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Phytochemical & therapeutic potentials of Murr makki (Commiphora myrrha): A review

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Abstract

Commiphora myrrha is an important medicinal plant used in traditional system of medicine since Bible times, first described in Chinese medical literature in 600 AD. It belongs to the family Burseraceae. Murr is an oleo gum resin obtained from bark of this plant. Unani physicians mentioned its use in gynecological diseases like amenorrhea, menorrhagia, leucorrhea, pelvic inflammatory disease, cervical stenosis; as an abortificient and galactogogue; in treatment of wounds and ulcers, and also in various gastrointestinal, urinary tract and respiratory disorders due to its properties like detergent, desiccant, carminative, anti inflammatory, astringent, analgesic, anti septic, diuretic, emmenagogue, expectorant, etc . Pharmacological studies proved that it has antitumor, immunomodulatory, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, cytotoxic, antibacterial, hepatoprotective, antimicrobial and anti-ulcer activities due to the presence of volatile oil, tannins, phenols, steroids, terpenoids, carbohydrates, resins etc.. The present review focuses on traditional uses of Murr as mentioned in Unani literature in scientific manner
PHYTOCHEMICAL AND THERAPEUTIC POTENTIALS OF MURR MAKKI
(COMMIPHORA MYRRHA): A REVIEW
Tooba Fahad*
P.G. Scholar, Dept of Ilmul Qabalat wa Amraze Niswan, National Institute of Unani
Medicine, Kottigepalya, Magadi Road, Bengaluru. Karnataka. India.560091
*Corresponding Author
Original Research Paper
Unani Medicine
INTRODUCTION:
Commiphora myrrha is a big tree, derived from genus Commiphora, is
the most species-rich genus of flowering plants in the family
Burseraceae. The word myrrha is derived from arabic word murr
means bitter and it has been used throughout the history in incense and
perfume. Greek soldiers would not go to the battle without a poultice of
1
murr to put on their wounds. Also known as Balsamodendron
2,3,4 3,5,6
myrrha, Commiphora molmol In Unani system of medicine , it is
termed as 'Murr' is an oleo gum resin obtained from bark of tree
7
Commiphora myrrha (Myrrh), first described in Chinese medical
literature in 600 AD.
Murr: Plant, leaves & oleo gum
Ethanobotanical descriptions: Small tree or a large shrub,3,5,7 not
reaching more than 9 feet in height, but with a trunk of considerable
thickness, numerous irregular, knotted branches, smaller branchlets
clustered, stout, spreading nearly at right angles, and terminating in a
sharp spine; bark smooth, thin, flaking off in small portions, pale
orange brown, becoming ash grey when detached. Leaves about ½
inch long, trifoliate, leaflets sessile, unequal, but the terminal ones
3
more or less toothed. Flowers not seen, the phloem (inner most layer
of bark) contains schizogenous ducts and lysigenous cavities which
8
are filled with yellowish granular resinous liquid.
Habitat: 3,7,9,10
The genus Commiphora is mainly found in Arabia,
3,7 7 11
Somaliland, Ethiopia, Abyssina, Persia, Siam, to some extent in
Northern Kenya.7The bushes grow on very hot and sunny places, at an
12 9
elevation of 1500-3000 feet. The specimens were collected in March.
The oleogum resin is obtained by making incision in the bark, or it
appears spontaneously from the cracks or fissures formed in the bark.
1,8,13,14,15,16
At first it is liquid exudes and hardens to a reddish brown mass.
Myrrh occurs in irregular masses, external surface is rough and
reddish brown, covered with yellowish dust. Pieces are brittle,
fractured surface is waxy, granular and oily with whitish marks. It is
16-19 2
bitter and pleasant in taste with aromatic odour.
Temperament:
014 016,20 0 14,16,20
Hot 3 / 2 Dry 2
Therapeutic dosage: 16 18,21 15 22
1- 2 g, 1-2 g, Upto 1 g, 5-15g
Chemical constituents:
The main active constituents include volatile oil (cuminic aldehyde,
eugenol, metacresol, pinene, limonene, diterpenes, and sesquiterpenes).
1,4,7,18,23,24; resin up to 40% (ether soluble portion: α, β and γ commiphoric
1,4,7,18,25
acids and esters of another resin acid and two phenolic resins). gums
1,4,7,12,26
up to 60%(associated with enzyme oxidase, polysaccharides). , and
7,23,24 19,27
bitter principle. Other constituents include Flavonoids Alkaloids
19, 26, 27 19 7, 19 7,1 9,2 7
Tannin s Glyc osi des Ster oid s Sa pon ins Terpeno ids
2,7,19,23, 26
(sesquiterpenes, furanosesquiterpenoids) (Su et al., 2009).
Carbohydrates7 Organic compounds (limonene, curzerene, germacrine B,
isocericeni ne, myrceno l, beta s elinene, sp athulenol), Minera ls
(Magnesium, Potassium, Sodium, Manganese, Zinc, Calcium and
Phosphorus, Aluminum, Scandium, Chlorine, Arsenic, mercury , lead
28
etc).
