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Improvement of soil quality using bokashi composting and NPK fertilizer to increase shallot yield on dry land

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The use of NPK fertilizer and bokashi composting, which is a fermented organic matter combined with microbial stock, have been reported as potential agricultural practices to enhance the farming land and crop production. The aim of this research is to understand the type of bokashi fertilizer and the correct dosage of NPK inorganic fertilizer in improving entisol soil quality and shallot yield in the dry land. The research used the split-plot design, which was divided into two factors. The first factor of the main plot was the bokashi type consisting of two levels: 3 t ha⁻¹ of bokashi compost of Gliricidia sp. tree leaves (B1); and bokashi cow manure 3 t ha⁻¹ (B2). The second factor as the subplot was the NPK inorganic fertilizer dose which were consisted of four levels: without fertilizers (K0), NPK 100 kg ha⁻¹ (K1), NPK 200 kg ha⁻¹ (K2), and NPK 300 kg ha⁻¹(K3). By combination of these two factors 8 combined treatments with 3 replications totally 24 units were obtained. The result of the research showed that application of 3 t ha⁻¹ bokashi cow manure (B2) coupled with NPK inorganic fertilizer at 200 kg ha⁻¹ (K2) caused a decrease in evaporation of its land and soil temperature, while increase shallot bulb yield compared with other treatments. The analysis of soil and soil microbes showed an increase in soil fertility by elevated levels of C-organic from 0.66 % to 3.28 %, N-fixing bacteria from 27 × 10⁵ CFU ml⁻¹ to 47 × 10⁶ CFU ml⁻¹ and phosphate solubilizing bacteria from 20 × 10³ CFU ml⁻¹ to 90 × 10³ CFU ml⁻¹. The shallot bulb yield increased from 4.79 t ha⁻¹ to 11.74 t ha⁻¹.
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AJCS 12(11):1743-1749 (2018) ISSN:1835-2707
doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.11.p1435
Improvement of soil quality using bokashi composting and NPK fertilizer to increase shallot yield
on dry land
Sri Anjar Lasmini*1, Burhanuddin Nasir2, Nur Hayati1, Nur Edy2
1Department of Horticulture, University of Tadulako, Palu - 94117, Indonesia
2Department of Plant Pest and Disease, University of Tadulako, Palu - 94117, Indonesia
*Corresponding author: srianjarlasmini@gmail.com
Abstract
The use of NPK fertilizer and bokashi composting, which is a fermented organic matter combined with microbial stock, have been
reported as potential agricultural practices to enhance the farming land and crop production. The aim of this research is to
understand the type of bokashi fertilizer and the correct dosage of NPK inorganic fertilizer in improving entisol soil quality and
shallot yield in the dry land. The research used the split-plot design, which was divided into two factors. The first factor of the main
plot was the bokashi type consisting of two levels: 3 t ha-1 of bokashi compost of Gliricidia sp. tree leaves (B1); and bokashi cow
manure 3 t ha-1 (B2). The second factor as the subplot was the NPK inorganic fertilizer dose which were consisted of four levels:
without fertilizers (K0), NPK 100 kg ha-1 (K1), NPK 200 kg ha-1 (K2), and NPK 300 kg ha-1(K3). By combination of these two factors 8
combined treatments with 3 replications totally 24 units were obtained. The result of the research showed that application of 3 t
ha-1 bokashi cow manure (B2) coupled with NPK inorganic fertilizer at 200 kg ha-1 (K2) caused a decrease in evaporation of its land
and soil temperature, while increase shallot bulb yield compared with other treatments. The analysis of soil and soil microbes
showed an increase in soil fertility by elevated levels of C-organic from 0.66 % to 3.28 %, N-fixing bacteria from 27 x 105 CFU ml-1 to
47 x106 CFU ml-1 and phosphate solubilizing bacteria from 20 x103 CFU ml-1 to 90 x103 CFU ml-1. The shallot bulb yield increased
from 4.79 t ha-1 to 11.74 t ha-1.
Keywords: Bokashi; Dry land; Shallot; Soil quality; NPK inorganic fertilizer.
Abbreviations: N_Nitrogen; P_Phosphorus; K_Potassium, NPK_Nitrogen Phosphorus Potassium; CFU_Colony Forming Unit;
CEC_Cation Exchange Capacity; EM_Effective Microorganisms; WAP_Week After Planting; HSD_Honeystly Significant Difference;
meq=miliequivalents.
Introduction
Shallot cultivation in the dry land is still facing many
obstacles, mainly from biophysical factors such as soil
fertility, water shortage and less suitable climate for plant
growth, especially on soils that have high porosity, low
organic matter as well as the conditions of extreme
temperatures. Dry land at Palu valley, including Sigi district,
Donggala and Palu encompasses 1.07556 million ha or 15%
of the total dry land area out of 7.16962 million ha in Central
Sulawesi (Central Bureau of Statistics of Central Sulawesi,
2016). The potency of broad dry land can be optimized for
improving crop production by overcoming the existing
obstacles. The main limiting factors in the development of
shallot cultivation in the dry land are water availability,
nutrient retention and low content of organic matter. The
dry land characteristic at Palu valley has shown the relatively
low binding capacity of soil moisture, so it is not good in
water retaining. This condition causes the falling water have
percolation directly and capillary water is easily separated
because of evaporation. Evaporation rate is very important
in saving soil moisture so it can be used for plant growth.
The rate of evaporation can be retained by the addition of
organic fertilizer (El-Aswad and Groeenevelt, 1985).
The organic ingredient is one of the very important soil
constituents that maintain the function of soil to support
plant growth. Organic matter above the surface of the soil is
usually in the form of litter and partly in decomposed form,
while underground is generally in the form of humus
compound. Humus has hydrophilic colloid property. It can
clump as gel-shape. It plays a role in saving water because it
has a high water holding capacity so the soil does not dry
quickly in the dry season. Humus is also able to bind water
four to six times of its weight and the water bound by humus
will be able to reduce the evaporation of water through the
soil (Fitter and Hay, 2002).
