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INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT
SHINAS COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY
Applied Research Project Report
Enhancing Blood Transfusion Safety Through the Use of Online Blood Bank Management
System in Oman
submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements
for the award B. Tech in Information Technology
Submitted by:
Sl.NO Student Name IDNO
1 Nawaf Hamed Al-Washahi 66j137
2 Alsafa Ahmed Aal-abdulsalam 66j1468
3 Afrah Sulaiman Al-Mamari 66j1446
RESEARCH ADVISOR:
Edgardo Dalan
December - 2018
SHINAS COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT
BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that this Report is a bonafide document of the project entitled “Enhancing
Blood Transfusion Safety Through the Use of Online Blood Bank Management System in
Oman” done by the group of students listed below:
Sl.NO Student Name IDNO
1 Nawaf Hamed Al-Washahi 66j137
2 Alsafa Ahmed Aal-abdulsalam 66J1468
3 Afrah Sulaiman Al-Mamari 66j1446
studying B. Tech in I.T. at Shinas College of Technology, Semester 1, Academic Year 2018-
2019.
Mr. Edgardo Dalan Jr.
Signature of the Supervisor
External Panel 1
Name: ________________________
Signature: _____________________
External Panel2
Name: ________________________
Signature: _____________________
External Panel 3
Name: ________________________
Signature: _____________________
Project Presentation (Viva–voce) held on 11/12/2018
Acknowledgment
First of all, the researchers would like to express their sincere gratitude to Management,
Lecturers, and Staff of Shinas College of Technology for allowing them to improve their skills
and abilities by doing various projects and programs. Also, the developers would like to thank
Ms. Amina Al-Jabri, HoD of IT Department, and Ms. Amna Al-Kaabi, HoS of IT Section, for
their utmost support and encouragement to the studnets.
The researchers also would like to express their sincere gratitude to their supervisor Mr.
Edgardo Dalan Jr. for his helpful guidance and valuable advice during the whole process as well
as to all IT Lecturers for their matchless support and cooperation.
Finally, the researchers would like to thank their families and friends because they have
been very supportive during the project period.
Table of Contents
Abstract..........................................................................................................................................1
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION................................................................................................2
1.1 Background of the Study.......................................................................................................2
1.2 Problem Statement.................................................................................................................3
1.3 Objective(s), Scope and Limitations......................................................................................3
1.4. Assumptions and Hypothesis:...............................................................................................4
1.5 Significance of the problem...................................................................................................5
1.6 Definition of terms.................................................................................................................5
CHAPTER 2: REVIEW OF LITERATURE..............................................................................6
2.1 Introduction..............................................................................................................................6
2.2 Literature Studies...................................................................................................................6
2.3 Conclusion.............................................................................................................................8
CHAPTER 3: METHODS AND PROCEDURES......................................................................9
3.1 Introduction............................................................................................................................9
3.2 Theoretical/ Conceptual Framework.....................................................................................9
3.3 Methods and Procedures......................................................................................................10
CHAPTER 4: PROPOSED SYSTEM.......................................................................................11
CHAPTER 5: RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS.......................................................................24
CHAPTER 6: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS.........................28
References.....................................................................................................................................29
Appendixes...................................................................................................................................30