Ac ti o ns : 1,5,27,19,23,26,29 7,26,28
an tif ung al , ant ib act eri al cy tot oxi c,
3,12,26,30 3,4
bacteriostatic, antiviral, expectorant, stimulant, leucocytogenic,
30 12
aphrodisi ac, diuretic, deodorant, ophthalmic, ant ispasmodic,
24 14,15,16,18,31 3,12,15,16,18,26,30,32
antidermatophyte desiccant, carminative, anti
3,12 ,13 ,14 ,16 ,17 ,26 ,30 3, 12, 14, 26, 30 1, 14
infla mma tor y, astringent analgesic, anti
1 , 1 3 , 1 4 , 1 5 , 1 6 , 1 8 , 2 6 , 3 0 , 3 1 1 4 , 1 5 , 1 8 , 3 1 1 4
s e p ti c, d i ur et i c, a n ti tu s si ve ,
3,12,13 ,14,15 ,16,18, 30,28, 31 14,3 3,14,19
emmenagogue expectorant, 1blood purifier,
3,16,18,31 16 31 19
anthelminthic deobstruent, brain tonic , abortive
USES:
Urogenital disorders:
ŸAmenorrhea: Murr is used with elwa and iron component to
14,17,18,24,31,33,34
induce menstruation, if cause is qillate dam.
14,33
Ÿ 1.75 g of murr with baiza neem barisht or Menorrhagia:
31
roghane kunjad is beneficial to arrest excessive menstrual blood
loss.
ŸOleo-gum resin act as emmenagogue and antispasmodic, hence
3,7,8,13,25,30,33
used for irregular & painful menstruation.
12,13,14,18,33
Ÿ Murr is beneficial in PID, leucorrhoea Uterine infections:
12,14and cervical stenosis.
ŸAbortificient: Murr causes expulsion of janin wa masheema as it
is bitter in taste.
ŸLocal application of murr is beneficial to remove bad smell of farj
17,18,24 17
(humool form), as well as rahim (douche with na'na) .
19
ŸUseful in treatment of UTI
Gastrointestinal disorders:
ŸMyrrh mixed with equal parts of honey and rectified spirit and
dissolved in rose water or infusion of rose petals (50 parts) is
11,13,26
effective in stomatitis.
ŸMurr is useful in diseases of spleen, kidney, urinary bladder
,11 ,17,24
(urinary retention renal pain cystitis) & intestine (seheje
,24 .17,24
ama'a muzmin diarrhea )
12 1,3,12,13,25
ŸGI diseases like dyspepsia, decreased appetite gall bladder
7,17,23,28
diseases.
Volume-8 | Issue-9 | September-2018 | 86 18ISSN - 2249-555X | IF : 5.397 | IC Value : .
KEYWORDS : Commiphora myrrha, Murr, Unani text
Commiphora myrrha is an important medicinal plant used in traditional system of medicine since Bible times, first
described in Chinese medical literature in 600 AD. It belongs to the family Burseraceae. Murr is an oleo gum resin
obtained from bark of this plant. Unani physicians mentioned its use in gynecological diseases like amenorrhea, menorrhagia, leucorrhea, pelvic
inflammatory disease, cervical stenosis; as an abortificient and galactogogue; in treatment of wounds and ulcers, and also in various
gastrointestinal, urinary tract and respiratory disorders due to its properties like detergent, desiccant, carminative, anti inflammatory, astringent,
analgesic, anti septic, diuretic, emmenagogue, expectorant, etc . Pharmacological studies proved that it has antitumor, immunomodulatory,
antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, cytotoxic, antibacterial, hepatoprotective, antimicrobial and anti-ulcer activities due to the presence of
volatile oil, tannins, phenols, steroids, terpenoids, carbohydrates, resins etc.. The present review focuses on traditional uses of Murr as mentioned
in Unani literature in scientific manner.
ABSTRACT
Ismath Shameem
Lecturer, Dept of Ilmul Qabalat wa Amraze Niswan, National Institute of Unani
Medicine, Kottigepalya, Magadi Road, Bengaluru. Karnataka. India.560091
102
INDIAN JOURNAL OF APPLIED RESEARCH
ŸMurr with su haga or gulqand is used in indigestion an d
co ns tip ati on due t o it s ja li , des ic c an t, a nd a nti s ep tic
16,17,19,32
properties; even it kills intestinal worms when used with
16,17,19,20, 21,24 24
arand. Murr is used with arqe charaita in yarqan zard.
Respiratory disorders:
7,7,23,28
ŸIt is used in chest ailments as an expectorant in respiratory
13
tract infections especially asthma chronic cough, and also in
diphtheria ,tonsillitis, pharyngitis, common cold, bronchitis.
1,4,7,12,13,17,18,19,20,24,26, 32,38
Ear diseases:
ŸMurr is beneficial in ear abscess or ottorhoea, when used with
jundbedastar or maameesa and afyun in the form of ear drops
17,24,32
(Jalinoos).
Eye diseases:
ŸMurr is beneficial in eye diseases; like in ulcers of eye with other
drugs in kahl form due to its desiccant and jali properties; in
cataract, when eyes are washed after dissolving murr in milk and
in infraorbital hemorrhage, mixture of murr with aabe mooli is
17,18,20, 24
applied over the eyes.
