Mikulec et al. 2019). ...
Industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.), as one of the most important traditional natural fiber crops, had almost been forgotten for the last several decades. However, an unprecedented opportunity has emerged for planting this crop due to its multiple uses and products derived from the plant as well as its quick-growing and strong adaptability to a wide range of agro-environmental conditions. Furthermore, the decision from the United Nations’ Commission for Narcotic Drugs that removing medicinal cannabis from a category of dangerous drugs (Schedule IV of the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961) in December 2020 has also greatly promoted the hemp’s revival. Nowadays, industrial hemp has many agro-industrial applications, such as agriculture, textiles, papermaking, construction, bio-fuel. This review analyzes the current hemp production status throughout the world and outlines the main applications of industrial hemp in different fields. The outlook and the remaining questions that need to be solved in the future for the better development of industrial hemp were also discussed, such as how to promote the hemp planting in more broad regions, how to obtain high yields of aim products, and how to fully explore its usages in the future.
... Phenolic acids were the main PC identified in a cake fortified with black carrot pomace, among them ferulic and chlorogenic acid (Kamiloglu et al., 2017b). In hemp flour fortified bread ferulic acid and epicatechin were the mainly quantified PCs (Mikulec et al., 2019). Catechin has also been reported in products fortified with red capsicum powder, buckwheat, and cocoa hulls (Nath et al., 2018;Papillo et al., 2019;Verardo et al., 2018). ...
Agro-industrial processing activities generate by-products that are discarded at high economic and environmental costs; however, many of them still contain high levels of bioactive compounds (BCs) such as dietary fiber (DF) and phenolic compounds (PCs), which, when combined, are known as antioxidant dietary fiber (ADF). These BCs have properties that are beneficial to our health, among them anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and cardioprotective. Moreover, DF can regulate glucose and cholesterol levels. The mechanism of ADF action depends on its chemical structure and the interactions between the DF and PCs in it. Recent studies have reported the incorporation of several of these by-products on a diet through food products consumed worldwide, such as bread. This review describes the chemical characteristics of the ADF complex and the effect of its molecular interactions on sensory, nutritional and health-promoting properties of functional bakery goods.
... Also, hemp flour fortification of brown rice crackers with 20% hemp flour with 4 g of green tea leaves was highly accepted in sensory evaluation and provided a healthy snack profile; however, up to 30% of hemp flour can be added to fulfill the nutritional profile with low sensory properties (Rado caj, Dimi c, & Tsao, 2014). Besides, bread fortified with hemp flour at different ratios were found high in protein content (13e19% dw) in regards to wheat bread (11% dw), and the overall effect can be seen in Fig. 3.1 (Mikulec et al., 2019). On the other hand, owing to a balanced amino acid profile and possible functional properties, including emulsifying, gelling, and foaming, canola protein isolate has been proposed as an alternative to other proteins for human food use (Beran et al., 2018). ...
This chapter introduces the key elements in functional food innovations using food processing by-products and emerging ingredients. The role of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, bioactive compounds, and minerals will be discussed in the point of view of innovative technologies, new ingredients, and the challenges in functional food development. The fortification of food products with functional ingredients to enhance its organoleptic properties, physicochemical properties, preservation, and morphological properties will be discussed. The valorization of food processing by-products provides functional macro- and micronutrients in a cost-efficient way. Also, emerging ingredients from various sources, including algae, insects, and hemp, provide a tremendous contribution to functional food development.
... The suggested use, in smoothies, shakes or nut butters, all of which are uncooked products, may be important in preserving the fragile polyunsaturated fats in the hemp seed, as these would be altered through a baking process. Despite this, a number of studies support the addition of hemp in bread products with enhanced nutrition, acceptable colour and sensory qualities [49,50]. In alignment with the sustainability theme, insect flour made from crickets was among the highest in protein, fat and saturated fat in this audit. ...
Flour, typically derived from wheat, rye, corn and rice is a pantry staple, providing structure to bread and baked goods. This study aimed to provide a cross-sectional analysis of flour for home baking, highlighting the nutrition composition of whole grain flour and identifying novel categories. An audit was undertaken in February 2020, in four major supermarkets in metropolitan Sydney (Aldi, Coles, IGA and Woolworths). Ingredient lists, Nutrition Information Panel, claims, and country of origin were collected. The median and range were calculated for energy, protein, fat, saturated fat, carbohydrate, sugars, dietary fibre and sodium. Overall, 130 products were collected, including 26 plain flour, 12 self-raising, 17 plain wholemeal, 4 wholemeal self-raising, 20 bread-making mixes (4 were whole grain), 20 other refined grain (including corn and rice flour), 17 gluten-free, 3 legume, 4 fruit/vegetable, 4 coconut and 3 other non-grain (e.g., hemp seed, cricket flour) products. Plain wheat flour dominated the category, while whole grain (wholemeal) made up 19% of products, yet they contained significantly more dietary fibre (p < 0.001) and protein (p < 0.001). Self-raising flours were significantly higher in sodium (p < 0.001) and gluten-free products were lower in protein and dietary fibre, making legume, buckwheat and quinoa flour a better choice. Sustainability principles in fruit and vegetable production and novel insect products have driven new product development. There is a clear opportunity for further on-pack promotion of whole grain and dietary fibre within the category via food product labelling.