The high organic content can increase water retaining
capacity of the soil. The addition of organic matter can be
done by giving organic fertilizer. The benefit of organic
fertilizer addition into the soil is to increase nutrients,
improve soil properties through increasing soil water
content, soil organic carbon, cation exchange capacity (CEC)
and pH, improving the soil structure, aeration and water-
holding capacity of land and to influence or regulate soil
temperatures that can help plant growth (Agegnehu et al.,
2016).
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Bokashi (organic material rich in microbial biological
resources) is the result of organic material fermentation
with stocks of effective microorganisms. This can be used as
an organic fertilizer to nourish the crops, increase the
growth and production of plants (Karimuna et al., 2016;
Zaman et al., 2016; Anhar et al. 2018), improve better soil
structure (Xiaohou et al., 2008; Hernández et al., 2014;
Barajas-Aceves 2016), and increase the volume of water
contained and stored in the soil which means increasing the
water available to the plants (Djajadi et al., 2011;
Yulnafatmawita et al., 2010).
The use of bokashi in plants increased the concentration of P
and K and also increased the number, length, and diameter
of Alpinia purpurata plant stems (Hernández et al., 2014). It
also has increased production, dry weight of seeds and
weight of 100 corn seeds and peanut crops (Karimuna et al.,
2016) and reduced the need for inorganic fertilizers of about
50% in corn crops (Pangaribuan et al., 2011; Yuliana et al.,
2015) and the canola plant (Brassica napus L.) (Kazemeini et
al., 2010). Bokashi manure also has promoted the growth of
plant seeds of okra (Abelmoschus esulentus (L.) Moench
(Uka et al., 2013).
The use of cow dung bokashi as an organic fertilizer on
shallot plant is very necessary because it can add nutrients,
improve the physical of soil so that the soil becomes fertile,
loose and easily processed and improve the ability of soil in
the binding of nutrients that cannot be replaced by artificial
fertilizers. Bokashi of cow dung contains many elements of
nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K), which most
needed by plants, thereby reducing the use of NPK inorganic
fertilizers. The aim of this research is to know the bokashi
type and dosage of NPK fertilizer under the appropriate
recommendation standard in improving soil quality and
shallot yield in the dry land.
Results
The influence of the growing environment
Bokashi of cow manure at a dose of 3 t ha-1 combined with
NPK inorganic fertilizer at a dose of 200 kg ha-1 (B2K2)
showed the lowest soil evaporation (8.67g) during the day
(07:00 am to 12:00 pm) and (5.00g) for the afternoon (01:00
pm to 05:00 pm) (Figure 1). The lowest soil temperature
fluctuations was 2.14 0C (Figure 2).
Influence on soil physical and chemical properties
Bokashi of cow manure at a dose of 3 t ha-1 combined with
NPK inorganic fertilizer at a dose of 200 kg ha-1 (B2K2) has
shown the best average value for physical and chemical
properties of the soil (Table 1).
Influences on plant growth and yield
Bokashi of cow manure at 3 t ha-1 combined with NPK
inorganic fertilizer dose of 200 kg ha-1 (B2K2) produced
the highest of plant high, i.e. 28.12 cm, root length of 16.73
cm, root dry weight of 2.40 g and shallot bulb yield of 11.74
t ha-1 (Table 2). The increasing of the shallot bulb was getting
along with the increased content of C-organic (Figure 3).
Response on bacteria populations on N-fixation and
phosphate solubilizing
Organic fertilizer bokashi can increase the population of
beneficial microorganisms. Treatment with 3 t ha-1 bokashi
cow manure along with NPK inorganic fertilizer at a dose of
200 kg ha-1 (B2K2) showed the highest population of N-fixing
bacteria and the highest phosphate solubilizing bacteria. The
population of N-fixing bacteria was increased from 27 x 105
CFU ml-1 to 47x106 CFU ml-1 and phosphate solubilizing
bacteria from 20 x 103 CFU ml-1 to 90 x103 CFU ml-1 (Table
3).
Discussion
The role of organic fertilizer on the soil is in relation to
changes in soil properties i.e. physical, chemical and
biological properties of the soil. Bokashi of cow dung
treatment with the dose of 3 t ha-1 and NPK inorganic
fertilizer with the dose of 200 kg ha-1 had significant
differences on all observed components. The weighing result
showed that treatments were able to reduce the rate of
evaporation during the day or late evening, as well as
decrease in the soil temperature fluctuations. This condition
happened because bokashi of cow manure in the soil were
able to form soil granulation to play a role in contributing
the formation of a stable soil aggregate, so, reduction in
absorption of solar energy during the day. Through the
application of bokashi organic fertilizer, the previously heavy
soil re-structured crumb, the infiltration becomes better and
it could absorb water faster to reduce the flow of the
surface. Application of bokashi could also increase the
content of organic materials which also increase humus
levels in the soil. Humus is hydrophilic; therefore, humus can
increase water absorption in the soil and improve water
storage so the evaporation is reduced. The increase in soil
organic matter will improve the ability of soil in holding
water; thus, reducing the rate of evaporation that occurs in
the soil. The increase in holding water capacity of the soil is
related to the application of organic material. It will increase
the volume of water contained and stored in the soil, which
means increasing the water availability in plants.
Bokashi of cow manure is able to reduce the fluctuation of
the soil temperature because it can increase soil porosity so
that the soil aeration is better. The high content of organic
material in bokashi will increase the water storage of the
soil. Holding water by soil organic matter can reduce water
loss through percolation and evaporation. In addition,
bokashi also helps to reduce the radiation received and
absorbed by the soil. The supply of organic matter by mulch
can increase the soil water level by 6-7%. The storage of
groundwater is greater so it will increase the productivity of
the plant (Agbede et al., 2017; Chang et al., 2016; Edwards
et al., 2000; Sudaryono, 2001; Wang et al., 2009).
Bokashi fertilizer has also positive effects on root growth by
increasing root length and root dry weight in the rhizosphere
conditions. Organic matter serves as a granulator to improve
soil structure, as source of N, P, K nutrients and other
microelements. A good soil structure can guarantee a better
root development so the area of nutrient uptake is wider.