Skin diseases:
Ÿ Murr is one of the best drug to eliminate Wounds and ulcers:
1,4,5,24,26,28,30,32, ,
infection, hence beneficial in all types of ulcers when
17
used in the form of paste with kundur, or aabe dhaniya taaza or
24
karafs taaza; even murr with sirka in ringworm and roghane gul
8 17,24
in scabies. Paste is useful in non healing ulcers, malignant
32 17,24
ulcer, hence, it is used in the preparation of qabid marahim.
4,7,12,24,33
effective in skin infections (acne, boils, pressure sores),
28 1,5,7,10,24,28,30,33 5,10,26
burns, painful swellings, and athletes foot. Because
of astringent and disinfectant action, especially its alcoholic
tincture is used in skin applications even in snake and scorpion
7,23,28,33
bites.
ŸMurr is useful in ulcers of head & remove dandruff, when applied
over the scalp after dissolving in makhkhan and mixed with
3,8,21,24, 31,32
zeera.
Ÿ Murr strengthen the hair & prevents hair fall, if applied Hair fall:
14,16,24,30,32,33
with roghane aas, lazan and sharab.
ŸLocal application of murr is useful, with lehej, pyaz dashti (onion
squill) & shehed in warts, with sharab and phitkiri remove bad
smell of axilla and inguinal region. Paste of murr with tezab shura
17,24,32
in lymphadenopathy & scrofula.
ŸMurr is beneficial in epidemic diseases, if used with other drugs in
16,18,19
the form of pills due to its antiseptic property.
Musculoskeletal system:
ŸMurr possess anti inflammatory, deobstruent and musakhkhin
16
properties, hence, useful as zimad in awrame balghami like
.16,17,21,24
arthritis, gout and sciatica
7,23,28 23
ŸUseful in backache, muscular pains and spasms.
OTHERS:
Ÿ Murr increases milk secretion if used with Galactogogue:
17,24
jaggery.
ŸDecoction of murr strengthens the teeth & remove bad odour of
16,19,24,31-33
mouth.
ŸMyrrh mixed with equal parts of honey and rectified spirit and
dissolved in rose water or infusion of rose petals (50 parts) is good
11,13,26
for mouth wash Murr mixed with arqe gulab is used in
16,19,24,31,32,33
aphthous ulcers.
16,17,24,31,33
ŸGargle of murr is useful in istirkhae halaq; when gargle of
murr is combined with sirkae unsul or soya or joshanda beekhe
24
hilyun (Asparagus officinalis) or zanjar prevents falling of teeth.
ŸMyrrh has stimulant and antiseptic properties and hence used in
the preparation of toothpaste and tinctures for the treatment of
3,18
gingivitis
ŸMurr, seeds of ilaichi, banslochan are mixed and grinded and used
17,24
orally with honey in general weakness.
2,4 7,28
ŸIt is helpful in hypertension, hyperlipidemia or obesity, fever,
headaches
5,6,8,30,31
ŸUsed in preparation of perfumes, incense, mouth washes etc.
Uses of leaves:
ŸLeaves of murr strengthen the stomach, act as carminative,
32
remove fuzlaat & toxins of snake and scorpion bite; stops
menstrual bleeding if used in humool form, its extract (in the form
of sao'ot) is useful in epistaxis.
ŸLeaves are used in marz kamzorie khoon with iron, in gargle form
in qula, quruhe zuban, iltihabi liththa, istirkhae halaq (with gulab
17
and tincture cincona).
Pharmacological studies:
Ÿ C. myrrha was reported to have cytotoxicity Cytotoxic activity:
activity on human gynecologic cancer cell on clinical trial due to
the presence of two compounds of diterpene resin acid, which
7
significantly inhibit proliferation of human ovarian cancer.
Ÿ Khatoon et al. reported that Murr is Emmenagogue activity:
effective in PCOD related secondary amenorrhea when used in
combination with Muqil and Abhal. This combination induced
withdrawal bleeding along with menstrual regulation due to the
presence of steroids and flavonoids. Moreover, Murr contains
phy to st erols, saponins, terpen oi ds , lig nans an d p he no li c
compounds; and glycosides and alkaloids in Abhal which exerts
hormone like action in the body and thus withdrawal bleeding and
35
menstrual regulation.
Ÿ Ethanol extract of C. molmol exhibit Antioxidant activity:
antioxidant activity on in vitro study due to the presence of
23
phenolic and flavonoid contents.
Ÿ The methanolic extract of C. myrrha Anti-microbial activity:
demonstrated antimicrobial activity against E. coli, S. aureus, B.
19
cereus, E. coli, & K. pnuemoniae due to the presence of broad
spectrum antimicrobial compounds that act against gram negative
23
bacteria. Even its petroleum ether extract showed antibacterial
effect against S. aureus, E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa; and
26
antifungal to Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans.
Ÿ The ethanolic extract and essential oil of C. Anti-fungal activity:
myrrh reported to have antifungal effect against T. rubrum, T.
mentagrophytes, M. canis, M. gypseum, and T.verrucosum on in
vitro study due to the presence of furanoeudesma 1,3diene and
menthofuran in myrrh oil while 2-tert-butyl-1,4-napthoquinone,
benzene methanol, 3-methoxy-α-phenyl, and curzerene in myrrh
24
ethanol extract. Petroleum ether and methanol extracts of oleo-
gum resins of C. myrrha revealed antifungal activity against of
Aspergillus species: A. flavus, A.fumigatus, A.terreus and A.niger
29
on in vitro study.