In this study, the physico-chemical properties, polyphenol and fatty acid profiles and sensory evaluations of breads made from wheat flour and coriander seed powder mixtures were investigated. The oil yields of breads with coriander were identified between 0.11% (control) and 1.25% (with 30% coriander). The highest and lowest L* values were observed in the control and bread with 30% added coriander, respectively. The addition of coriander caused an increase in a* and b* (except for the bread with 30% added coriander) values of breads. Total phenol and flavonoid values of the coriander bread samples were recorded between 43.13 (control) and 64.01 mg GAE/100 g (with 30% coriander) to 72.62 (control) and 130.71 mg/100 g (with 30% coriander), respectively. The antioxidant capacity values of breads produced by adding coriander at different levels were determined between 0.45 (control) and 1.32 mmol/kg (with 30% coriander). In general, the quantitative values of phenolic constituents of the bread samples with added coriander powder were low compared to the control (except catechin and rutin). Gallic acid, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, catechin and rutin were found at the highest amounts in bread samples, followed by caffeic acid, syringic acid and p-coumaric acids in descending order. Gallic acid and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid amount values of bread samples were between 11.51 mg/100 g (with 30% coriander) and 45.21 (control), and 16.41 mg/100 g (with 10% coriander) and 29.39 mg/100 g (with 20% coriander), respectively. Additionally, the catechin and rutin contents of wheat breads produced by adding coriander seed powder at different concentrations were between 37.43 (with 10% coriander) and 70.12 mg/100 g (with 20% coriander), and 6.76 mg/100 g (with 10% coriander) and 29.45 mg/100 g (with 30% coriander powder), respectively. The phenolic components of the breads gradually decreased in parallel with the increase in the coriander concentration. The oleic and linoleic acid results of the oils of bread samples produced by adding coriander seed powder were between 23.15% (control) and 62.45% (with 30% coriander), and 26.67% (with 30% coriander) and 52.20% (control), respectively. In addition, with the increase in coriander concentration, the increase in the oleic acid contents of bread oils compared to the control and the decrease in the linoleic acid result gave the bread functionality for human health. In general, among the coriander bread samples, the bread sample with a 30% concentration of coriander powder was the most appreciated.
In addition to being the oldest cultivated plant from past to present as a raw material source, Cannabis sativa L. is a strategically characteristic plant used for food, medicine, cosmetics, and pharmacological purposes. Molecular modeling is an important means for elucidating molecular structures and plays an important role in the design and development of new pharmaceuticals. This chapter includes the beneficial properties of the primary and secondary metabolites contained in cannabis such as foaming, emulsifying, gelling, film formation; antioxidant, antimicrobial activities and bakery products by means of their superior nutritional values, snack products, dairy products, processed meat products, in beverages such as coffees, teas, soda and functional food ingredients in many other areas of the food industry, nutritional supplements, usability in the development of new food formulations on hemp and molecular modeling studies on constituents of cannabis sativa.
For many years, Colombia was one of the countries with the largest illegal cultivation of cannabis around the world. Currently, it is going through a period of transition with a new government law that recently allows the cultivation, transformation, and commercialization of such plant species. In this sense, the identification of strategies for the valorization of products or by-products from Cannabis sativa represent a great opportunity to improve the value chain of this crop. One of these products is hemp seeds, which are exceptionally nutritious and rich in healthy lipids (with high content of three polyunsaturated fatty acids: linoleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, and gamma-linolenic acid), good quality protein, and several minerals. In addition, hemp seeds contain THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) or CBD (cannabidiol) in traces, molecules that are responsible for the psychoactive and therapeutic properties of cannabis. These low terpenophenolic contents make it more attractive for food applications. This fact, together with the constant search for proteins of vegetable origin and natural food ingredients, have aroused an important interest in the study of this biomass. Some bioactivities of phytochemical compounds (polyphenols and terpenoids, mainly) present in hemp seeds have provided antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory properties. This review summarizes and discusses the context of hemp use in Latin-American and the new opportunities for hemp seeds culture in Colombia considering the valuable nutritional value, main functional bioactivities, and recent advances in food market applications of hemp seeds.
A rich-dough baked Greek product named "tsoureki" was prepared using non-gluten hemp seed flour at ratios of 0:100, 10:90, 30:70, and 50:50. The effects of hemp flour addition on the properties of "tsoureki", including physicochemical properties (moisture content, water activity, sorption phenomena), structural properties, textural properties, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and sensorial characteristics, as well as the macroscopic structure and morphological characteristics were studied.
Hemp flour addition affected dough rheology, showing tan δ values < 1, a decrease in both G' and G" values, while both flow behavior and consistency indices were also significantly affected, which might have an influence on the final baked goods. The GAB model satisfactorily described sorption data, while both hemp addition and temperature had a significant effect. A significantly higher hardness of 11.55N, a lower specific volume of 2.65 cm3 /g, and a lower porosity of 0.676 were observed at high hemp additions. The hemp flour level influenced the color of the crumb and crust, and the total color difference (ΔE) increased significantly with the increase in hemp flour. Hemp flour additions were detectable by the naked eye, with an obvious color difference between control and hemp-containing samples. Moreover, the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity were increased, as were some organoleptic characteristics, such as the bitter aftertaste. Concurrently, overall acceptability decreased significantly.
Overall, the incorporation of gluten-free defatted hemp seed flour in "tsoureki" formulations seems to be a promising alternative for improving quality of such rich-dough baked products. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Cannabis sativa L., has gained increasing attention due to its potential applications in various fields. However, the compositions of hemp seeds from different producing regions are quite different, significantly affects resource utilization. This work conducted the regional differentiation of hemp seeds from Dongbei, Guangxi, Inner Mongolia and Shanxi in China based on the headspace solid phase micro-extraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME/GC-MS) and multivariate analysis. Moreover, the chemical composition, amino acid and fatty acid profiles of hemp seeds and antioxidant activities of hemp protein isolate were evaluated from above four producing regions. The results showed that hemp seeds had large amounts of fat (24.30-34.65%) and protein (21.87-23.40%) with ideal amino acid and fatty acid profiles and large amounts of volatiles. More than 300 volatile compounds were detected, and 35 key contributors to the unique aroma were finally identified out of 110 volatile compounds with odor activity values (OAVs), including 14 aldehydes, 2 ketones, 4 alcohols, 2 esters, 1 acid, 3 aromatics, 5 terpenes and 4 other compounds. The content of alcohols in all hemp seeds was highest and 16 unique volatiles only found in hemp seeds from Shanxi. Meanwhile, the VIP scores indicated that acetic acid, hexanal, hexan-1-ol and eucalyptol contributed the most to the difference among groups. According to the results of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation, the hemp seeds from Shanxi seemed to have the better quality. Therefore, multivariate analysis combined with HS-SPME/GC-MS could effectively distinguish hemp seeds from different producing regions, and thus decipher the geographical characteristics of raw materials.