Plagiarism Percentage report (Phase-1 & Phase-2)...................................................................30
Sample Questionnaire................................................................................................................31
Survey Sample...........................................................................................................................34
List of Figures
Figure 1: Conceptual Framework …………………………………………. 9
Figure 2: Home Page ……………………………………………………. 11
Figure 3: Login Page ..…………………………………………………… 11
Figure 4: Admin Home Page ……………………………………………. 12
Figure 5: Add User Page ………………………………………………... 12
Figure 6: List User Page ………………………………………………... 13
Figure 7: Donor Home Page …………………………………………… 13
Figure 8: Add Donor Page ……………………………………………. 14
Figure 9: List Donor Page ……………………………………………. 14
Figure 10: Donor Activity Page ……………………………………… 15
Figure 11: List Donor Activity Page ………………………………… 15
Figure 12: Blood Product Page ……………………………………… 16
Figure 13: List Blood Product Page ………………………………… 16
Figure 14: Approved Request Page ………………………………… 17
Figure 15: Check Blood Bags Expired Date Page ………………….. 17
Figure 16: Report Blood Bags Page ………………………………… 18
Figure 17: Doctor Home Page ……………………………………… 18
Figure 18: Doctor Request Page……………………………………… 19
Figure 19: List Request Page………………………………………… 19
Figure 20: Add Patient Page………………………………………… 20
Figure 21: List Patient Page………………………………………….. 20
Figure 22: Report Patient Page……………………………………….. 21
Figure 23: Change Password Page…………………………………… 21
Figure 24: Forget Password Page…………………………………… 22
Validations …………………………………………………………… 22
I. Research Project Proposal
Shinas College of Technology
Information Technology Department
Proposal for Applied Research Project
Detailed proposal
<Your proposal should be a clear, concise, and well-structured and to the point document
with a focused title that communicates the purpose of the study.>
Title: Enhancing Blood Transfusion Safety Through the Use of Online Blood Bank
Management System in Oman
SECTION I: Research Proposal
The researchers aimed to develop and implement an online blood bank management system.
This web-based application allows hospitals to make inventories of their blood bags online,
thus, allowing each hospital to check the availability of blood bags anytime. Likewise, proper
accounting of blood donors ensures that the expected blood transfusion services will be safe and
secured.
SECTION II: Origin Of Research Problem
Even though the technology has advanced much already, still, today’s system in blood banks are
usually manual systems. Usually, when a person requires a particular type of blood and that type
is not available in the hospital, the persons send messages to family members, relatives, and
friends if they can donate. As such, it is time-consuming and laborious, and may risk the life of
the person who needs blood urgently.
SECTION III: Relevance to the national priority and needs
The web-based application ensures that there is mobility of blood bags across the country; it is
easier to check for hospitals which hospital has the available needed blood types. Shortage of
blood bags of particular blood type can be avoided.
Likewise, there will be blood donors’ registration, thus, ensuring that blood transfusion services
will be safe and secured.
Subsequently, the application is of great help for doctors, nurses, medical practitioners, patients
and others in ensuring a better health care system.
Name: Alsafa Aal-abdulsalam
Afrah Al-Ma'mari
Nawaf Al-Washahi
Date: 12/9/2018
Enhancing Blood Transfusion Safety Through The Use of Online Blood Bank Management
System in Oman
1Nawaf Hamed Al-Washahi, 2Alsafa Ahmed Aal-abdulsalam & 3Afrah Sulaiman AL-Mamari
4Edgardo Dalan
1Database, 2,3 Software Engineering
4Lecturer
Information Technology Department
Shinas College of Technology
1
66j137@shct.edu.om, 2
66j1468@shct.edu.om, 3
66j1446@shct.edu.om
4
Edgardo.dalan@shct.edu.om
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Abstract
Blood transfusion safety is a relevant and significant public health issue in the Sultanate
of Oman. Since most blood banks are still in paper-based system, various disadvantages are
experienced by various stakeholders, which endanger the lives of patients and deter the
healthcare system. As such, the researchers aimed to design, develop, and implement an online
blood bank management system (OBBMS). This web-based application allows hospitals in
Oman to make inventories of their blood bags online, subsequently, allowing each hospital to
check the availability of blood bags anytime. The researchers designed and administered a
questionnaire that assess the perceptions of various stakeholders in both manual-based and
OBBMS. Based on the findings and results, it was found out that these stakeholders perceived
online blood bank management system is much better than the manual system. Therefore, with
the use of online blood bank management system, blood transfusion process is safe and secured.
Threats on improper blood donor documentation, or misplaced records will be totally eradicated.