This can keep the process of photosynthesis optimal
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Table 1. Results of soil analysis before and after treatment.
No
Parameter
Before
treatment
After treatment
B1K0
B1K1
B1K2
B2K0
B2K1
B2K2
B2K3
1.
Bulk Density (g.cm-3)
1.54
1.48b
1.46b
1.36ab
1.47b
1.38ab
1.28a
1.39ab
2.
Permeability (cm. hour-1)
3.67
3.89a
4.07a
5.73b
3.92a
5.78b
6.14b
4.02a
3.
Porosity (%)
45.0
49.0a
51.0ab
56.0bc
51.0ab
56.0bc
58.0c
55.0bc
4.
pH (H2O)
5.87
6.11a
6.35a
6.37a
6.14a
6.53a
6.68a
6.27a
5.
C-organic (%)
0.66
1.39a
1.68a
1.71a
1.42a
1,88a
3.28a
1.87a
6.
C/N Ratio (%)
7.02
9.11a
9.22a
10.3bc
9.12a
10.8c
11.9d
9.18a
7.
N-total (%)
0.13
0.22a
0.28ac
0.37ce
0.25ab
0a.44de
0.45e
0.36ce
8.
P-total (mg 100g-1 )
40.35
18.8a
20.6ab
22.5bd
21.9bc
23.4cd
24.6d
21.7bc
9.
K2O (mg 100g-1)
48.57
34,8b
38.9c
37.5c
32.6a
46.3d
50.5e
37.2c
10.
Sulfur (ppm)
11.00
18.5d
15.3ab
16.7bc
13.7a
17.3cd
17.4cd
14.9a
11
CEC (meq 100g-1)
12.92
17.7a
19.6ab
24.4cd
17.8a
24.3cd
26.6d
23.7c
Numbers followed by the s ame letter in the same row are not significantly different at the 0.05 α HSD test. B1: Bokashi leaf of Gliricidia sp., B2: Bokashi cattle manure, K0: without NPK, K1: 100 kg
ha-1 NPK, K2: 200 kg ha-1 NPK, K3: 300 kg ha-1 NPK.
Fig 1. Soil evaporation on the application of bokashi and NPK inorganic fertilizers. B1: Bokashi leaf of Gliricidia sp., B2: Bokashi
cattle manure, K0: without NPK, K1: 100 kg ha-1 NPK, K2: 200 kg ha-1 NPK, K3: 300 kg ha-1 NPK. Data are means + SD. Similar bar
colour followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 0.05 α HSD test.
Table 2. Growth and yield responses of shallot on the application of bokashi and NPK inorganic fertilizer.
Treatment
Plant High
(cm)
Root length (cm)
Root Dry Weight (g.plan-1)
Bulbs yield
(t.ha-1)
B1K0
19.34a
12.53a
0.87a
4.79a
B1K1
23.30a
13.93a
0.92a
5.28a
B1K2
24.95a
14.47b
1.50b
5.52a
B1K3
24.25a
12.80a
1.63b
7.05b
B2K0
22,11a
13.47a
0.93a
5.69a
B2K1
25.79ab
14.07b
1.53b
6.46ab
B2K2
28.12b
16.73bc
2.40c
11.74d
B2K3
26.03ab
14.73b
1.45b
8.38c
Numbers followed by the same letter in the same column are not significantly different at the 0.05 α HSD test. B1: Bokashi le af of Gliricidia sp., B2: Bokashi cattle manure, K0: without NPK, K1: 100
kg ha-1 NPK, K2: 200 kg ha-1 NPK, K3: 300 kg ha-1 NPK.
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Fig 2. Soil temperature fluctuations on the application of bokashi and NPK inorganic fertilizer. B1: Bokashi leaf of Gliricidia sp., B2:
Bokashi cattle manure, K0: without NPK, K1: 100 kg ha-1 NPK, K2: 200 kg ha-1 NPK, K3: 300 kg ha-1 NPK. Data are means + SD. Similar
bar colour followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 0.05 α HSD test.
Table 3. N-fixing bacteria populations and phosphate solubilizing bacteria before and after treatment.
Treatment
N-fixing bacteria population
(CFU ml-1)
Phosphate solubilizing bacteria population
(CFU ml-1)
Before treatment
after treatment
before treatment
after treatment
B1K0
27x105
17x106
20 x103
30 x103
B1K1
27x105
25x106
20 x103
70 x103
B1K2
27x105
22x106
20 x103
50 x103
B1K3
27x105
19x106
20 x103
40 x103
B2K0
27x105
21x106
20 x103
60 x103
B2K1
27x105
34x106
20 x103
80 x103
B2K2
27x105
47x106
20 x103
90 x103
B2K3
27x105
31x106
20 x103
80 x103
B1: Bokashi leaf of Gliricidia sp., B2: Bokashi cattle manure, K0: without NPK, K1: 100 kg ha-1 NPK, K2: 200 kg ha-1 NPK, K3: 300 kg ha-1 NPK.
Fig 3. The relationship between the content of soil Organic-C and the increasing of shallot bulbs yield per hectare. B1: Bokashi leaf
of Gliricidia sp., B2: Bokashi cattle manure, K0: without NPK, K1: 100 kg ha-1 NPK, K2: 200 kg ha-1 NPK, K3: 300 kg ha-1 NPK.
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Fig 4. The Development of shallot bulbs at age of 7 WAP on bokashi and NPK inorganic fertilizer treatment. B1: Bokashi leaf of
Gliricidia sp., B2: Bokashi cattle manure, K0: without NPK, K1: 100 kg ha-1 NPK, K2: 200 kg ha-1 NPK, K3: 300 kg ha-1 NPK.
(Shaheen et al., 2007). This is consistent with those reported
by Efthimiadou et al. (2010) that the cow manure can
increase the rate of photosynthesis in sweet corn compared
with inorganic fertilizers.