The effect of replacement of wheat flour with buckwheat flour at levels of 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50% on nutritional, texture, and physicochemical characteristics of bread was studied. Among others, parameters such as amino acid profile, antioxidant properties, and inositol phosphate content were determined. Amino acid score was calculated in order to evaluate the biological value of the bread protein. The breads with buckwheat flour were characterized by significantly lower whiteness of the crumb, compared to wheat bread. A positive effect of 10, 20, and 30% buckwheat flour content on the reduction of the crumb hardness, gumminess, chewiness was observed in comparison to other bread samples. A positive effect of buckwheat flour in the amount of 10–30% on the texture parameters and slowing down the process of bread staling was observed. The antioxidant properties and inositol phosphates increased with the share of buckwheat flour in the formula. A significant increase in protein was observed in bread from 20% share of buckwheat flour. The limiting amino acid of the protein of the tested flours and breads was lysine. For wheat bread, the amino acid score was 44.71% and for those with buckwheat flour it ranged from 45.67 to 75.38%.
The effects of incorporation of hempseed meal on the quality attributes of chicken sausage was explored. Hempseed meal was hydrated and added to chicken sausage in the proportion of 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40%, respectively, and the changes of the product quality attributes were analyzed. Results showed that with the increment of hempseed meal, moisture, protein, and lipid content of chicken sausage were significantly decreased, while ash and total dietary fiber content increased. The emulsion stability of the sausage was improved, and the cooking loss decreased. The addition of hempseed meal also increased the total phenolic content and DPPH radical scavenging activity; however, it promoted lipid oxidation (p<0.05), possibly due to the increased unsaturated fatty acids from hempseed meal. The L* and a* values of chicken sausage were significantly reduced due to the increasing content of hempseed meal. The incorporation of hempseed meal modified the texture profile of chicken sausage, which curtailed hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, springiness, chewiness, and resilience of the chicken sausages, except adhesiveness. This study demonstrated that the incorporation of hempseed meal in chicken sausage could be potential to substitute meat, create an alternative high plant protein sausage, and expand the application of hempseed meal in food industry.
Cold‐pressed hempseed oil (HSO) is known to have many health benefits due to many phytochemicals and high polyunsaturated fatty acids content. In this study, HSO oleogels were prepared with 3%, 5%, and 7% natural waxes including sunflower wax (SW), rice bran wax (RBW), beeswax, and candelilla wax to evaluate their potential as solid fat replacements in margarines and spreads. Firmness, cohesiveness, adhesiveness, solid fat content (SFC), crystal structures, and melting properties of these oleogels were evaluated. In general, HSO oleogels except for RBW‐HSO oleogels had lower gel strength and weaker crystal network than the corresponding soybean oil (SBO) oleogels. In contrast, RBW‐HSO oleogels had comparable gel strength to SBO oleogels. After removing polar compounds from HSO, waxes except for RBW provided oleogels with greater firmness, cohesiveness, adhesiveness, and stronger crystal network. Therefore, it was concluded that polar compounds negatively affected the physical properties of wax‐HSO oleogels but not those of RBW‐HSO oleogels. Margarine samples were prepared with SW‐ and RBW‐HSO oleogels, and their firmness, cohesiveness, adhesiveness, and melting properties were examined. The firmness of these margarines indicated that wax‐HSO oleogels may achieve the firmness of commercial spreads with less than 3% wax while the firmness of stick margarines cannot be achieved even with 7% wax. Although the properties of wax‐HSO oleogels should be further improved, they showed potential as solid fat replacements in margarines and spreads.
The aim of the present study was the utilization of supercritical CO2 as a green medium in various processes: starch gel drying, supercritical extraction from hemp seed flour (SCE process), hemp seed oil (HSO) impregnation (SCI process), as well as integrated process of hemp seed flour (HSF) extraction and starch gels impregnation (SCE-SCI process) for development of added-value materials that can be used as phytopharmaceuticals. Optimization of starch aerogels was performed by variation of temperature (35 and 45 °C) and pressure (8, 10, and 20 MPa) in order to obtain materials with high porosity, which will enable maximal loading capacity for hemp seed extracts. Proposed scCO2-assisted processes of SCE from HSF, SCI and SCE-SCI were performed at pressure of 30 MPa and temperature of 60 °C. It was shown that conditions of starch gel drying significantly influenced material morphology (porosity was in a range of 48-82%), which consequently determined aerogel loading capacity. FTIR analysis confirmed that scCO2 did not have effect on polymer composition nor it remained in polymer after drying process. The highest loading of both HSO and HSF extract (24.9 and 29.78%, respectively) was achieved when aerogel obtained at 10 MPa and 45 °C was tested as a carrier. Furthermore, chemical analysis showed that both HSO and HSF extract are rich in unsaturated fatty acids especially linoleic acid (54-59%) and α-linolenic acid (15-18%). These essential fatty acids have well-established health benefits including protection against cardiovascular, neurodegenerative and inflammatory diseases.
Industrial hemp is a multi-purpose crop that has been reintroduced from the 90s after chemical and genetic differentiation between narcotic and non-narcotic strains. This has encouraged the interest of many researchers, including those in the food industry sector. Hempseeds represent an important and nutritionally valuable resource due to their macro- and micro-nutrients and phytochemical composition. Hempseed production is increasing rapidly in many parts of the world, together with the development of alternative hempseed-based daily foods or processed hempseeds-derived products, including hempseed oil, meal, flour, and protein isolate/hydrolysate. Due to the relatively recent renewal of hemp production, the agro-food industries still lack standardized and specific transformation technologies and processing methods for hempseeds, thus prompting scientific research around this topic. Hence, current literature concerning the biotechnological transformation used on hempseeds and their derivatives has been reviewed in this chapter. Overall, many biotechnological methods can be effectively applied on whole hempseeds, hempseed oil, meal, flour, bran, and protein isolate/hydrolysate to valorize, improve, and use them differently in food preparation. To date, the most proposed, assessed, and adopted relevant biotechnological protocols aim to improve the bioavailability and functionality of nutrients and phytochemicals in hempseeds and derivatives. Also, these protocols focus on reducing harmful anti-nutrients and improve consumer acceptability of the final product. Techniques used to achieve these objectives include enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation, roasting, extrusion, extractions through supercritical fluid, microwave, and ultrasound, and microencapsulation. Despite the advances in knowledge made so far, there are still gaps in hempseed’s transformation processes; thus, further investigations are needed to optimize them specifically.KeywordsCannabisHempFood processingHempseed branHempseed mealHempseed oilHempseed proteinsWhole hempseed
Bal arıları meyve, sebze ve tohum oluşumu için çok önemli hayvanlardır.