Also, processes involving recording about blood donors, blood bag collection, storage, and
inventory will be systematized and organized, hence, improving the healthcare management for
blood banks.
Key words: Online Blood Bank Management System, Blood Bank Management, Blood
Donation, Blood Transfusion Safety, Web-Based Application
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
Blood transfusion safety remains an important public health concern in Oman. The
availability of blood products of all blood types and the provision of its safety ensure public trust
of its excellent healthcare system. However, lack of availability of these blood products and
provision of unsafe blood products still impact morbidity and mortality in the Sultanate. Through
the use of online blood bank management system, blood transfusion safety is expected to be
enhanced or improved. Risks on improper blood donors’ documentation, and misplaced records
can be minimized or totally avoided. Also, processes involving blood bag collection, storage, and
inventory will be systematized and organized, hence, improving the healthcare management.
1.1 Background of the Study
For hospitals, a blood bank known as blood collection center, also is an area in which
collected blood bags are stored and preserved for future use in blood transfusion services. Blood
transfusion is a medical operation where a patient requires blood or blood products as a life
saving measure. . In an article1 published in Times of Oman in 2014, it was reported by Ministry
of Health (MoH) that the total amount of blood donated annually in Muscat is approximately
25,084 units. MoH further reported that its Department of Blood Services is functioning at full
capacity to meet the demands in the Sultanate.
Most blood banks are still running manual system in its processes. As such, there is a lack
of efficiency because it is still paper-based in collecting information about donors, inventories of
blood bags, and blood transfusion services. The lack of proper documentation may endanger
patients’ health due to the possibility of having contaminate blood bags. Contamination happened
when there is an incomplete donors’ medical history record and the blood bags’ shelf life is not
monitored properly. Hence, a web-based blood bank management system might be needed to
address these issues and problems encountered to ensure blood transfusion safety.
1.2 Problem Statement
Despite advances in technology, nowadays, most blood bank systems are running in
manual system. As such, there is a prevalent problem in the availability of needed blood types.
For instance, when a person needs a certain type of blood and this type is not available in the
hospital, family members send messages through social media to those who can donate to them
and this process takes longer than the life of the patient to the most dangerous. In addition, it
seems that there is lack of proper documentation about blood donors and its medical history. This
may lead to blood bag contamination and may affect the blood transfusion safety. Generally, this
study aims to determine how the use of online bank management system enhance blood
transfusion safety. Subsequently, this study seeks to answer the following specific problems:
1. What is the level of perception among blood bank’s stakeholders on manual-based
system?
2. What is the level of perception among blood bank’s stakeholders on online blood bank
management system?
3. H0: Is there no significant difference in the level of perception among stakeholders
between manual-based and online-based blood bank system?
H1: Is there a significant difference in the level of perception among stakeholders
between manual-based and online-based blood bank system?
1.3 Objective(s), Scope and Limitations
1.3.1 Objective:
This applied research aims to design, develop and implement online blood bank
management system. This web-based application provides:
To ensure hospital to have good supply or inventories of blood bags.
To check the availability of blood bags anytime.
To manage the information of its blood donor.
Function to check if the person donate blood for the last 3 months.
To allow good documentation about the donor and its blood donation activities.
Support fast searching to find match blood bags for the right person.
1.3.2 Scope:
This research study covers the three (3) basic operations of blood banks, namely: donor
registration, monitoring of blood bags or products’ inventories, and monitoring of blood bags or
products’ issuance. Also, due to time-constraint, respondents will be from hospitals from North
Batinah Region in the Oman, though the research study talks about blood banks in the Sultanate
of Oman. In addition, the study considers three (3) possible users of the system, namely: hospital
administrator, doctors, and blood receptionists.
1.3.3 Limitation:
This research study does not cover the actual blood collection activity, and actual blood
transfusion operation. Blood donors and patients or recipients of blood donation are not system
users, their registration or information will be encoded by the blood bank receptionists.
