We studied the succession of bacterial communities during the biodegradation of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD). The communities originated from a mesocosm with soil from Bien Hoa airbase in Vietnam heavily contaminated with herbicides and dioxins. They were grown in defined media with different carbon and Gibbs energy sources and 2,3,7,8-TCDD. Cultures with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as the sole carbon and energy source degraded about 95% of 2,3,7,8-TCDD within 60 days of cultivation. Those with an additional 1 mM of vanillin did that in roughly 90 days. Further 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing showed that the increase in relative abundance of members belonging to the genera Bordetella, Sphingomonas, Proteiniphilum, and Rhizobium correlated to increased biodegradation of 2,3,7,8-TCDD in these cultures. A higher concentration of vanillin slowed down the biodegradation rate. Addition of alternative carbon and Gibbs energy sources, such as amino acids, sodium lactate and sodium acetate, even stopped the degradation of 2,3,7,8-TCDD completely. Bacteria from the genera Bordetella, Achromobacter, Sphingomonas and Pseudomonas dominated most of the cultures, but the microbial profiles also significantly differed between cultures as judged by non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analyses. Our study indicates that 2,3,7,8-TCDD degradation may be stimulated by bacterial communities preadapted to a certain degree of starvation with respect to the carbon and energy source. It also reveals the succession and abundance of defined bacterial genera in the degradation process. CITATION Nguyen TLA, Dang HTC, Dat TTH, Brandt BW, Röling WFM, Brouwer A and van Spanning RJM (2022) Correlating biodegradation kinetics of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin to the dynamics of microbial communities originating from soil in Vietnam contaminated with herbicides and dioxins. Front. Microbiol. 13:923432.