Bokashi treatment tends to increase the nutrient content of
total N, P, and K, so it will reduce the use of inorganic
fertilizers until below of standard recommendation. The
increased nutrient showed that the treatment given, mainly
organic matter can increase absorption. Thus, it will improve
the soil capacity in holding nutrients from the mineralization
by microorganisms.
The role of organic fertilizer towards changes in soil chemical
properties is well-known. Also, it can increase the cation
exchange capacity (CEC) of the soil and improve fertilization
efficiency. Organic fertilizer addition can increase the weight
of the fruit and also improve soil properties through
increasing soil water content, soil organic carbon, cation
exchange capacity and pH as well as the increase of P and K
in plants and reduce the use of inorganic fertilizers by 50%
(Agegnehu et al., 2016; Gobbi et al., 2016; Kaplan et al.,
2016; Sumarni et al., 2009; Yuliana et al., 2015; Salo, 2002;
Sorensen, 1996; Pire et al., 2001).
The results showed that the interaction between cow
manure bokashi (at 3 t ha-1) with NPK inorganic fertilizer of
200 kg ha-1 can increase the yield of shallot bulbs per
hectare. This means that bokashi and NPK inorganic fertilizer
dosage given in this study are appropriate and have positive
effects on yield of shallot bulb.
The role of organic fertilizer in improving the physical and
chemical properties refers to the increase of organic-C soil
and CEC of soil (Agegnehu et al.,2016). This will help the
development and activity of plant roots in absorbing the
nutrients needed for the growth and development of plants.
Adequate soil organic matter and the right dose of N, P, and
K will rise chlorophyll content, which further increase the
rate of photosynthesis. The increasing of photosynthesis
rate will increase the amount of biomass that resulted in the
enhancement of food reserves, by which the tuber yield
increases (Abdel-Aziz et al., 2016; Al-Sherif et al., 2015; Liu et
al., 2017; Mete et al., 2015; Munyahali et al., 2017;
Nurudeen et al., 20 15; Singh et al., 2001; Siavoshi et al.,
2011; Zayed et al., 2013).
Bokashi fertilizer of cow manure and NPK inorganic fertilizer
treatment also increase the population of beneficial
microbes such as N-fixing bacteria and phosphate
solubilizing bacteria, because the organic material serves as
a source of nutrients and energy for soil organisms. In
addition, organic fertilizers play a role in changing soil
biological properties by increasing the diversity and
population of soil organisms (microbial and soil microbes)
and increasing soil fertility characterized by increased
microbial activity (Lee, 2010; Zhang et al., 2017).
Materials and Methods
Plant materials
The plant materials was shallot (Allium cepa L. var,
aggregatum). Before planting the shallot, seedbeds were
made, which was 1.20 m x 3 m in the north to the south. The
distance between the sequences was 60 cm, the distance
between plots was 60 cm, and planting distance was 15 cm x
20 cm. The seedbed was made at a depth of 40 cm which
could serve as a drainage channel. Shallot planted was
watered in the morning and evening, or in accordance with
the soil conditions.
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Study site and experimental design
The research was conducted in the Guntarano Village,
Tanantovea District, Donggala Regency, Central Sulawesi,
with an altitude of 110 m above sea level. The type of soil
was inceptisol and an average temperature of 39C. The
study carried out from April 2016 to October 2016.
This study used a split-plot design consisting of two factors.
For the first factor, the main plots were assigned to the
bokashi type, which is consisting of two levels, namely: B1 =
3 t ha-1 of Bokashi gliricidia leaf, B2 = 3 t ha-1 Bokashi cow
manure dose. The second factor as the subplot was NPK
inorganic fertilizer dose, consisted of 4 levels, i.e. K0 =
without fertilizer, K1 = NPK 100 kg ha-1, K2 = NPK 200 kg ha-1
and K3 = NPK 300 kg ha-1. The combination of the two
factors created 8 treatment combinations with 3
replications, so there were 24 units of experiment.
Organic fertilizer (bokashi) preparation
Bokashi as effective microorganism compost (Higa and Parr,
1994) was made from cattle manure, leaf of Gliricidia sp.,
and effective microorganism solution (EM4, PT.
Songgololangit Persada, Indonesia). According to
manufacture, the EM4, contained microorganisms such as
Lactobacillus (8.7 x 105 cell/ml), phosphate solubilizing (7.5 x
106 cell/ml), and yeast (8.5 x 106 cell/ml). Additionally, EM4
also contained organic-C (27.05%), N (0.07%), P2O5 (3.22
ppm), K2O (7675 ppm), Ca (1676.25 ppm), Mg (597 ppm),
Mn (1.90 ppm), Fe (5.54 ppm), Zn (1.90 ppm), B (< 20
ppm), and Cu (< 0.01 ppm). Bokashi of cattle manure and
leaf of Gliricidia sp. were made in different composting
boxes at room temperature. The effective microorganism
solution (EM4) was prepared followed by the manufacture
instruction (5 ml of EM4+10 ml of molasses + 1985 ml of
dechlorinated water). The cattle manure and leaf of
Gliricidia sp. were sprayed by EM4 solutions and mixed.
Bokashi was remixed after 2 days to control the temperature
that should not go above 40oC in fermentation.
Traits measured
The observed variables include: (a) changes in physical and
chemical properties of soil (Eviati et al., 2009: Kurnia et al.,
2006), (b) soil evaporation which were measured by
gravimetry method (Prijono, 2008), (c) soil temperature, (d)
plant height, (e) root length, (f) the dry weight of roots, (g)
shallot bulbs yield per hectare, and (h) the total population
of N-fixing bacteria and phosphate solubilizing bacteria
(Sasrawati et al., 2006).
Data analysis
The obtained data was analyzed by F-test to know the effect
of treatment. If there is a significant difference between the
treatments then it was tested by the honestly significant
difference (HSD) at the level of 5%.