1.4. Assumptions and Hypothesis:
The researchers assume the following assumptions:
1. Internet connectivity is needed for the online blood management system. Internet speed
may affect the perception of the systems users with regards to the system effectiveness
and efficiency.
2. Blood transfusion should be performed by medical or professional doctors only. The
over-all safety depends on the success of the medical operation.
The researchers identify the following hypotheses:
1. There is a significant difference in the level of blood transfusion safety between manual-
based and online blood bank systems.
2. There is an increased level of blood transfusion safety in using online blood bank
management systems while there is an increased risk when using manual-based one.
1.5 Significance of the problem
The findings of this study will benefit blood banks in managing blood donation donors,
activities, and blood bags. This will allow the hospital to take decision if a particular type of
blood is needed and currently unavailable in the hospital, however, available in another nearby
hospitals. Furthermore, managing the blood bags in the blood bank will be much easier because
each blood bag has an information about the donor, donation activity details, and the expiration
date. Also, doctor can use this system to serve blood bags to their patient and monitor the details
of the donor.
The main advantages of the system are:
Blood bank staff can find and manage the donor details on the system easily.
The expiration date of blood bags can be viewed in the system.
Hospital can be alerted about issued blood bags and its availability.
The system is systematized, and organized in managing blood donor records and blood
donation activities.
1.6 Definition of terms
Blood bags are designed for the collection, processing and storage of whole blood and
blood components They help in providing aseptic conditions for the separation of blood
components. It acts as a closed system reducing the chances of contamination.
Blood bank is a place where blood bag that is collected from blood donation events is
stored in one place. Which refers to a division of a hospital laboratory where the storage
of blood product occurs and where proper testing is performed to reduce the risk of
transfusion related events.
Donor is someone who gives a part of their body or some of their blood to be used by
doctors to help a person who is ill.
Transfusion: transfusion is done as a lifesaving maneuver to replace blood cells or blood
products lost through severe bleeding. Transfusion of one's own blood (autologous
transfusion) is the safest method, but it requires advanced planning, and not all patients
are eligible.
CHAPTER 2: REVIEW OF LITERATURE
2.1 Introduction
This section discusses findings and observations done by some research works on web-
based blood bank management system. The gathered information on these related papers
strengthens and supports the research study.
2.2 Literature Studies
According to 2Teena, C.A, Sankar, K. and Kannan, S. (2014) in their study entitled A
Study on Blood Bank Management, they defined Blood Bank Information System as an
information management system that contributes to the management of donor records and blood
bank. Their system allowed an authorized blood bank administrator to sign in with a password to
manage easily the records of donors and patients who need blood. The system provided many
features including the central database, quick access to the system content through the login,
includes the search code to find donors on a given basis, and the ease of adding and updating
donor data. The main aim of the system was to complete0the process of the blood bank. This
system was designed to suit all types of blood banks. Once successful in the implementation of
the application, it can be applied and rolled out in several blood banks. This application contains
User Login Screen, Blood Management, Menu Form, Blood Stock, Donor Management, Donor
Registration, Blood Reservation, Donor Blood Test, Recipient Management and Blood
Reservation. In similar manner, the researchers planned in their application to have hospital
administrator, doctors, and blood bank receptionists as users. The authors did not mentioned the
research method they used, and failed to provide screenshots of the system prototypes, making
difficult for the researchers to visualize their application. No discussion also for their
respondents, samples and sampling techniques used. Subsequently, the researchers planned to
provide figures to explain the system, screenshots of system prototypes, and other diagrams that
can help other researchers to visualize the development of web-based blood bank management
system. Also, the researchers will explicitly discuss its research methods, sampling procedures,
and statistical treatment to be used for analyzing the gathered data.