Arılar, çiçekli bitkilerin erkek yapılarındaki polenleri dişi kısımlarına
aktararak bitkilerde meyve ve tohum oluşumunu sağlar. Ayrıca bal
yapmaları nedeniyle de tarih boyunca bu böceklere çok önem verilmiştir.
Biz insanlar her zaman bal arısına hayran olmuşuzdur. Afrika, Avrupa
ve Asya’daki en eski atalarımız, yüz binlerce yıl boyunca, bu arının bal
depolama ve balmumu yapma konusundaki şaşırtıcı endüstrisine, çok
değerli iki maddeye kesinlikle hayran kaldılar. Daha yakın zamanlarda,
son 10.000 yılda, karmaşık arıcılık zanaatını icat ettik ve bal arıları
üzerine bilimsel çalışmalarımıza başladık. Örneğin, bu arının «çiçek
değişmezliği» uygulamasını ilk kez tanımlayan antik filozof Aristotales’ti:
Bir işçi arı, yiyecek toplamanın verimliliğini artırmak için yiyecek
arama gezisi boyunca genellikle bir tür çiçeğe yapışır. Bal arısının
doğal dünyasında nasıl yaşadığını bilmek, geniş bir bilimsel araştırma
yelpazesi gerekmektedir. Bunun nedeni, Apis mellifera’nın biyolojideki,
özellikle davranışla ilgili temel soruları araştırmak için model sistemlerden
biri haline gelmesidir. Bu arıları ister hayvan bilişindeki, ister
davranışsal genetikteki veya sosyal davranışlardaki bazı gizemleri çözmek
için çalışıyor olun, birinin deneysel araştırmalarını tasarlamadan
önce doğal biyolojilerine aşina olmak kritik derecede önemlidir.
Several analytical parameters were evaluated to investigate changes in the composition of a cold-pressed hemp seed oil over a period of 3 months of storage. The environmental conditions applied for the conservation were 12 hours of light and 12 of darkness at room temperature, to mime a grocery or supermarket shelf, and the oil was stored in amber glass bottles. The peroxide value was quite low on freshly produced oil (2.66 ± 0.29 mEqO2/kg of oil) and decreased after 3 months (1.35 ± 0.08 mEqO2/kg of oil), as confirmed by free radical concentration, while no other statistically significant (one-way ANOVA, Tukey’s HSD test, p < 0.05) differences were observed (e.g. conjugated diene and triene systems, Oxidative Stability Index and free acidity). The fatty acid, cannabinoids and tocopherols composition did not statistically change; expect for δ-tocopherol, for which a decrease was observed. The overall results did not show a strong effect of photooxidation on the oil, despite its high degree of unsaturation.
Bread, basic food in many parts of the world, is usually prepared by mixing wheat flour, water, salt, and yeast in varying proportions. Apart from these primary components, incorporating functional ingredients that provide health benefits into bakery products has overgrown due to the increasing demands of consumers for functional food. Several studies have shown that bread, which contains functional ingredients, particularly dietary fiber, and antioxidants are associated with maintaining health and decreased risk of some chronic and degenerative diseases, obesity, inflammatory and aging. Many functional ingredients are derived from natural raw materials, cereal-milling by-products, fruit and vegetables, and their processing by-products, pseudocereals (buckwheat, quinoa, and amaranth), legume flours, and oilseeds can be introduced in bread. Opuntia spp. derivatives are an attractive alternative to meet the actual trend for new sources used as a functional ingredient. Some research demonstrates that many parts of Opuntia spp. such as cactus pear fruits, stems (cladodes), and fresh mucilage have a vast potential to be used in bread making. Opuntia species include high values of dietary fiber, protein, minerals, vitamins, and antioxidants. These nutrients have a protective ability against cancer, cardiovascular disorders, hypercholesterolemia, inflammatory, obesity, and allergic diseases. Using Opuntia spp. derivatives can provide healthy bread with higher nutritional quality such as more protein content, ash, dietary fiber, phenolics, antioxidants, and oxidative stability than the wheat bread. However, the inclusion of fiber-rich ingredients, up to a certain level, impair dough rheology and bread quality, including sticky dough, reduced loaf volume, increased crumb hardness, and coarse texture dark-colored crumbs, and taste alterations. This chapter evaluates the impact of Opuntia spp. derivatives on the dough rheological properties as well as the physical, nutritional, technological, textural, and sensory aspects of bread.
The increasing global population, climate change, the depletion of natural resources, and new consumer requirements tending to consume more natural, less processed, more sustainable and clean label food, impose the need to find alternative raw materials and technologies to meet these challenges. Therefore, new food product development more and more requires the utilization of non‐traditional raw materials and ingredients that can be utilized either as alternative sources of proteins and/or as alternative sources of carbohydrates. These novel sources of nutrients, together with the specificity of their production, environmental benefits, and sustainability and safety aspects are reviewed in this chapter.
Quantitative descriptive analysis, consumer acceptability as well as physicochemical characteristics were employed to analyse the effect of ground chia seeds on the texture and quality of wheat bread. Chia seed oil changes and its impact on selected characteristics were determined. The share of chia seeds did not contribute to bread quality deterioration. The addition of 7.5% chia seeds significantly reduced consumer acceptance as well as contributed to the development of undesirable features in the sensory profile, including fatty, rancid, and off-flavour. The share of chia seeds in an amount not exceeding 5% did not deteriorate the overall quality of bread. The composition of fatty acids of bread with chia seeds, especially with their 5 and 7.5% addition, could be valuable from the nutritional point of view. The fatty acid profile of bread with 5 and 7.5% chia seeds was characterised by over 50% higher polyunsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids ratio compared to wheat bread. The n-6/n-3 ratio in the fatty acid profile of wheat bread was 18.77, while in the fatty acid profile of chia seed bread it ranged from 1.42 to 0.67. Oil extracted from bread exhibited better quality features as compared to oil extracted from chia seeds and subjected to the oxidative stability test.