Conclusion
Bokashi of cow manure treatment at dose of 3 t ha-1
combined with NPK inorganic fertilizer application of 200 kg
ha-1 can reduce the evaporation rate and soil temperature
fluctuation, and also increase the yield of shallot. Results of
soil and microbial analysis showed that an increase in soil
fertility increased levels of C-organic from 0.66% to 3.28%,
N-fixing bacteria from 27 x 105 CFU ml-1 to 47 x 105 CFU ml-1,
phosphate solubilizing bacteria from 20 x 103 CFU ml-1 to 90
x103 CFU ml-1 and shallot yield increased from 4.79 t ha-1 to
11,74 t ha-1.
Acknowledgements
We thank the Indonesian Ministry of Research, Technology
and Higher Education for funding this study.
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... Organic fertilizer is considering to contribute in nutrient availability and increase the nutrient efficiency utilization of chemical fertilizer in shallots cultivation [1] and hence decrease the dose of chemical fertilizer up to 50% [2,3]. The effectivity of the organic matter combined with reduced dose of NPK fertilizer to increase soil beneficial microbes and yield of shallot was evidence [4]. Another nutrient source to support shallot production is biofertilizer; the newest eco-friendly technology for supporting the sustainable agriculture. ...
... Organic matter amendment is able to support biofertilizer microbes during plant cultivation as well as after the harvest since the microbes utilized organic carbon for their heterotrophic metabolisms [11]. The microbial inoculation combined with organic matter application resulted in the presence of macronutrient and soil beneficial microbes for next crops [12,4]. ...
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Nowadays, shallot is important horticultural crops in Maluku include in Tual City, Maluku Province. For ensuring the macronutrients level in soil and yield during shallot cultivation, fertilization composed of chemical, organic and bio fertilizer is needed. The objective of field experiment was to evaluate the effect of mixed biofertilizer integrated with organic matter on total nitrogen and available phosphorous in soil as well as shallot yield grown in Vertisols of Tual. The experiment was setup in randomized block design with four treatments of compost and chicken manure amendment with and without biofertilizer containing N-fixing bacteria and P-solubilizing. At the vegetative stage, consortia biofertilizer combined with either compost or chicken manure increased plant height and soil reaction but decreased the available phosphate (P) and didn't change nitrogen (N) total in soil. Chicken manure amendment combined with biofertilizer inoculation increased dry weight of shoots and bulbs even though didn't significantly differ with other treatments. Nonetheles, that treatment resulted in high yield of shallot bulbs up to 14 t/ha.
... The EM 4 solution was prepared as reported by Lasmini et al. [11] but with slight modifications. First, 800 mL of EM 4 solution and another 800 mL of molasses were measured and placed in a drum containing 80 L of non-chlorinated water. ...
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Agricultural waste is a type of solid waste that needs to be managed properly. Organic waste can be recycled to produce bokashi fertilizer, which can be used to improve soil health, increase crop production, and sanitize the environment. However, it may contain heavy metals that could be toxic to plants and can pollute the environment if not properly decomposed. This study was designed to evaluate the fertilizer quality of six different bokashi fertilizer ratios (bfrs) over seven- and thirty-day maturation periods. The raw materials used include horse bedding waste (HBW), cow dung (CD), and paddy husk charcoal (PHC) in different ratios, treated with an effective microorganisms (EM4) solution. All the nutrients studied (N, P, K, Mg, and Ca) were significantly affected by the bokashi fertilizer ratios (bfrs). The best bokashi fertilizer ratio was bokashi fertilizer ratio-6 (bfr6), but it was statistically similar to bokashi fertilizer ratio-5 (bfr5). Its N, P, K, Mg, and Ca contents were higher than the control (bfr1) by 133.9%, 225.5%, 196.4%, 105.0%, and 84.7%, respectively. Similarly, all these nutrients were significantly affected by time. N, P, K, and Mg increased by 21.2, 33.0%, 16.4%, and 28.8%, respectively, after 30 days of maturation, with a decrease in Ca only 2.4%, which was not significant A germination index (GI) of 90.1% was obtained using cabbage seeds. The heavy metals result and germination bioassay confirmed the safety and maturity of the bokashi fertilizer. In conclusion, the results revealed that good-quality bokashi fertilizer can be produced within 30 days. Bfrr5 and bfr6 are equally good candidates for producing good-quality bokashi fertilizer for effective crop growth.
... The addition of manure increases the content of organic matter in the soil and increases the content of N, P, and K elements so that it can help the growth process and increase crop yields [10,11]. Previous studies have shown that shallot production in dryland increased by adding bokashi compost and NPK fertilizer [12][13][14]. The manure application of 15-25 t/ha significantly affected bulbs shallots plants [15]. ...
... The production process is short and includes many materials such as chicken manure, black earth, ash or coal. Bokashi's color is grayish, with sand apparency [188]. Before mixing the ingredients, the waste-loss (including peels and pseudostems) are chopped until obtaining particles of approximately 2 to 5 cm. ...
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Banana is a fruit grown mainly in tropical countries of the world. After harvest, almost 60% of banana biomass is left as waste. Worldwide, about 114.08 million metric tons of banana waste-loss are produced, leading to environmental problems such as the excessive emission of greenhouse gases. These wastes contain a high content of paramount industrial importance, such as cellulose, hemicellulose and natural fibers that various processes can modify, such as bacterial fermentation and anaerobic degradation, to obtain bioplastics, organic fertilizers and biofuels such as ethanol, biogas, hydrogen and biodiesel. In addition, they can be used in wastewater treatment methods by producing low-cost biofilters and obtaining activated carbon from rachis and banana peel. Furthermore, nanometric fibers commonly used in nanotechnology applications and silver nanoparticles useful in therapeutic cancer treatments, can be produced from banana pseudostems. The review aims to demonstrate the contribution of the recovery of banana production waste-loss towards a circular economy that would boost the economy of Latin America and many other countries of emerging economies.
... The addition of manure increases the content of organic matter in the soil and increases the content of N, P, and K elements so that it can help the growth process and increase crop yields [10,11]. Previous studies have shown that shallot production in dryland increased by adding bokashi compost and NPK fertilizer [12][13][14]. The manure application of 15-25 t/ha significantly affected bulbs shallots plants [15]. ...