On the other hand, study entitled “Blood Bank Management System” done by 3Kumar,
R., Singh, S. and Ragavi, V.A. (2017), the researchers developed a web-based blood
management which assists the blood donor records management, and provides ease of control in
the distribution of blood products in various parts of the country considering demands of
hospitals. The developed system was scalable and adaptable to meet the complex needs usually
of a blood bank. Based on this study, since entering the details about the blood donors and
related records were done manually, thus, tracking of blood donation activities was difficult and
complicated, and even led to erroneous information. Subsequently, the researchers mentioned
that manual-based system can be waste of time, lead to the error-prone results, consumes a lot of
manpower, lacks data security, data retrieval requires a lot of time, reports consumes a long time
to produce, and there is less precise accuracy on the results. As such, by developing and
implementing a web-based blood management information system, there was a quick and timely
access to donor records, and the system provided management timely, confidential and secured
medical reports. There were three (3) users in the system, namely: Administrator, Donor, and
Acceptor. Each user has been given user ID and password to identify their identity. The said
application was developed using ASP.NET, C#.NET, and using SqlServer 2000/2005 for the
database. The research paper failed to mention the methods of research used.
In this study, the researchers learnt the importance of implementing a web-based blood
bank management system in handling records for blood donors and blood donation activities to
ensure accurate and readily available information for blood transfusion services. Indeed, the
impact of using Information Technology on hospitals provides better healthcare services for the
public. Likewise, the researchers learnt that there are programming languages suitable for web-
based applications such as ASP.NET, PhP, to name a few.
In the study entitled Blood Bank Management System Using Rule-Based Method
undertaken by 4Liyana, F. (2017), it found out that it is important for every hospital to use an
information system to manage data in blood bank. Also, it observed that the manual system has
disadvantages for the user and the hospital. One of the disadvantages identified was the blood
bank staff should enter the donor details in each time he/she donate blood in which led to
duplicate data of the donor and also the data may be lost or missing after period of time. Thus,
the author developed a web-based system to help the blood bank to record the donor details fast
and easy. The system used rule-based decisions to ensure to have a right decision on right time.
Also, system can send messages to donors if any particular blood type is needed. She developed
blood bank system based on incremental model. She had chosen this model because the system
can be developed through cycle of phase and also because of the advantages of this model such
as:
I. Easy to understand to flow of the phases.
II. Changes possible in the middle of any phases.
III. The system can be developed even if there is an error in the middle and it can be
corrected in testing phase.
In this study, the researchers observed that the developer failed to include in the system the
function to check the availability of blood bags, and to check the shelf life or expiration of blood
bags or products. As such, the researchers will include these in their developed system to
enhance safety for blood transfusion.
2.3 Conclusion
The purpose of these literature reviews was to collect information on how an information
system helped the management of blood banks. Based on the reviews, it was found out that web-
based blood bank systems provide convenience, efficiency and security to the system users and
hospitals compared to the manual systems. It was found out that manual systems have many
disadvantages that disappoint and dissatisfy users. Indeed, online blood bank applications make
work easy, and ensures fast retrieval of data when needed.
CHAPTER 3: METHODS AND PROCEDURES
3.1 Introduction
This section presents the research methodology used in the study, the research design,
and the data collection process. This section also presents the theoretical or conceptual
framework of the study, the sampling plan, and tools to be used for data analysis.
3.2 Theoretical/ Conceptual Framework
3.2 UML DIAGRAM / DB Schema
Figure 1.0: Conceptual Framework
The conceptual framework served a mental window of the researchers because it depicted
the research design and the relationships of the variables involved. Based on the figure above,
the usage or utilization of the online blood bank management system can lead to the
enhancement or improvement of blood transfusion safety.
3.3 Methods and Procedures
The researchers used both descriptive research and experimental research design
methods. The study was descriptive because it describes the nature of situation as it exists at the
time of the study. Also, it was a systematic and scientific approach to research in which the
researchers manipulate one or more variables, and control and measure any change in other
variables. It involves collection of data in order to test hypotheses or to answer questions
concerning current status of the subject of the study. The study was also experimental because it
has an assumption of a cause-and-effect relationship, and the researchers introduce online blood
bank management system as intervention that caused the change.