The paper focuses on how to improve the nutritional value of traditional low moisture bakery products from wheat flour by using flour from hemp oilcakes obtained by solvent extraction of oil. It has been considered how to provide enough raw materials in the case of wide use of hemp and products of its processing in the food industry. The main tendencies in cultivating and applying industrial hemp in Ukraine and worldwide have been outlined; the chemical composition of hemp seeds (the plant’s part mainly used in food products) has been analysed and characterised; and it has been suggested how hemp by-products can be used in the bakery technology. It has been studied whether flour from hemp extraction cake can be used in the technology of low-moisture bakery products such as breadsticks. It has been found that 10, 15, and 20% of hemp flour added to wheat flour increase the water absorption capacity of the resulting flour blend by 3, 6, and 13% respectively, in comparison with the control. If hemp flour is included in the formulation of breadstick dough, the slackness of a dough ball increases by 6.1, 7.4, and 11%, and this increase is bigger, the higher the hemp flour content in the formulation is. However, it has been found that if the flour component of the recipe is partly replaced with hemp flour, this changes the growth medium of yeast cells and lactic acid bacteria and thus leads to a 23, 16, and 30% decrease in the amount of carbon dioxide formed during the 180 min fermentation period of the dough. The 6, 16, and 40% increase of titratable acidity in the samples analysed is due to the content of biogenic and oligobiogenic elements in the flour mixture, which satisfy the needs of lactic acid bacteria rather than those of baker’s yeast. The quality assessment of the finished products by their sensory and physicochemical characteristics has shown how promising it is to use hemp flour in the breadstick technology, provided that the recipe and the production parameters are modified to improve the products’ rheological properties and quality.
Hempseed is a well-known source of highly digestible protein (edestin and albumin). It has significant amounts of all essential amino acids, bioactive compounds along with dietary fibre, vitamins and minerals. The hempseed oil extracted from the achenes of cannabis usually has more than 80% of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Particularly, it is a rich source of α-linolenic acid and linoleic acid and has been used as a replacement for fish oil. Moreover, various clinical trials carried out on hempseed oil have signified its importance as a functional food and are often used for the treatment of disorders. The moisture content present in the seed at various stages such as harvest and pressing is typically around 15 and 10%, respectively. The presence of excess moisture content during processing would favour mould growth and is a possible reason for reduced shelf life. This article covers the challenges and adverse effects associated with the use of hempseed that include long-term stability issues and toxicity. One among the significant adverse effects includes the presence of a psychoactive compound such as Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Thus, the scope of this review is to highlight and focus on the significant findings that will contribute to broadening the application of hempseed for food applications and related health benefits.
Polyphenols are associated with a wide range of physiological properties. Catechins are a class of polyphenolic flavonoids predominantly found in foods and beverages that are chemically unstable. This study investigated the effects of thermal processing and pH on the structural changes to catechins and examined how these effects impact the antioxidant capacity of these molecules. The results indicated the total phenolic contents of catechin were increased after alkalifying and thermal processing. The catechin is modified by thermal processing in an alkaline environment. The chromatographic analysis demonstrated that basification and thermal processing reduced catechin, resulting in cleavage of the heterocyclic ring of the flavan‐3‐ols via oxidation cleavage of the ether bond. A novel reaction intermediate for this transformation is proposed.
Heating process and pH adjustment are used to meet hygienic requirements and maintain flavor during tea infusion processing in tea beverage manufacturing. Catechins account for the largest sum of polyphenols found in green tea. Basification and heating could catalyze the isomerization of catechin through an opened heterocyclic ring pathway. Catechin remains stable in acidic solutions during thermal processing, thus, avoiding changes of quality.
Addition of non-traditional raw-materials and flours into wheat flour follows contemporary trend of manufacturing nutritionally healthier fermented bakery products. Aim of the study follows this tendency, evaluating nutritional improvement of composite flour and baking potential of prepared wheat-hemp flour composites. Hemp products addition significantly increased both protein and dietary fibre contents. Between five types of hemp flour, differences were observed according to incorporated amount (wheat flour substitution from 5% to 20%). In composites containing 20% of hemp flour and dehulled hemp wholemeal, protein content increased to 14.9% and to 15.7%, respectively (compared to 12.5% proteins in control wheat flour). Dietary fibre content change was governed unequivocally by addition level for both hemp flour and hemp wholemeal. Hemp wholemeal affected the solvent retention capacity (SRC) profile of the wheat flour used in a broader extent than hemp flour done, interacting moreover with addition level applied. Significant diminishing was measured for the sucrose and the lactic acid SRC, which describe physicochemical stage of starch and proteins in prepared composites. Addition of 5% and 20% of dehulled hemp wholemeal decreased the formed SRC from 112.0% to 102.3% and to 64.1%, and the latter SRC from 182.6% to 108.0 and to 78.3%, respectively. Smaller bread volume and worse shape were evaluated as the amount of hemp flour gradually increased; wholemeal form had more or less a positive effect. Correspondingly to that, crumb firmness measured by penetration test was found approximately half for hemp flour composite bread than for the hemp wholemeal ones.
Hemp fl our composition (20-30% proteins, 7-13% fat and more than 40% saccharides) is a precondition for its usage into non-traditional cereal products. Corresponding to the fact, that hemp proteins are represented mostly by edestin, a low-molecular globulin, technological behaviour of composites containing 5-20% of hemp fl our is basically diff erent. The eff ect was clearly refl ected in specifi c bread volume decrease, comparing standard wheat bread vs. wheat-hemp one. Sensorial profi le of such fortifi ed product depends on hemp sample origin, the better one was observed for dehulled wholemeal hemp fl our addition. Image analysis of black-white bread cut prints revealed increasing pore densities (up to about 74%) at reversely diminishing mean cell areas (up to about 31%) for bread altered by hulled wholemeal hemp fl our. Comparing to wheat standard W2, crumb appearance of bread enhanced by 5% and 20% of dehulled hemp wholemeal was described by conversely lower cell density (11 and 9 vs. 13 pores per cm2) with verifi ably larger cells (3.13 a 4.25 mm2 against 2.35 mm2). Specifi c bread volume and crumb penetration were signifi cantly correlated to both cell density (r -0.69 and -0.65, respectively; P = 99.9 %) and to cell mean area (0.79 and 0.69, respectively; P = 99.9 %).
The functional food development is one of the most interesting fi elds of the food industry. The knowledge of the effects of processing is essential
in order to optimize the conditions and to obtain functional foods rich in bioactive compounds. Many functional buckwheat derived bakery and non-
-bakery products have been put into production including buckwheat enhanced breads, biscuits, snacks, noodles, tea, tarhana, sprouts, and fi nally
buckwheat honey. This article reviews the studies carried out in the past few years in relation to the effects of processing on bioactive compounds
in buckwheat derived bakery and non-bakery products, and on their overall nutritional value and consumer acceptance. Finally, the future trends
in buckwheat processing are addressed.