Ÿ C. myrrha extract exhibit anti-Anti inflammatory activity:
inflammatory effect as evident by decrease in volume of paw
edema induced by formalin in rats probably due to an inhibition of
1,10
release of inflammatory mediator PGs.
ŸAnalgesic activity: C. molmol extract exhibit analgesic activity in
rats due to the presence of bioactive compounds that raised pain
threshold by depressing pain receptors centrally in the brain and
also by inhibiting the release of prostaglandins (Pgs). Thus C.
molmol extract appeared to produce analgesic effect through both
central and peripheral mechanisms.
Ÿ C. myrrha significantly decreased Anti hyperlipidemic activity:
the body weight gain, normalized the high levels of blood lipids
and decreased atherogenic index, low-density lipoprotein/high-
density lipoprotein in obese hyperlipidemic rats due to the
10
presence of guggulsterones, plant sterol etc.
Ÿ Extract of myrrh exhibit significant Anti dysmenorrheic activity:
anti dysmenorrheic activity (Wang et al.2009) and inhibits uterine
7
contraction and aromatase activity. (Su et al.2008.)
Ÿ Com mipho ra myrrha trea tment H epa to pro tecti ve effec t:
improved liver histology towards more normalization in rats as
evident by a reduction in liver enzymes in a dose-dependent
manner. It increases hepatic antioxidant activity and decreases the
oxidative stress by down-regulation of important key players such
as TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, iNOS-2, and HO-1, which might be
sufficient to combat cellular damage. Histological recovery
towards normalization also suggests that C. myrrha extract may
protect parenchymal cells and improve liver tissue regeneration.
The hepatoprotective effect is due to the presence of flavonoids,
36
terpenoids and alkaloids
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION:
Murr appears to be one of the oldest medicines. The use was recorded
since ancient Rome and in the texts of Hippocrates. Murr and its
tincture have a very long history of medicinal uses. Unani physicians
have mentioned its uses in various systemic disorders. However,
scientific studies have proven its efficacy in some properties of drug.
Hence, further clinical trials are needed to prove other properties of
drug as mentioned by Unani physicians.
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... It is a brownish yellow in color, with aromatic balsamic odour and bitter taste. When combined or mixed with water, it forms an emulsion with different constituents, which include 2% to 8% volatile oil, 23 to 40% resin known as the myrrhin, 40% to 60% gum [7]. The essential oils found in myrrh are used for various purposes, which include cosmetics, perfumes, and secondary metabolites. ...
... It was used as a blood moving medicine because of its antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities [9]. Additionally, it is documented that although China is not the leading producer of myrrh, it has the largest market globally, primarily for its use in Chinese traditional medicine [7]. The extract of Myrrh is believed to have anti-cancer activities; hence its consumption induces apoptosis in different types of cancer cell lines, such as that of breast, lung, prostate, and pancreas cancer cell lines [7]. ...
... Additionally, it is documented that although China is not the leading producer of myrrh, it has the largest market globally, primarily for its use in Chinese traditional medicine [7]. The extract of Myrrh is believed to have anti-cancer activities; hence its consumption induces apoptosis in different types of cancer cell lines, such as that of breast, lung, prostate, and pancreas cancer cell lines [7]. More recent research investigating the chemical compounds and pharmacological properties of myrrh and fr a n k i n c en s e support their application in Chinese culture to treat cancer. ...
Article
This paper reviews the therapeutic effects of Commiphora myrrh in different diseases. It is organized by sub-themed sections: nature and history of myrrh, its use in different cultures, its chemical action, and effect on virus or/and bacteria, benefits of its utilization for respiratory problems and oral diseases. A literature research for the Myrrh or C. myrrh was performed using Cochrane Library databases and Medline. Forty two papers, including abstracts and full articles published from 2007 to 2020, in the area of interest were reviewed. It was found that Myrrh or C. myrrh is one of the medicinal plants believed to have therapeutic effects in various diseases. It has medicinal properties, such as immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic, antioxidant, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, anti-tumor, anti-ulcer, and analgesic activities. Besides, Myrrh has also shown to have antiviral properties that help in preventing different types of viral diseases. It noticed in the State of Qatar, sales of herbs and Myrrh has escalade since the surgency of COVID-19 cases, so is there a belief in Myrrh's effectiveness to be used during COVID-19? Studying the effectiveness of Myrrh mouthwashes to combat COVID-19 can emerge as a promising avenue in the field of research.
... Commiphora myrrha (Nees) Engl., also known as Balsamdendron Myrrha and Commiphora molmol, is a small tree or large shrub with many irregulars, tangled stems and a trunk of considerable thickness that does not exceed more than 9 feet high (Shen et al., 2012, Shameem, 2018. The leaves are around half an inch long, and there are no flowers. ...