In this study, the researchers used questionnaire to collect information and to obtain the
perception of the various stakeholders on how they perceive the manual-based system and the
online system. The questionnaire was administered to hospital administrators, doctors, and blood
bank receptionists. In sampling, the researchers used cluster sampling in which respondents were
grouped according to their roles and responsibilities. The questionnaire includes 18 questions.
There were many strategies to analyze data after collected. The researchers counted the
frequency of each question, and computed the mean as a measure of central tendency. Also,
standard deviation and variance were calculated to perform the t-test. From the mean or average
of both manual based system and online system, the researchers compared the computed mean to
see if the use of online system is much better than manual system. Also, from the result of t-test,
the researchers decided if the null hypothesis will be accepted or not.
Tables and graph were drawn to show these computations and figures.
CHAPTER 4: PROPOSED SYSTEM
The researchers were able to design, and develop an online blood bank management
system using PhP and MySQL for the back-end database. Below are sample screenshots of the
developed system:
Figure 2: Homepage for Online
Blood Bank Management System
Figure 3: Login Screen
Figure4: Admin Home Page
Figure5: Add User Page
Figure6: List User Page
Figure 7: Donor Home Page
Figure8: Add Donor Page
Figure9: List Donor Page
Figure10: Donor Activity Page
Figure11: List Donor Activity Page
Figure 12: Blood Product Page
Figure 13: List Blood Product Page
Figure 14: Approved Request Page
Figure 15: Check Blood Bags Expired Date Page
Figure 16: Report Blood Bags Page
Figure 17: Doctor Home Page
Figure 18: Doctor Request Page
Figure 19: List Request Page
Figure 20: Add Patient Page
Figure 21: List Patient Page
Figure 22: Report Patient Page
Figure 23: Change Password Page
Figure 24: Forget Password Page
Validations:
The researcher used a validation check to ensure data consistency and correctness in the
system. One of the validation checks is the required field validation. Empty fields are not
allowed. Also, the password should match. Likewise, it will alert expired blood bags.
Figure 25: Alert on blood bag expiration
Figure 26: Successful Login Form
Figure 27: Alert on wrong username or password
Figure 28: Alert on password mismatch
CHAPTER 5: RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
The questionnaire used a 5-scale Likert scale, 5 for strongly agree, 4 for agree, 3 for
neutral, 2 for disagree, and 1 for strongly disagree. After administering the questionnaire, the
researchers counted the frequency of each question, and computed the mean or average. For
mean, 4.51 to 5.00 is interpreted as strongly agree, 3.51 to 4.50 as agree, 2.51 to 3.50 as neutral,
1.51 to 2.50 as disagree, and 1.00 to 1.50 as strongly disagree.
Below is the results of the administered questionnaire:
Manual Blood Bank
System
Online Blood Bank
Management System
No Questions Mean
Interpretation
Mean Interpretatio
n
1
The system provides good
documentation about the blood donor
and its blood donation activities.
2.65 Neutral 3.92 Agree
2 The system can search fast the list of
possible blood donors through its
2.77 Neutral 3.92 Agree
donors’ files.
3
The system can clearly monitor the
availability of blood bags or products
of all blood types.
2.85 Neutral 3.92 Agree
4
The system has the ability to track to
whom the blood bag/product has been
given using the patient record.
2.85 Neutral 3.85 Agree
5
The system allows user to know easily
the period of expiration of blood
bags/products.
2.85 Neutral 4.08 Agree
6
The system has the ability to generate
medical reports or statistics easily. 2.96 Neutral
3.77 Agree
7
The system offers an organized and
systematized filing or record system.
2.88 Neutral 3.81 Agree
8
The system provides easy to use,
efficient, effective system to the users.
2.73 Neutral 3.88 Agree
9
The system allows user to know easily
if the person donate blood for the last
3 months.