Parameters of Wheat Flour, Dough, and Bread Fortified by Buckwheat and Millet Flours
The composite flours were created from basic wheat flour and from buckwheat and millet flours used as additives in the weight ratio of 5-30%. Basic technological parameters of flours (ash content, wet gluten, gluten swelling, sedimentation index, falling number), rheological properties of dough, and sensory parameters of baked bread loaves (weight, specific volume, aroma, taste, structure) were studied. Additives influenced all traits of flours, doughs, and baked breads. From the technological and sensory points of view, baked breads with the addition of buckwheat were accepted up to the addition of 20% and breads with millet up to 5% (even though taste and flavour were accepted up to 15% addition).
Production of part-baked bread is a successful method to postpone bread staling that has been applied widely for production of loaves. In this research, production and some physical characteristics of part-baked flat bread (Barbari) including hardness, volume, color, weight loss, and microstructure were studied during the storage of the samples at ambient (25ºC) and freezing (-18ºC) temperatures. The part-baked bread had higher moisture content than the control and full-baked breads. However, it had a shelf-life of 72 hours, which was shorter than the control at ambient temperature. Full-baking could level out the effects of staling and, hence, the quality of the full-baked bread was similar to that of the fresh bread. For the frozen samples, the optimum storage time was two months. The undesirable effects of frozen storage were more significant for the part-baked bread. Moreover, full-baking could compensate some of the adverse effects of freezing and the resultant bread had superior quality compared with the control.
The many health benefits to be derived from millet and fermented food are well-documented. As a consequence of this, a novel method for the preparation of composite wheat-millet bread was designed on the basis of the use of millet-based yeast-fermented leaven. Bread was produced with 30% share of millet flour and evaluated in terms of the following physical parameters: bread mass and volume, textural properties of crumb, degree of crumb staling, and index of crumb texture homogeneity. The obtained results confirmed that it is possible to produce mixed bread from the millet-based yeast-fermented leaven. The results were dependent on flour properties, and from wheat flour of high gluten content and high falling number, bread of sufficient quality was obtained. Further studies could be proposed on rheological measurements of dough and estimation of biological activity of bread prepared from millet-based yeast-fermented leaven. Methods using yeast-fermented leaven prepared from millet flour with different origin and other types of flour should be tested for other composite wheat breads.
This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of heat treatment on polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity in grape pomace (GP) and grape seed extract (GSE). GP and GSE were heat treated in a furnace or autoclaved at 100 °C for 15, 30 and 60 min. Structural modifications of the polyphenols during thermal processes were determined by HPLC–MS, and the antioxidant activity was determined by ABTS, DPPH and photochemiluminescence methods. In general, furnace thermal treatment of GSE and GP did not affect the total extractable polyphenols content, tannin content, procyanidin components and the antioxidant activity. Autoclave treatment caused an extensive hydrolysis of gallocatechin (70%), catechin (61%), epicatechin (65%), procyanidin B1 (75%) and procyanidin B2 (73%) in GSE, and an increase in gallic acid (71%), gallocatechin (100%) and epicatechin gallate (129%) in GP. Autoclave treatment did not affect the antioxidant activity of GSE or GP. It can be concluded that the effect of autoclave was more severe than furnace heat treatment modifying the phenolic profile in a different manner depending on the grape seed product used. These modifications were not related with changes in antioxidant activity.
Hempseed oil is a rich and balanced source of omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Anecdotal evidence indicated that dietary hempseed oil might be useful in treating symptoms of atopic dermatitis.
Dietary hempseed oil and olive oil were compared in a 20-week randomized, single-blind crossover study with atopic patients. Fatty acid profiles were measured in plasma triglyceride, cholesteryl and phospholipid fractions. A patient questionnaire provided additional information on skin dryness, itchiness and usage of dermal medications. Skin transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was also measured.
Levels of both essential fatty acids (EFAs), linoleic acid (18:2n6) and alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n3), and gamma-linolenic acid (GLA; 18:3n6) increased in all lipid fractions after hempseed oil, with no significant increases of arachidonic acid (20:4n6) in any lipid fractions after either oil. Intra-group TEWL values decreased (p=0.074), qualities of both skin dryness and itchiness improved (p=0.027) and dermal medication usage decreased (p=0.024) after hempseed oil intervention.
Dietary hempseed oil caused significant changes in plasma fatty acid profiles and improved clinical symptoms of atopic dermatitis. It is suggested that these improvements resulted from the balanced and abundant supply of PUFAs in this hempseed oil.
The aim of the study was to use hemp flour and hemp protein concentrate as natural nutritional and structure-forming agents in gluten-free starch bread and to determine their impact on rheological properties of dough and quality and staling rate of bread crumb. The influence of hemp preparations on rheological characteristics of gluten-free dough was significant. Replacing a portion of starch with hemp flour resulted in a weakening of dough structure, which became more susceptible to deformation, while 20% share of hemp protein concentrate reinforced the structure of the tested dough. The presence of both investigated hemp preparations significantly improved nutritional value of bread. The changes involved increased levels of fiber from 15.2 up to 61.0 g/kg, and dietary fiber from 29.3 to 90.0 g/kg. Supplementation of bread with hemp protein favorably influenced the color of crumb by reducing its lightness from 62.3 to 40.8 and increased bread volume from 633 to 878 mL. Bread enriched with hemp preparations was characterized by improved sensory acceptance, especially in respect to color and flavor. Supplementation of starch bread with preparations based on hemp limited crumb hardening and amylopectin recrystallization during storage.
Hemp seed cake remaining after oil pressing was processed in the laboratory conditions to obtain hemp flour that influence the rheological properties of wheat dough, and the quality of bread was studied. The obtained hemp flour was mixed with wheat flour at different hemp/wheat flour ratios (0/100, 5/95, 10/90 and 20/80). The obtained results indicated that hemp flour affected water absorption and dough development time, and consequently bread volume, color and structural and textural properties of bread crumb regardless of the level of substitution. However, the presence of hemp flour in formulation, as being nongluten flour, did not necessarily distort all rheological properties. In this context, dough stability and dough strength were not significantly affected by the addition of hemp flour up to 10%, whereas substitution level of 20% resulted in the decrease (P<0.05) of these parameters. Bread supplemented with hemp flour had higher nutritional value and provided elevated intake of important nutrients such as proteins and macro- and microelements, especially iron.