... The phloem includes schizogenous tubules that are filled with yellowish finegrained resinous fluid and lysigenous cavities. Commiphora myrrha is a plant species of the genus Commiphora, from the family Burseraceae, and its distribution is primarily in semi-arid and arid areas, including southern Arabia, northern Somalia (the biggest supplier), India, Sudan, northern Kenya, and Ethiopia, growing at an altitude of 1500-3000 feet in very hot and sunny areas (Abdallah et al., 2009, Shen et al., 2012, Shalaby and Hammouda, 2014, Shameem, 2018, Prompetchara et al., 2020. After creating cuts in the branches of the Commiphora plant to allow the oleoresin to exude, exposed to air, and harden, myrrh can be harvested. ...
... After creating cuts in the branches of the Commiphora plant to allow the oleoresin to exude, exposed to air, and harden, myrrh can be harvested. The name Myrrh was created from the Arabic word (murr), meaning bitter (Shameem, 2018). Myrrh is mostly distinguished by its distinctive smell and, as shown in Fig. 1, hard reddish -brown-yellow surface (Shalaby and Hammouda, 2014). ...
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Myrrh is the resin derived from the branches and stems of a tree, known as Commiphora myrrha. It is Native to East/Northeast Africa, Southwest Asia (particularly Ethiopia, Somalia, and Kenya) and Arabia, Myrrha is usually imported as gum. Myrrha is considered as herbal medicine, myrrh, an oleo-reddish-brown gum resin, has a valuable role. After making incisions in the stem of the plant, causing oleoresin to exude and dry, it is extracted from the medicinal plant Commiphora myrrha. Pharmacological research has indicated that myrrh has analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, and hepatoprotective functions. The word Myrrh is derived from the Arabic "murr" meaning bitter, and its functions have been documented in the writings of Hippocrates since the time of ancient Rome. This material is marketed worldwide as a pharmaceutical plant, and customers purchase it because of its multiple benefits, having been licensed by the Food and Drug Admiration (FDA) for food use. In Arabia, Somali land, India, Ethiopia, Abyssinia, and to some degree in Northern Kenya, the tropical tree, Commiphora myrrha, grows. The use of myrrh in the treatment of pulmonary problems such as respiratory infections, in particular asthma, chronic cough, diphtheria, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, common cold, and bronchitis, and in gastrointestinal and genitourinary disorders has been identified by many Chinese, Unani, and Arabic physicians since 600 AD. The focus of this review is the immunoregulatory potential of the bioactive components of Commiphora myrrha and their efficacy in reducing inflammation risk.
... Rizwanullah et al. and Shah Alam et al. in their case studies used two different Unani formulas with Commiphora myrrh as main ingredient and proved to be very efficient in treating non-healing ulcers [25,26] . Anwar Ajaml et al. stated in their review article that Commiphora myrrh is recommended as a gastric ulcer remedy while Tooba Fahad et al. also concluded the same that Commiphora myrrh is beneficial in all types of ulcers [31,32] . ...
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There is an increasing trend in the world to use medicinal herbs in healthcare delivery system. Usage of medicinal herbs are although time tested for their safety, efficacy, social acceptability and lesser adverse effects, it should be scientifically validated for acceptance of by enlarge. Thus, it becomes essential to evaluate the claims of these herbal drugs mentioned in the classical text and pharmacopeias of indigenous medical systems using modern scientific techniques. Commiphora myrrha known as Mur Makki, is a common herb, which has been used in Unani medicine for its effects to cure various diseases from antiquity. This plant is also pharmacologically studied for its antiulcerogenic, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory properties. This review attempts to highlight the available literature on Commiphora myrrha with respect to its ethnobotany, pharmacognostic characteristics, traditional uses, chemical constituents and summary of its various pharmacologic activities and clinical effects and more focus was driven towards its ulcer healing property.
... Moreover, recent findings on EOs and their main elements have caught our attention to screen aromatic plants to elucidate their scientific and biological aspects, which could provide us a lead molecule with advantages over synthetic AED [5]. One such herb, Commiphora Myrrha, CM (family: Burseraceae) grows in the Middle-east and Africa and has a long history of medicinal application [6,7]. Phytochemical screening of myrrh showed the presence of 3-8% essential oils, 30-60% watersoluble gum, and 25-40% alcohol-soluble resins beside a series of metabolites including terpenoids, steroids, flavonoids, lignans, carbohydrates, and long-chain aliphatic alcohol derivatives were reported in Commiphora species [8]. ...
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Aim: The present study was undertaken to investigate the antiepileptic activity of the essential oil of the Oleo-gum-resin obtained from Commiphora Myrrha (CM) resins. Material and Methods: The essential oil from Commiphora Myrrha (EOCM) was isolated using the Clevenger apparatus. The anticonvulsant effect was examined against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ), strychnine, and maximal-electroshock (MES)-induced acute convulsions in mice. Flumazenil and diazepam were added to establish the anticonvulsant mechanism of EOCM. To understand the effect of EOCM on brain GABA level, intact mice brains were harvested and GABA level was determined. Results: EOCM has shown the maximum decline in spontaneous motor activity at 2 hours. EOCM has not shown any protection against the strychnine-induced model. In the PTZ model, mice treated with EOCM at medium (p<0.01) and high dose (p<0.001) have shown a significant and dose-dependent increase in the latency of tonic convulsions and a decline in % mortality compared to the control group. Against the MES model, EOCM at medium (p<0.05) and high doses (p<0.01) have shown a significant decline in the length of hind-limb tonic extension (HLTE) and % mortality compared to the control group. A high dose of EOCM + diazepam (0.5 mg/kg/bw) has shown a synergistic effect. Flumazenil drastically reverses the protection offered by EOCM and diazepam. Moreover, EOCM plain has increased GABA levels in the brain. Discussion: EOCM is very useful in the control of clonic seizures, and the effect is related to the GABA-A receptor Cl¯ channel modulating property and partly by increasing GABA levels in the brain.