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The Government has made efforts to increase shallot production through the use of shallot seeds. The problem is, information about the technology components of shallot cultivation from seeds is still limited. This research aimed to get the right dose of manure to increase the weight of shallot bulbs in seeds. The research was conducted in West Sumatra, Indonesia. Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD) with 6 treatments of cow dung (0 t/ha, 5 t/ha, 10 t/ha, 15 t/ha, 20 t/ha, and 25 t/ha) each with 4 replications. Manure dose treatment had a significant effect on plant height, number of leaves per clump, number of tillers per bulb, bulb diameter, wet biomass weight, and dry bulb weight. A significant positive correlation was obtained between the manure dose and all components of the observation, except bulb shrinkage. Other than that, the addition of manure as much as 1,000 kg/ha, can increase the weight of wet biomass by 524.1 kg/ha and the weight of dry bulbs by 293.4 kg/ha. Cultivation of shallots using seeds is profitable when using manure of more than 5 t/ha, identified by RCR> 1. The results of this study suggest increasing the yield of shallot bulbs from seeds by using cow dung as much as 10-25 t/ha. Facilitation of shallot seeds (TSS) from the Government is needed so that farmers have easy access to seeds to develop shallots in the future. Keywords: True Shallot Seed, seed bulbs, manure application
... Data hasil pengamatan pengaruh media tanam terhadap tinggi, diameter, dan jumlah daun semai S. leprosula dapat dilihat pada Tabel 1. Media tanam tanah : kompos (1:1) dan tanah : kompos (1:2) menghasilkan pertumbuhan tinggi dan diameter semai S. leprosula yang tidak berbeda nyata, akan tetapi kedua perlakuan media tanam tersebut secara nyata lebih tinggi dibandingkan kontrol (tanah : kompos : sekam padi (7:3:1). Tujuan pemberian kompos pada media tanam adalah meningkatkan unsur hara, memperbaiki sifat fisik tanah sehingga tanah menjadi subur, gembur, dan mudah diolah dimana fungsi tersebut tidak bisa digantikan oleh pupuk buatan (Lasmini et al., 2018 Keterangan: Angka pada baris yang diikuti huruf yang sama menunjukkan tidak berbeda nyata pada taraf uji 5 % Pertumbuhan tanaman didefinisikan sebagai pertambahan volume dan massa tanaman dengan atau tanpa pembentukan sruktur baru seperti organ, sel atau organel sel yang erat hubungannya terhadap perkembangan dan reproduksi (Brukhin & Morozova, 2011). Hasil rata-rata pertambahan tinggi dan diameter menunjukkan bahwa secara umum media tanam tanah : kompos (1:1) dapat meningkatkan pertumbuhan tinggi dan diameter sebesar 69,95 % dan 21,21 %, sedangkan persentase peningkatan dari media tanam tanah : kompos (1:2) adalah sebesar 79,82 % dan 30,30 %. ...
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... It is reported that fermented OF possesses advantages over composts, including easier and more environmentally friendly preparation from the raw material [26]. The use of fermented products rich in selected microorganisms has positive effects on soil biological activity and may improve physical and chemical soil properties, and plant growth [27][28][29]. ...
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... The studies reported that bokashi improves soil fertility, increases crop yield, and promotes plant growth. Besides that, bokashi as organic materials can increase the water-holding capacity of the soil [15]. The review by [16] summarized the advantages of applying the bokashi in agriculture as an organic fertilizer. ...
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Malaysians generate 15,000 tons of food waste per day and dispose of it in the landfill, contributing to greenhouse gas emissions. As a solution for the stated problem, this research aims to produce an excellent quality bokashi compost from household organic waste using a smart composting bin. The bokashi composting method is conducted, whereby banana peels are composted with three types of bokashi brans prepared using 12, 22, and 32 mL of EM-1 mother cultured. During the 14 days composting process, the smart composting bin collected the temperature, air humidity, and moisture content produced by the bokashi-composting process. With the ATmega328 microcontroller, these data were uploaded and synchronized to Google Sheet via WIFI. After the bokashi-composting process was completed, three of each bokashi compost and a control sample were buried in separate black soil for three weeks to determine each compost’s effectiveness. NPK values and the C/N ratio were analyzed on the soil compost. From the research, 12 mL of EM-1 shows the most effective ratio to the bokashi composting, as it resulted in a faster decomposition rate and has an optimum C/N ratio. Bokashi composting can help to reduce household food wastes. An optimum amount of the EM-1 used during the bokashi-composting process will produce good quality soil without contributing to environmental issues.
Chapter
An ecosystem consists of various mechanisms such as physical, chemical, and biological mechanisms, out of which the biological mechanism is very peculiar and essential for every living organism on earth. In these biological mechanisms, the raw materials will be plants, human beings, and other living organisms, whose role is most important. An ecosystem also consists of terrestrial weeds such as Parthenium hysterophorus, Ageratum conyzoides, Lantana camara, etc. These weeds are called menacing weeds because of their adverse behavior toward other plant species. These weeds consist of allelopathic and phenolic characteristics, which affect other plants with germination and plant growth by spraying or releasing the biochemical in them. There are few studies on allelopathic plants and their effects on neighboring plants. Many studies have performed physical, traditional, and biological processes to eradicate these weeds. Still, all the methods had a few drawbacks such as noneconomical, not environmentally friendly, and neither environmentally friendly except biological processes. In this chapter, an encapsulated review has been done for examining the efficiency, toxicity, and viable option for converting terrestrial weeds into a value-added product through biological management technique composting in a circular bioeconomy. Composting is a biological process that breaks down organic compounds in the presence of oxygen, and fertilizer is the end product.