2.85 Neutral 4.00 Agree
Average Mean 2.82 Neutral 3.91
Agree
Table 1.0 Level of Perceptions on Manual and Online Blood Bank Management System
In general, Table 1 showed the average mean of manual system was 2.82 which was
interpreted that the respondents were neutral in the assessment of the manual system. The
question of ability of providing good documentation about the donor and blood donation
activities was rated the lowest which implied that in most manual systems, most files or records
have the tendencies of being either misplaced or lost. Though respondents rated the ability of the
system to generate reports the highest criterion in the manual system, still the result showed that
respondents felt that report generation in manual-system is time-consuming, and laborious. The
results showed that the respondents did not agree nor disagree on the ability of the manual-based
system on its efficiency and effectiveness.
On the other hand, Table 1.0 showed that the average mean of 3.91 in the online blood
bank management system indicates that the respondents agreed that the online system can
provide good documentation about donor and its donor activities, monitoring of blood bags
availability, tracking of issued blood bags, identification of expired blood bags, report
generation, system efficiency and effectiveness, organized and systematized record system, to
name a few. Respondents rated the ability of online system to know period of expiration of blood
bags as the highest criterion while the ability of online system to offers systematized and
organized filing or record system was rated the lowest criterion. The result showed that the
respondents agreed on the ability of online blood bank management system in terms of its
efficiency and effectiveness.
Q 1 Q 2 Q 3 Q 4 Q 5 Q 6 Q 7 Q 8 Q 9
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
2.65
2.77
2.85
2.85
2.85
2.96
2.88
2.73
2.85
3.92
3.92
3.92
3.85
4.08
3.77
3.81
3.88
4
Mean
Mean for Manual Blood System
Mean for OBBMS
Figure 29: Comparison of Means between theManual System and the Online System
Table 1.0 and Figure 29 showed that the respondents perceived online blood bank system
is much better than the manual-based. The difference showed that the respondents felt and
perceived that online blood bank management system offers more advantages and benefits over
the manual-based. Indeed, these findings strengthen previous studies that mentioned that manual
system has lot of disadvantages to the users and hospital. Subsequently, users prefer online
system over manual-based.
Manual Based Online Blood Bank
Management System
Average Mean 2.82 3.91
Standard Deviation 0.0910 0.0944
No. of Questions 9 9
Table 2.0 Average Mean and Standard Deviation of Both Systems
A t-test, a type of inferential statistic, was used to determine if there is a significant
difference between the means of two groups, which may be related in certain features. T-test was
used as a hypothesis-testing tool that allows testing of an assumption applicable to a population.
Based on Table 2.0 and using the t-test formula, ,the calculated t-value is
24.94
while the tabled t-value at 5% significance (95% confidence) is 1.86. Subsequently, since the
calculated t-value is greater than the tabled t-value, the decision is to reject the null hypothesis
H0, and accept the alternative hypothesis H1. This means that the online blood bank management
system offers a lot of advantages and benefits to the users compared to the manual system.
CHAPTER 6: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS
Summary
The researchers conducted this applied research to examine and evaluate on how online
blood bank management system (OBBMS) can enhance blood transfusion safety. The
researchers aimed to design, design, and implement this OBBMS. The researchers used both
descriptive and experimental design methods. The researchers floated and administered
questionnaire through online to hospital administrators, doctors, and blood bank receptionists
from the various hospital in the North Al-Batinah Regions. Further, based on the gathered data,
means, standard deviations, and t-value were computed. These computed values were analyzed
and interpreted. Based on the findings and results, conclusions and recommendations were made.
Conclusion
Based on results, this study concluded that online blood bank management system is
much better than the manual system. The findings showed that respondents prefer to use online
blood bank management system rather than the manual system because it offers many
advantages and benefits that lead to its effectiveness, and efficiency. Because of the increased
confidence on the users on the system, it can be concluded that the online blood bank
management system enhances blood transfusion safety because it provides better ways of
handling the various processes in blood bank.