... acid and two phenolic resins, gums (up to 60%); associated with enzyme oxidase, polysaccharides, and bitter principle. Other constituents include Flavonoids, Alkaloids, Tannins, Glycosides, Steroids, Saponins, Terpenoids (sesquiterpenes, furanosesquiterpenoids), Carbohydrates, 7 Organic compounds; limonene, curzerene, germacrineB, isocericenine, myrcenol, beta selinene, spathulenol, and Minerals; Magnesium, Potassium, Sodium, Manganese, Zinc, Calcium and Phosphorus, Aluminum, Scandium, Chlorine, Arsenic, mercury, lead etc. [28] PHARMACOLOGICAL STUDIES OF PRINCIPAL HERBS Antiviral Activity Several ingredients in Aloe gel are antiviral agent. Lectins, fractions of Aloe vera gel, directly inhibited the cytomegalo virus proliferation in cell culture, perhaps by interfering with protein synthesis [29]. ...
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Corona Virus Disease 2019 is an acute infectious disease caused by a novel corona virus; initially named 2019-nCov, later named SARS-CoV-2, which emerged in Wuhan, China and spread worldwide in very short time period. Clinically, it is characterized by asymptomatic, mild; symptoms of upper respiratory infection or digestive system, moderate; pneumonia, severe; pneumonia with hypoxemia, and critical; severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). 49 percent mortality rate was recorded in ARDS affected COVID-19 patients. The definite treatment and specific vaccine for COVID-19 are under investigation yet, the only known measure is prevention includes frequent hand washing, wear face mask, and social distancing etc. Tiryaq Wabayi is a Unani pahrmacopeal poly herbal formulation. Although, since ancient times it is recommended as prophylaxis during epidemics by eminent Unani scholars like Galen and Avicenna, but it may be more potential to combat epidemics including COVID-19. This article was aimed to review Tiryaq-e-Wabayi with scientific validation on the basis of their ingredients associated with Mizaj-e-Advia (temperament of drugs), phytochemical constituents, and pharmacological properties.
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BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Tiryaq-i-Afayee, a polyherbal formulation of Unani medicine used in the prevention and treatment of various wabāi amrād (epidemic/ pandemic diseases) since olden days. This review study has been carried out to explore the therapeutic efficacy of this formulation in the light of scientific studies. MATERIALS & METHODS: A total of 74 literature comprising classical Unani texts from the period of 9th – 20th century AD, and published research articles in various reputed journals from 1999 – 2020 AD were reviewed regarding immunomodulatory, antiviral, antiinfluenza, antioxidant, antitussive, antimicrobial effects of Tiryaq-i- Afayee, as a whole preparation and its individual ingredients. RESULTS: Tiryaq-i-Afayee contains Sibr Zard (Aloe vera) (2 parts), Murr Makki (Commiphora myrrha) (1 part) and Zafran (Crocus sativus) (1 part). It is prepared in the form of pill, and 2 g is used in alternate day for prevention and management of epidemic diseases. All the three ingredients of this compound formulation belong to plants and individually used for various medicinal purposes. DISCUSSION: A study revealed that Tiryaq-i-Afayee possesses significant immunomodulatory effect in a small group of immuno compromised persons. An ethanol extract of Aloe vera exhibited antiinfluenza effect against influenza A virus due to presence of aloe-emodine (anthraquinone glycoside). Certain studies have reported that Commiphora myrrha possesses significant antioxidant and antimicrobial effects against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Another study has revealed that Saffron extract exhibited promising antiviral activity due to presence of crocin and picrocrocin. CONCLUSION: The aforementioned classical and modern conventional materials have given plentiful information regarding use of Tiryaq-i-Afayee in the prevention of epidemic/ pandemic diseases.