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Brangkasan kedelai merupakan limbah pada pertanaman kedelai, yang terdiri dari daun, batang, akar, dan kulit polong. Brangkasan ini dapat digunakan sebagai bahan pembuatan pupuk organik bokashi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui dosis bokashi yang terbaik untuk pertumbuhan dan hasil tanaman bawang merah. Percobaan dilaksanakan di UPTD Balai Benih Padi dan Palawija Satuan Pelayanan Plumbon, Dinas Tanaman Pangan dan Hortikultura Provinsi Jawa Barat yang berlokasi di Plumbon, Cirebon, mulai dari bulan Maret sampai Mei 2020. Rancangan percobaan yang digunakan adalah rancangan acak kelompok (RAK) dengan perlakuan yang diuji adalah dosis bokashi brangkasan kedelai. Dalam penelitian ini ada tujuh taraf perlakuan yang diuji, yaitu: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, dan 30 ton/ha Masing-masing perlakuan diulang empat kali. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa bokashi brangkasan kedelai berpengaruh nyata pada rata-rata tinggi tanaman, rata-rata jumlah daun, rata-rata jumlah anakan, diameter umbi, serta bobot umbi segar per rumpun dan per petak, juga bobot umbi kering per rumpun dan per petak. Perlakuan dosis bokashi brangkasan kedelai 25 ton/ha memberikan pengaruh terbaik terhadap hasil tanaman bawang merah dengan bobot umbi kering per petak 3,99 kg/petak.
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Bandotan (A.conyzoides) is one of the most common weeds in dry land. Weeds can reduce the results of a variety of crops. On the contrary, the use of this weed as the organic material would be able to increase the nutrient content of the soil. The problem is, the decomposition of this weed is naturally longer than the process in the form of Bokashi. This study aims to determine the effect of Bandotan applied in the form of Bokashi on growth and nutrient content of tomato plants. This study was an experimental study and completely randomized design was used with 5 treatments and 3 replications. The treatment were rate of bandotan bokashi those 100, 120, 140, 160 g / polybag and 0,6g NPK / polybag as a control. The research was conducted in the Screen House of Biology Department, Faculty of Mathematic and Sciences, Universitas Negeri Padang. Tomato growth observed was high, wet weight, biomass and weight of the fruit. While the nutritional quality of tomatoes was vitamin C and A. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and a further test DNMRT at 5% level. The results showed that bokhasi bandotan 120g / polybag give best effect to the weight of tomatoes. However, bandotan bokashi do not give effect to the high, wet weight, biomass, vitamin C and vitamin A of tomato. Bokashi bandotan can be utilized as a substitute for synthetic fertilizer NPK for tomato plants.
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Harvesting young cassava leaves as a vegetable is a common practice in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo). However, information on its effects on growth and yield of cassava is scarce. Multi-locational trials were conducted on farmers' fields in the province of South Kivu, DR Congo, during two consecutive years to investigate the effects of harvesting frequency of 3 young leaves (no leaf harvesting (NoH); leaf harvesting at 4 week intervals (4-WI) or 2 week intervals (2-WI), starting 4 months after planting) and fertilizer (with or without NPK application) on the growth and yields of cassava, comparable to common practice by farmers in the area, based on a preceding household survey. Overall, harvesting of leaves did not result in significant effects on both height and stem diameter compared with the unharvested treatment. However, collection of leaves at 2-WI significantly (P < 0.05) decreased both height and stem diameter, and resulted in significant (P < 0.1) reduction of stem yields of 20.9% (4.0 t ha ‐1) relative to leaf harvesting at 4-WI but only in the second year. Average total biomass and storage root yields in the control treatment were 35.8 and 23.5 t ha −1 , respectively and were not significantly affected by leaf harvesting. Application of NPK fertilizer resulted in significant (P < 0.05) increases of both height and stem diameter over time, independent of the frequency of leaf harvesting. Mineral fertilizer significantly (P < 0.05) increased the overall total, storage root and stem yields by 28.3% (9.5 t ha −1), 19.9% (4.5 t ha −1) and 45.1% (5.0 t ha −1), respectively regardless of the frequency of leaf harvesting. This study indicates that harvesting of young leaves results in small or negligible effects on cassava growth and yields compared to the mineral fertilizers which increase both cassava growth and yields in the conditions of our study.
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A field experiment was conducted in the forest-savanna transition zone of Nigeria from May to July 2014 and September to November 2015 to determine the impacts of poultry manure (PM) and NPK fertilizer on soil physical properties, and growth and yield of carrot (Daucus carota L.). The five treatments included no manure or fertilizer (control); 10, 20, and 30 megagrams (Mg)·ha⁻¹ of PM; and 300 kg·ha⁻¹ of 15 N-15 P-15 K fertilizer. All levels of PM reduced soil bulk density and temperature, and improved total porosity and moisture content compared to the NPK fertilizer and the control. Plant height, number of leaves, root diameter, root length, and fresh root yield in the PM and NPK fertilizer treatments were improved compared to the control. Growth and yield parameters of carrot plants treated with 20 and 30 Mg·ha⁻¹ PM were higher than the other treatments. The 10 Mg·ha⁻¹ PM and NPK fertilizer treatments produced similar growth and yield responses. There was an interaction for year (Y) × fertilizer (F) on plant height, number of leaves, and fresh root yield. Relative to the control 10, 20, or 30 Mg·ha⁻¹ PM and NPK fertilizer increased fresh root yield of carrot by 39.9%, 62.0%, 64.9%, and 37.3%, respectively. The 20 Mg·ha⁻¹ PM treatment best improved soil properties and carrot productivity as indicated by the benefit-to-cost ratio.
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Here we report results from a field experiment investigating the application of biochars, lime, organic fertilizer, and their combinations. Soil pH was increased by ameliorants. Wheat biochar produced the largest increase, of approximately 2 pH units, and mixed treatment (1/3 rice husk biochar & 1/3 lime & 1/3 organic fertilizer) also caused large increases, of almost 1 pH unit. There was strong evidence that the ratio of AOA to AOB abundance greatly increased with decreased soil pH, indicating that soil pH was an important factor affecting the abundance of AOB. High-thoughput MiSeq sequencing showed that the soil ameliorants significantly increased the relative abundances of Nitrosomonas and Nitrospira. Soil pH was an important determinant of the bacterial community composition and diversity. Our study suggests that the ameliorants (biochar, lime, organic fertilizer and their combinations) change soil nitrification by altering nitrifying bacteria abundance, diversity and composition, caused by the changed soil pH.