Red sweet peppers are good sources of antioxidant compounds, such as fibre and carotenoids. Therefore, innovative products that may replace traditional ones, such as white sauces enriched with red sweet pepper, should be developed to improve their functionality. The aim of this work was to study the rheological behaviour, microstructure, syneresis, colour, sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of new white sauces enriched with red sweet pepper. The results of the rheological studies (viscoelastic behaviour) showed that in the available frequency window all the sauces showed a predominance of the elastic modulus versus the viscous modulus. The effect of incorporating red pepper on the rheological properties depended upon the type of starch used. Microstructure of native starch sauces showed a complex matrix composed of protein and amylose and amylopectin leached from the granules that have been disintegrated during the sauce elaboration. Fat globules were homogenously dispersed and associated with the protein phase. Modified starch sauces showed more swollen starch granules compared with native starch sauces and a protein matrix stabilising the fat globules. All the sauces exhibited considerable intrinsic autofluorescence due to the presence of carotenoids from the red pepper. Consumers scored the modified starch sauces regardless of the starch concentrations based on their highest overall liking and found them beneficial for health. Therefore, new white sauces with high nutritional value, high acceptability, good rheological properties and stability against syneresis could be formulated using red pepper and modified starch.
Staling of bread is a highly complex phenomenon that is not yet fully understood. This study examined the effect of staling on thermal (DSC) and thermo-physical (DMA) properties of bread. The staling process increased water migration from the crumb to the crust and increased unfreezable water (UFW) fraction. Amylopectin retrogradation incremented during bread staling, and it was showed that the loss in freezable water (FW) was caused from water incorporation into the starch crystalline structure and water migration from the crumb to the crust. DMA was able to follow the shrinking behavior of bread crumb during freezing. Crumb shrank through the entire cooling and freezing process. The matrix shifts through their freezing process incremented the rate of their contraction, probably due to the matrix dehydration as consequence of ice formation. The ageing process changes the thermo-mechanical profile of the crumb, and it was showed that a greater amount of retrogradated starch, affected significantly the contraction capacity of bread crumb.
Hempseed offers a unique nutritional package, in terms of dietary oil, protein, vitamins and minerals, which can be produced at high latitudes (> 50° latitude). Hempseed oil is highly unsaturated and contains both essential fatty acids (linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid) in a nutritionally balanced ratio, in addition to considerable amounts of biochemically important gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) and stearidonic acid (SDA). The protein in hempseed is complete, in that it contains all of the essential amino acids in nutritionally significant amounts, and lacks the nutritional inhibiting factors found in soya. Hempseed could become a viable replacement for imported soya in Northern Europe, particularly as feed stock for animals.
Definition of texture is reviewed, and a system for classification of textural characteristics of foods is described. The system is based on fundamental rheological principles, and at the same time is suitable for routine use. Textural characteristics are defined and classified into mechanical and geometrical qualities as well as those related to the moisture and fat content of a product. The mechanical characteristics are subdivided into the primary parameters of hardness, cohesiveness, viscosity, elasticity, and adhesiveness, and into the secondary parameters of brittleness, chewiness, and gumminess. It is pointed out that popular terms used to describe texture often denote degrees of intensity of these characteristics. The proposed classification lends itself to use with both objective and subjective methods of texture characterization.
The beneficial health effects of β-glucan, a major non-starch polysaccharide in barley, have become the focus of much attention in recent years, with the incorporation of barley fractions into baked products being a growing area in the development of healthier food products. In this study, flour formulations, doughs and breads were produced using the “middling” fraction (M) of wholegrain (WM) and pearled (PM) barley in different ratios (15%, 30%, 45% and 60% middlings with wheat flour). A 100% wheat formulation was used as a control. The protein content differed significantly (P < 0.01) between formulations (i.e. the amount of barley middlings substituted for flour) but did not differ significantly between WM and PM formulations of the same inclusion level. Starch pasting properties were significantly affected by the increased inclusion of barley middlings (BM) into the formulation. Fundamental dough rheology of the samples also showed significant differences between doughs made from different BM levels, with doughs containing BM having increased firmness, decreased resistance to extension and decreased elasticity. Bread quality was not significantly affected by the addition of up to 30% BM, the loaf volume and textural properties in particular of breads up to 30% BM inclusion were of a suitable standard when compared to the control. Both fibre and β-glucan content of the breads was increased significantly with the inclusion of BM; inclusion of BM at a 30% level increased the fibre and β-glucan contents, respectively.
The molecular basis of staling is examined by reviewing what is known about the components of wheat flour, factors that affect staling rate, and the various mechanisms that have been proposed. The conclusion reached is that bread staling is a complex phenomenon in which multiple mechanisms operate. Polymer crystallizations with the formation of supermolecular structures are certainly involved. The most plausible hypothesis is that retrogradation of amylopectin occurs, and because water molecules are incorporated into the crystallites, the distribution of water is shifted from gluten to starch/amylopectin, thereby changing the nature of the gluten network. The role of additives may be to change the nature of starch protein molecules, to function as plasticizers, and/or to retard the redistribution of water between components. Nothing more definite can be concluded at this time.
The seed of Cannabis sativa L. has been an important source of nutrition for thousands of years in Old World cultures. Non-drug varieties of Cannabis, commonly referred to as hemp, have not been studied extensively for their nutritional potential in recent years, nor has hempseed been utilized to any great extent by the industrial processes and food markets that have developed during the 20th century. Technically a nut, hempseed typically contains over 30% oil and about 25% protein, with considerable amounts of dietary fiber, vitamins and minerals. Hempseed oil is over 80% in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and is an exceptionally rich source of the two essential fatty acids (EFAs) linoleic acid (18:2 omega-6) and alpha-linolenic acid (18:3 omega-3). The omega-6 to omega-3 ratio (n6/n3) in hempseed oil is normally between 2:1 and 3:1, which is considered to be optimal for human health. In addition, the biological metabolites of the two EFAs, gamma-linolenic acid (18:3 omega-6; GLA) and stearidonic acid (18:4 omega-3; SDA), are also present in hempseed oil. The two main proteins in hempseed are edestin and albumin. Both of these high-quality storage proteins are easily digested and contain nutritionally significant amounts of all essential amino acids. In addition, hempseed has exceptionally high levels of the amino acid arginine. Hempseed has been used to treat various disorders for thousands of years in traditional oriental medicine. Recent clinical trials have identified hempseed oil as a functional food, and animal feeding studies demonstrate the long-standing utility of hempseed as an important food resource.
