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Efficacy of newer insecticides against sucking pests of rice fallow blackgram (Vigna mungo L.)

Authors:
  • Acharya N G Ranga Agricultural al University

Abstract

A field experiment was conducted to determine the efficacy of different insecticides against sucking pests viz., thrips, Caliothrips indicus Bangall and whitefly Bemisia tabaci Gennadius, infesting blackgram in North coastal Andhrapradesh at Agricultural College, Naira during rabi 2017-2018.The experimental results revealed that all the treatments showed significant differences in reducing the population of sucking pests over untreated check. Among the tested insecticides, thiacloprid 21.7 SC @ 0.0325% was found to be highly effective against thrips by reducing74.80 per cent thrips population followed by acetamiprid 4 % + fipronil 4% @ 2ml l-1 with 70.81 per cent over untreated control, whereas flonicamid 50 WG @ 0.0325% was very effective against the population of whitefly byreducing 72.19 per cent and lowest per cent disease incidence (17.66%) followed by acetamiprid 4% + fipronil 4% @ 2ml l-1 (64.94%) and thiamethoxam 25 WG @ 0.005% (62.21%) which were on par with each other over control.
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Indian J. Agric. Res., 52 (6) 2018: 700-703
Print ISSN:0367-8245 / Online ISSN:0976-058X
Efficacy of newer insecticides against sucking pests of rice fallow blackgram
(Vigna mungo L.)
K. Swathi*, P. Seetharamu, S. Dhurua and M. Suresh
Department of Entomology, Agricultural College,
Naira, Srikakulam-532 185, Andhra Pradesh, India.
Received: 24-07-2018 Accepted: 29-09-2018 DOI: 10.18805/IJARe.A-5093
ABSTRACT
A field experiment was conducted to determine the efficacy of different insecticides against sucking pests viz., thrips,
Caliothrips indicus Bangall and whitefly Bemisia tabaci Gennadius, infesting blackgram in North coastal Andhrapradesh
at Agricultural College, Naira during rabi 2017-2018.The experimental results revealed that all the treatments showed
significant differences in reducing the population of sucking pests over untreated check. Among the tested insecticides,
thiacloprid 21.7 SC @ 0.0325% was found to be highly effective against thrips by reducing74.80 per cent thrips population
followed by acetamiprid 4 % + fipronil 4% @ 2ml l-1 with 70.81 per cent over untreated control, whereas flonicamid 50
WG @ 0.0325% was very effective against the population of whitefly byreducing 72.19 per cent and lowest per cent
disease incidence (17.66%) followed by acetamiprid 4% + fipronil 4% @ 2ml l-1 (64.94%) and thiamethoxam 25 WG @
0.005% (62.21%) which were on par with each other over control.
Key words: Blackgram, Efficacy, Newer insecticides, Population, Thrips, Whitefly, YMV.
INTRODUCTION
Pulses are wonderful gifts of nature. They are well
known as cheap and excellent source of dietary proteins to
humans and animals and also soil fertility restorers. India is
the major country for the pulse production and consumption
with a relative share of 25-28 % of the total global
production. Blackgram, Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper which is
commonly called as urdbean is the fourth important pulse
crop in India.
On an average, 2.5 to 3.0 million tonnes of pulses
are lost anually due to pest problems in India (Rabindra et
al., 2004). Among them, sucking insect pests such as thrips
(Caliothrips indicus Bagnall) and whitefly (Bemisia tabaci
Gennadius) are the most important pests during early stages
of crop growth which not only reduce the plant vigour and
also act as vectors of deadly viral diseases.
Whitefly is the most important insect pest of pulses
causing damage by sucking cell sap from leaves or tender
parts and excretes honeydew on which sooty mold develops
which hinders photosynthesis. Besides, it also acts as a vector
for Mungbean Yellow Mosaic Virus, (YMV) which is a
serious threat to pulse production in India. The Mungbean
Yellow Mosaic Virus (YMV) disease results in irregular
alternate yellow and green chlorotic patches on older leaves
and causes complete yellowing of young leaves of susceptible
varieties thereby reducing the photosynthetic ability, finally
leading to yield reduction to the tune of 25-78 per cent (vir,
1984).
Thrips are the other major sucking insect pests in
pulses mainly on blackgram and greengram causing
considerable damage by sucking cell sap from leaves, tender
shoots, buds and flowers resulting in curling of leaves,
dropping of flower buds and flowers. Feeding by thrips on
the undersides of open leaves results in silvery streaks and
distortion or curling. When infestation is severe, the leaf
area is reduced, which indirectly affects early vegetative
growth, photosynthesis and finally the grain yield. Severe
infestation may reduce the pod set and distort the pods.
Thrips also act as vectors of different plant viruses which
cause leaf curl and bud necrosis, besides direct injury by
feeding (Ananthakrishnan, 1980). In A.P, rabi blackgram is
cultivated in an area of 2 lakh 96 thousand hectares with a
production of 244 thousand tonnes and productivity of 936
kg ha-1 (2014-2015, www.Indiastat.com). In North coastal
Andhra Pradesh districts rice fallow blackgram is cultivtaed
in an area of 76,113 hectares of which Srikakulam district
alone contributing an area of 42,117 hectares in rice fallow
situations with a production of 331 thousand tonnes, but the
productivity is 705 kg ha-1, which is far below the state
average productivity, due to biotic factors.
Keeping in view of the noxious infestation of the
sucking insects the present study was carried out to evaluate
the effective novel modes of action insecticides with lower
doses for managing the insect pests at critical stages of the
crop growth.
Volume 52 Issue 6 (December 2018)
701
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The field trail was conducted at Agricultural
College Farm, Naira during rabi season 2017-2018 which
is geographically situated at an altitude of 27 m above mean
sea level, 83.84°E longitudes and 18.24°N latitude in the
North Coastal Agro climatic Zone of Andhra Pradesh. The
experiment was laid out in randomized block design (RBD)
with 10 treatments including untreated control in three
replications with a spacing of 30 cm X 10 cm in 5 m X 4m
plots. The first spray was imposed at 30 days after sowing
when the pest population raised above the economic
threshold level and second spray was imposed at 55 days
after sowing. The rebuild up of population was observed at
this stage.
Each plot received 0.6 litres of spray fluid @ 500 l
ha-1. The spray fluid was thoroughly stirred before spraying.
Sprayings were given by using a knapsack high volume
sprayer. The plot in each treatment was sprayed with
respective insecticides ensuring uniform coverage of
insecticide. The observations of the pest population was
recorded one day prior to spraying as pre treatment count
and 1st, 3rd, 5th and 10th day after spraying as post treatment
counts. The population of thrips and whitefly were recorded
from top, middle and bottom trifoliate leaves per plant from
5 randomly selected plants of each plot by tagging the leaves.
The per cent disease incidence of YMV was recorded from
whole plot at 5 days interval.
The per cent population reduction in different
treatments was calculated by using modified Abbot’s
formula (Fleming and Ratnakaran, 1985) and the data
were subjected to ANOVA and the data was transformed
to the corresponding arc sine values and square root values.
( Gomez and Gomez, 1984).
Per cent population reduction =
Post treatment population Pre treatment population
in treatment in untreated control
----------------------------- -----------------------------
Pre treatment population Post treatment population
in treatment in untreated control
No. of plants infected plants
-------------------------------------
Total no. of plants
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Efficacy of insecticides against thrips: The cumulative
efficacy of the two sprays of the observations recorded
before spraying of insecticides showed that the population
of thrips was almost homogenously distributed throughout
the experimental field and varied between 68.33 to 73.16
Per cent YMV Incidence =