Recommendations
In view of the findings, the researchers recommend that implementation of online blood
bank management system. Further, the researchers recommend that further studies on how online
blood bank management system enhances blood transfusion safety can be undertaken to
strengthen this study’s findings. This requires actual implementation of the online system and
evaluates how the users respond after implementation. This study recommends that it should be
roll out across the Sultanate of Oman. Likewise, to ensure that there will be better user
engagement, user manuals and proper user training should be given. Lastly, this study
recommends that the system can be expanded by allowing donors to register online and be a
system user, and these donors will be informed about the planned blood donation activities
through the online system.
References
1. Voluntary blood donations rising in Oman. (2014, November 21). Retrieved from
https://timesofoman.com/article/43536
2. Teena, C.A, Sankar, K. and Kannan, S. (2014). A Study on Blood Bank Management.
Retrieved from https://www.idosi.org/mejsr/mejsr19(8)14/21.pdf
3. Kumar, R., Singh, S. and Ragavi, V.A. (2017). ). Blood Bank Management System.
Retrieved from
http://ijariie.com/AdminUploadPdf/Blood_Bank_Management_System_ijariie6874.pdf
4. Liyana, F. (2017). Blood Bank Management System Using Rule-Based Method. Retrieved
from http://greenskill.net/suhailan/fyp/report/038077.pdf
Appendixes
Plagiarism Percentage report (Phase-1 & Phase-2)
Sample Questionnaire
Dear Respondents,
Greetings!
We, the researchers, are currently working with an applied research entitled Enhancing Blood
Transfusion Safety Through the Use of Online Blood Bank Management System in Oman
as a requirement for our Bachelor of Technology Degree. We aimed to determine how the use of
online blood bank management system enhance blood transfusion safety.
Subsequently, we would like to seek for your cooperation to answer the following question
below. Please be assured that your answers will be treated with confidentiality.
Thank you very much.
Sincerely yours,
Al-Asafa Ahmed Zaied Aal-Abdulsalam
Phase-2
Phase-1
Afrah Suleiman Saif Al-Mamari
Nawaf Hamad Salim Al-Washahi
Direction: Kindly fill-out the needed information in the space provided.
Name [Optional]: ___________________________________________________________
Role: [ ] Medical Doctor [ ] Blood Bank Administrator [ ] Blood Bank Receptionist
Location: [ ] Sohar [ ] Shinas [ ] Liwa [ ] Saham [ ] Buraimi [ ] Al-Kabourah
Direction: Using the Likert scale given below, please tick or check the corresponding box of each
statement given.
5- Strongly Agree
4- Agree
3- Neutral
2- Disagree
1- Strongly Disagree
No Question 5 4 3 2 1
Manual Blood System
1 The system provides good documentation about the blood donor and its
blood donation activities.
2 The system can search fast the list of possible blood donors through its
donors’ files.
3 The system can clearly monitor the availability of blood bags or products of
all blood types.
4 The system has the ability to track to whom the blood bag/product has been
given using the patient record.
5 The system allows user to know easily the period of expiration of blood
bags/products.
6 The system has the ability to generate medical reports or statistics easily.
7 The system offers an organized and systematized filing or record system.
8 The system provides easy to use, efficient, effective system to the users.
9 The system allows user to know easily if the person donate blood for the last
3 months.
Online Blood Bank Management System(OBBMS)
1 OBBMS provides a clear documentation about the blood donor and its blood
donation activities.
2 OBBMS can search fast the list of possible blood donors through its donors’
files.
3 OBBMS can clearly monitor the availability of blood bags or products of all
blood types.
4 OBBMS has the ability to track to whom the blood bag/product has been
given using patient record.
5 OBBMS allows user to know easily the period of expiration of blood
bags/products.
6 OBBMS has the ability to generate medical reports or statistics easily.
7 OBBMS offers an organized and systematized filing or record system.
8 OBBMS provides easy to use, efficient, effective system to the users.
9 OBBMS allows user to know easily if the person donate blood for the last 3
months.
Survey Sample
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ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.