Several honey samples (27) from Burkina Faso were analyzed to determine their total phenolic, flavonoid and proline contents as well as their radical scavenging activity. These samples consisted of 18 multifloral, 2 honeydew and 7 unifloral honeys, derived in the latter cases from flowers of Combretaceae, Vitellaria, Acacia and Lannea plant species. The total phenolic contents varied considerably with the highest values obtained for honeydew honey. Similarly, much variation was seen in total flavonoid and proline content, with Vitellaria honey having the highest proline content. Vitellaria honey was also found to have the highest antioxidant activity and content. The correlation between radical scavenging activity and proline content was higher than that for total phenolic compounds. This suggests that the amino acid content of honey should be considered more frequently when determining its antioxidant activity.
The effect of time and temperature on the content of vitamin C, total polyphenols and individual phenolic compounds as well as on the antioxidant activity of two commercial orange juices was studied. The polyphenol content was determined using Folin–Ciocalteu and HPLC methods. The two methods, SPE versus direct injection following a simple treatment of samples, were compared to assess two techniques of sample preparation. For antioxidant capacity determination, DPPH and FRAP assays were used. All analyses were carried out for fresh juices and after storage at 18, 28 and 38 °C for 2, 4 and 6 months. It was found that vitamin C and free and conjugated hydroxycinnamic acids were the most affected by both duration and temperature of storage. The decrease in the content of polyphenols and vitamin C upon storage was reflected by the decrease in the antioxidant capacity of orange juices. Small changes in flavanone content were observed, indicating high stability of these compounds upon storage.
The nearly ubiquitous consumption of cereals all over the world gives cereals an important position in international nutrition. Besides the high starch content as energy source, cereals provide dietary fibre, nutritious protein and lipids rich in essential fatty acids. Important micronutrients present in cereals are vitamins, especially many B vitamins, minerals, antioxidants and phytochemicals. In general, cereals provide important amounts of most nutrients. However, processing may decrease or increase the levels of the bioactive components in grains and also modify the bioavailability of these components. In addition, interactions between bread and companion foods have effects on the nutritional quality. The aim of this paper is to review the existing literature on the effects of processing techniques and interactions with other food components in a mixed meal on the nutritional quality of bread. Furthermore, research findings on the consumer perception of bread in Belgium are included. This information can help health professionals and policy-makers to give clear and targeted advice about the positive effects of bread in the human nutrition during consultations and information campaigns.
The kinetics of changes in total antioxidant activity as assessed by DPPH radical and brown pigment formation (BPF) in honey heated at different temperatures (50, 60 and 70 °C) for up to 12 days were studied. Antioxidant activity and BPF increased with treatment temperature and time. BPF increased following zero-order kinetics with the activation energy value of 122 kJ/mol−1 at 50–70 °C. However, antioxidant activity variation showed different trends according to heating temperatures following second-order, first-order and zero-order kinetics at 50, 60 and 70 °C, respectively. Heating of honey at 70 °C was found to be more effective than 50 and 60 °C for both two parameters. The results demonstrated that antioxidant activity was correlated with increased browning of the samples.
Nitric oxide (NO) is a pivotal signaling messenger in the cardiovascular system. NO participates in regulatory functions including control of hemostasis, fibrinolysis, platelet and leukocyte interactions with the arterial wall, regulation of vascular tone, proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells, and homeostasis of blood pressure. Diminished NO bioavailability and abnormalities in NO-dependent signaling are among central factors of vascular disease, although it is unclear whether this is a cause of, or result of endothelial dysfunction or both pathogenic events. Disturbances in NO bioavailability have been linked to cause endothelial dysfunction, leading to increased susceptibility to atherosclerotic lesion progression, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes mellitus, thrombosis and stroke.
In many countries, baby cereals are the first solid food given to 3-4-month-old babies after weaning and to infants aged 6-12 months. Various simple technologies are traditionally used in the processing of cereals, including toasting, hydrolysis, and drying. In this study color and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) assays have been used to evaluate heat effects induced during the manufacture of these foods. The baby cereals analyzed were wheat, rice, oat, and four mixtures of flours. No HMF was detected in the raw flours. Toasting the flours increased HMF values by between 1.1 and 4.53 mg/kg and color (DeltaE) values by 2.51-9.34. The drying step increased HMF values by between 1.14 and 19.60 mg/kg. High values of HMF coincided with the addition of ingredients containing HMF. Color and HMF contents in sugar-amino acid model systems were much higher than in sugar systems at temperatures >100 degrees C and low moisture content.
Polyphenols are the most abundant dietary antioxidants and research on their role in the prevention of degenerative diseases has developed quickly over these last few years. This paper reviews the recent studies on the prevention of cardiovascular diseases by polyphenols, focusing on human studies.
A large number of recent intervention studies have shown that several biomarkers of cardiovascular risk are influenced by the consumption of polyphenol-rich foods. Effects on biomarkers of oxidative stress, lipemia and inflammation appear so far inconclusive. More consistent effects have been observed on endothelial function and haemostasis and support a reduction of risk by polyphenols in agreement with the few epidemiological studies already published. All clinical studies have used foods or beverages containing a mixture of different polyphenols and the exact nature of the most active compounds remains largely unknown. Absorption, metabolism and elimination vary widely between polyphenols. These data on bioavailability should be taken into account to improve the experimental design and the interpretation of the observed effects.
Future intervention studies should include a detailed assessment of the bioavailability of polyphenols. Beyond clinical trials carried out with polyphenol-rich foods, more studies with pure polyphenols will also be needed to establish their role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases.
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The comparison of quality and chemical composition of breads baked with residual and commercial oat flours and wheat flour
Effect of pseudo cereal flours on technological, chemical and sensory properties of pan bread