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Background & Objective: An acute respiratory disease caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-Cov-2), the coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) originated in Wuhan, China and spread throughout the world. On 30th January 2020, World Health Organization (WHO) officially declared the COVID-19 pandemic as a public health emergency of international concern. Meanwhile, several independent research groups have identified that SARS-CoV-2 belongs to β-coronavirus, with a highly identical genome to bat coronavirus, pointing to bat as a natural host. This novel coronavirus uses the same receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme-2(ACE 2) as that for SARS-CoV, and mainly spreads through the respiratory tract. The clinical symptoms of COVID-19 include fever, cough, fatigue and a small population that appeared gastrointestinal infection symptoms. The elderly and people with underlying disease are more susceptible to infection and more prone to a serious outcome. The development of vaccines for SARS-CoV-2 is ongoing and various clinical trials are currently underway around the world, however, an effective vaccine may take years to develop and to manufacture on a global scale. At present no pharmacological treatment has been shown to be reliable, safe and effective for treating COVID-19. Hence it is the need of the hour to provide safe and effective treatment to combat this global pandemic and for this purpose Unani system of Medicine can play an important role. These medicines are in use since antiquity, easily available and have lesser known side-effects. In Unani Medicine, there is a large number of single drugs and compound formulations which are clinically as well as experimentally proved to be effective in the prevention and management of epidemics. The present review has been embarked on to explore the Unani perspective into the scientific insight on epidemic diseases with a focus to unearth the prevention and treatment of the COVID-19 pandemic. Material and Methods A manual survey of classical Unani literature was conducted to collect the information on epidemics, its prevention and management. In addition, articles were retrieved using PubMed, Science Direct and Research Gate with the search name Unani Medicine, COVID-19, Waba (Epidemic), Antiviral, Anti-inflammatory, Immunomodulators and Prophylaxis. The search was carried out to identify experimental and clinical studies on drugs mentioned in the literature in context with the pandemic of COVID-19. Conclusion The aforesaid Unani literature and contemporary materials surveyed have yielded substantial key information in the prevention and management of COVID-19. However, their efficacy and safety still need scientific validation through rigorous randomized controlled trials.
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Background and objectives: Amenorrhoea is not a diagnosis in itself, but rather a most common clinical sign of reproductive dysfunction and the incidence of amenorrhoea due to polycystic ovarian syndrome is 28%. The objective of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of research drugs Muqil, (Commiphoramuqul), Murmakki (Commiphoramyrrha) and Abhal (JuniperuscommunisLinn) in Polycystic Ovarian Disease (PCOD) associated Secondary Amenorrhoea. Methods: A single blind non-randomized pre and post observational study was carried out at National Institute of Unani Medicine Hospital, Bengaluru. Patients (n=30) with PCOD in the age group of 18-35 years with oligo/secondary amenorrhoea were included in the study.Patients with thyroid dysfunction, hyperprolactinemia, systemic illnesses, malignancies, use of hormonal pills in last 2 months, pregnancy and lactation were excluded. Research drugs were administered orally in a dose of 6 g/day (tablet form) with water for seven days in a month for three consecutive months. Primary outcome measure (withdrawal bleeding) and secondary outcome measure (menstrual regulation) were assessed to determine the effect of research drugs. Data were analyzed using paired Student’s t-test. Results: Withdrawal bleeding was achieved in 63.33% patients, while 36.6% patients had no bleeding. Menstrual regulation was achieved in 73.33% patients; where as 26.66% had persistent irregular menstruation. Achievement in outcome measures is due to improvement in duration of cycle, which though increased in 1st cycle of treatment (P<0.001), and then decreases in subsequent cycles; highly significant reduction in BMI (P<0.001), suggestive significant change in waist circumference (P=0.064+) and absence of PCOD in 20% of patients was noted after treatment. No significant difference in hirsutism, luteinizing hormone/follicle stimulating hormone ratio and mean ovarian volume was observed during the trial. Interpretation and conclusion: Research drugs (Muqil, Murmakki, Abhal) was an effective alternate therapeutic option in patients with PCOD associated secondary amenorrhoea. Keywords: PCOD; Secondary Amenorrhoea; Muqil; Murmakki; Abhal; Withdrawal Bleeding; Menstrual Regulation.
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The medicinal plants represent an enormous reservoir of potential microbial compounds that could be useful as an alternative to synthetic microbicides and are being used to develop drugs. In the present study, preliminary phytochemical analysis and antibacterial activity of Commiphora myrrha (Burceracea) the resin collects from bark and stem of the plant by the process incision. The resin powder extracts of Commiphora myrrha were tested against different gram negative bacteria by disc diffusion method. It was found that ethyl acetate and hexane extract possess bacterial growth inhibition where as methanol extract having antibacterial activity only on higher concentration and the extract is separated by TLC and silica gel preparative chromatography to fractionate bioactive constituents. Thereafter, the fraction purified by HPTLC and active fraction was analyzed by FTIR.
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The aim of the present investigation was to explore the constituents of the Arabian myrrh resin obtained from Commiphora myrrha. The organic and inorganic composition of the myrrh gum resin has been investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Analysis executed by ICP-MS reveals the presence of various inorganic elements in significant amount in the myrrh resin. The elements which were found to be present in large amounts include calcium, magnesium, aluminum, phosphorus, chlorine, chromium, bromine and scandium. The important organic constituents identified in the myrrh ethanolic extract include limonene, curzerene, germacrene B, isocericenine, myrcenol, beta selinene, spathulenol etc. The present work complements other myrrh associated investigations done in the past and provides additional data for the future researches.
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The antibacterial activity of aqueous and ethanol extracts of Balsamodendron myrrha and Viola oderata were evaluated for anti-microbial activity using the agar well diffusion method against six pathogenic bacteria (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas, Salmonella typhi, Stapylococcus epidermidis and Enterococcus). These plants are commonly used in folk medicine to treat infections of microbial origin. The patterns of inhibition varied with the extracts, the solvent used for extraction and the organisms tested. The studies revealed that the activity was in decreasing order of ethanol extracts>cold-water extract>hot-water extract. The preliminary screening experiment revealed that the ethanol extracts of Balsamodendron myrrha and Viola oderata exhibited a higher antimicrobial activity than the cold and hot water extracts. The most susceptible bacterium was Escherichia coli.