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The yield of agriculture crops tends to be decreasing in many parts of world including in Indonesian farmers’ land. One of the causes of the decreased yields is the reduction of organic matter in the soil. Peanut is one of the important crops in southeast Sulawesi and is usually intercropped with maize. However, the yield of peanut and maize crops were low as they were grown in marginal lands that have low nutrient contents, low CEC, high acidity, and low organic matter. The objectives of this paper were to summarize the results of our studies on the use of bio fertilizer bokashi plus fertilizer to improve peanut yields grown in marginal soil in southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. The study also examined the agronomical performance of several local peanut varieties which had high adaptability to the local conditions and marginal lands. The results of this study demonstrated that application of mulch and bokashi increased maize and peanut production, seed dry weight and 100-seed weight. This practice has potentials to be applied in other agricultural lands of southeast Sulawesi region with similar soil and climatic condition to increase peanut yield, and promote the sustainable agriculture production of the region.
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A research aiming to improve soil aggregate stability of Ultisol in terms of creating sustainable agriculture and environmental development was conducted by applying fresh organic matter (OM) into soil. Three types of OM sources used were Titonia diversifolia, Chromolaena odorata, dan Gliricidia sepium. This research was conducted in Ultisol Limau Manis Sumbar having annual rainfall > 5000 mm, in 2008. The fresh OM used was cut, mixed with soil up to 20 cm depth, and then incubated for approximately one month before corn seeds were planted. Soil was sampled before being treated with OM and then after harvesting corn (4 moths after applying OM). Soil OM content as well as soil aggregate stability (AS) and several other soil physical properties wer analysed in laboratory. The results showed that soil OM content and AS increased after one planting period. Besides that, soil physical properties were also improved. As soil physical properties became better, corn production was also higher at plot with than without OM application. Among 3 species of OM added, Tithonia diversifolia gave highest corn biomass. Level of land slope (0-8% dan 15-30%) did not show significant difference either for biomass or for soil OM content and soil AS.Key Words: marginal soil, green manure, soil aggregate stability, soil organic matter
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The fast dynamics of vegetable production, characterized by rapid cropping successions, species with very different cultural requirements, intensity of soil cultivation and scarcity of manure, lead to a progressive depletion of the soil and a reduction of the overall fertility. The effect of different nitrogen sources on lettuce and leek production was evaluated in this experiment. The nitrogen mineral fertilizer for each crop was partially or completely replaced by spent mushroom substrate (SMS). A factorial combination of four fertilization treatments and three different types of SMS were arranged in a completely randomized blocks design. The four treatments were: unfertilized control (T0), mineral control (TMIN, 100% mineral fertilizer), T50 (50% SMS and 50% mineral fertilizer) and T100 (100% SMS). The three types of SMS were straw + poultry manure (SP), horse manure + poultry manure (HP) and straw + poultry manure + horse manure (SPH). Plants were harvested at marketable size, and samplings were carried out in order to evaluate morphological and dimensional traits for both crops considered. Nitrogen concentration, and anion and cation content were also considered. No statistically significant differences were recorded among treatments for marketable yields. A small increase in salt content was also recorded when mineral fertilizers were used. In general, SMS was demonstrated to be a suitable replacement for mineral fertilizers. Cultivation with SMS as soil amendment and fertilizer seemed to have generally positive effects on lettuce and leek performance, showing yields comparable to those with mineral fertilization.
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A field experiment was conducted lo learn about the effect of Bokashi and Sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) on maize production and inorganic fertilizer use efficiency on maize. The experiment was conducted in Jatikerto, Malang; at the altitude of 303 m above sea level, in Alfisol soil type, the average daily temperature ranges 21-33oC, from June to October 2013. The experiment was conducted as factorial, designed in a randomized block design (RBD). The first factor was dose of inorganic fertilizer (100% ; 75% and 50% of recommendation dose). The second factor was the organic fertilizer (Without organic fertilizer20 t Bokashi/ ha, 20 t Sunn hemp/ha, 10 t Bokashi/ha + 10 t Sunn hemp/ha). The results showed that application of 20 t Bokashi/ha, 20 t Sunn hemp/ha, and combination of 10 t Bokashi/ha + 10 t Sunn hemp/ha, along with the application of inorganic fertilizer by dose of 100% increased the yields of maize for about 41.8%; 47.6% and 54.7% (10.73 t/ha; 11.17 t/ha, and 11.71 t/ha), respectively. The yield and nutrient use efficiency in the treatment dose of 100% inorganic fertilizer did not have any significant difference from the application of 20 t Bokashi /ha, 20 t Sunn hemp/ha, and 10 t Bokashi/ha + 10 t Sunn hemp/ha along with doses of inorganic fertilization 75% and 50%. Therefore, the organic fertilizer of 20 t Bokashi/ ha, 20 t Sunn hemp/ha, and combination of 10 t Bokashi/ha + 10 t Sunn hemp/ha could reduce the need of inorganic fertilizer for about 50%.
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Nanofertilizers have become a pioneer approach in agriculture research nowadays. In this paper we investigate the delivery of chitosan nanoparticles loaded with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) for wheat plants by foliar uptake. Chiotsan-NPK nanoparticles were easily applied to leaf surfaces and entered the stomata via gas uptake, avoiding direct interaction with soil systems. The uptake and translocation of nanoparticles inside wheat plants was investigated by transmission electron microscopy. The results revealed that nano particles were taken up and transported through phloem tissues. Treatment of wheat plants grown on sandy soil with nano chitosan-NPK fertilizer induced significant increases in harvest index, crop index and mobilization index of the determined wheat yield variables, as compared with control yield variables of wheat plants treated with normal non-fertilized and normal fertilized NPK. The life cycle of the nano-fertilized wheat plants was shorter than normal-fertilized wheat plants with the ratio of 23.5% (130 days compared with 170 days for yield production from date of sowing). Thus, accelerating plant growth and productivity by application of nanofertilizers can open new perspectives in agricultural practice. However, the response of plants to nanofertilizers varies with the type of plant species, their growth stages and nature of nanomaterials.