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The aim of this work was to investigate the antibacterial properties of essential oil (Eo) and methanol extract from C. molmol resin against clinical microbial strains. The agar dilution method was used for assessment of bacterial growth inhibition at various concentrations. The results of our experiment showed that the oil from C. molmol has strong activity against clinical S. aureus isolates including multidrug resistant strains. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of their antimicrobial properties of C. molmol resin oil against clinical isolates of S. aureus. Based on the results, the Eo and methanol extract tested can be considered as effective anti-staphylococcal natural products.
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Commiphora molmol oleoresin (Family Burseraceae) is traditionally used for treatment of many ailments such as ulcers, abscesses and wounds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of C. molmol extracts in vitro (essential oils and ethanol extract). The antimicrobial activities of extracts were evaluated by disc diffusion and micro-broth dilution assays. The antioxidant activities of extracts were evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and the amount of phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined by spectrophotometric methods. The phenolic and flavonoid contents of C. molmol ethanol extract were higher than its essential oils and showed higher antioxidant activity (IC50 625 μg/ml). The antioxidant activities of extracts were lower than Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) (IC50 20 μg/ml). The antimicrobial activity of C. molmol essential oil was higher than its ethanol extract. Gram positive bacteria and yeast were more sensitive to C. molmol extracts.
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The purpose of this report is to explore the cytotoxicity effects of extracts and compounds from Commiphora myrrha resin on human gynecologic cancer cells. The results showed that AE (85% EtOH extract), and petroleum ether extract (PE) from C. myrrha significantly inhibited cell proliferation of A2780, SK-OV-3, and Shikawa with dose-dependent relation in vitro. The inhibitory effects of AE and PE on A2708 cell were strongest and the IC 50 s were 15.8 and 26.91 µg/ml, respectively. The IC 50 s of AE and PE on Shikawa cell lines were 20.73 and 26.63 µg/ml respectively. Furthermore, nine compounds were isolated and identified from bio-activity guided separation fraction, and were determined the cytotoxicity activity on A2780, SK-OV-3, SiHa cells and Shikawa cells. Compounds 1-4, 6 and 7 are isolated from this genus for the first time. The compound 6 and 7 exhibited obvious cytotoxicty effects on A2780, SK-OV-3, and Shikawa cancer cells with dose-dependent relationship. The antiprolifirative activity of compound 6 on A2780 cells was most obviously with IC 50 46.89 µM. The compound 7 with IC 50 26.93 µM inhibited cell growth of SK-OV-3 cells. The determined compounds have never shown antiproliferative activities on SiHa cells. These findings suggested that extracts and compounds from myrrh could be useful for preventing and treating human gynecologic cancer disease.
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This article is based on the results of a preliminary ethno-botanical research survey conducted in Makkah Al-Mukarramah area. The main objective of this paper was to enlist the wealth of crude drugs (botanical medicinal materials) available in the Attar shops (herbal drug stores) along with their folkloric uses. A total of 71 species, belonging to 40 families and 69 genera were enlisted and their therapeutic uses were also described.
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Myrrh (Commiphora molmol) has been widely used as an anti-inflammatory and wound healing commercial product. As white blood cell (WBC)/leukocyte counts have been used as an indicator by clinicians to monitor progress of healing in patients, the purpose of this study was to examine effects of myrrh supplementation on blood WBC numbers before an injury and during healing. Male rats (7-8-wk-of-age) were randomly assigned to four groups. Group 1 (SIM) served as "skin injury treated + myrrh treatment (500 mg/kg/day)," Group 2 (SI) as "skin injury alone", Group 3 (GUM) as "gastric ulcer treated + myrrh treatment", and Group 4 (GU) as gastric ulcer only. Myrrh treatments (via drinking water) began 4 wk before induction of injury and continued for a 2 wk period post-injury. Baseline values for each WBC type were recorded before start of the myrrh treatments. Counts were performed again on Day 1 of the 5th wk (1-2 hr before injury) and post-injury on Days 4 and 7 of the 5th wk, and a final time on Day 4 of the 6th wk. Results showed that levels of all WBC types were significantly (P < 0.05) elevated before either injury in myrrh-treated rats (Groups 1 and 3) as compared with levels in rats in Groups 2 and 4. At all timepoints, there were neither significant differences between the values seen with rats in Groups 1 and 3, nor between those in Groups 2 and 4. Treatment with myrrh also induced an initial increase in WBC levels that persisted through the post-injury healing period. Levels of most cell types only increased in the Group 2 and 4 rats once the injury was induced, but then declined over the healing period. Since myrrh enhanced WBC levels before injury, we conclude that myrrh likely contains substances that could induce an apparent antigen-driven response. As the myrrh also helped maintain elevated WBC levels throughout the healing period, this implied it was also able to induce maturation/differentiation/activation of both myeloid and lymphoid cell types during the effector phase of the immune responses involved in wound healing.