per five plants and there was no significant difference
between the treatments. The overall efficacy of post treatment
observations recorded at 1, 3, 5 and 10 DAS after both the
sprays (Table 1) showed that all the treatments were
significantly superior over untreated check. Among all the
insecticidal treatments thiacloprid 21.7 SC @ 0.0325% was
found to be very effective by reducing 74.80 mean per cent
thrips population over untreated control which was
significantly superior to all the other treatments due to its
acute contact and stomach poison having systemic properties.
The results on the efficacy of thiacloprid is in accordance
with Elbert et al. (2000) against sucking pests and Chaudhari
et al. (2015) against the management of thrips in Indian bean.
The next best treatment is acetamiprid 4 % + fipronil 4%
@ 2ml l-1 with 70.81 per cent reduction in thrips population
over untreated control. The present findings of actemiprid +
fipronil is in agreement with Roshan et al. (2018) against
BPH and GLH in paddy. Flubendiamide 19.9% + thiacloprid
19.9% @ 1ml l-1 and thiamethoxam 25 WG @ 0.005%
recorded 65.02 and 60.40 per cent reduction in thrips
population over untreated control, respectively. The present
findings on the efficacy of flubendiamide + thiacloprid are
comparable with the results of Tatagar et al. (2014) against
thrips in chilli. Similar results regarding the efficacy of
thiamethoxam obtained in the present investigation also
corroborating with the earlier findings of Anusha et al.
(2014), Kaushik et al. (2015), Ahriwar et al. (2016), Manju
et al. (2016) and Singh et al. (2016) against thrips in pulses,
confirming to the outcome of the present study.
The lowest mean per cent population reduction was
observed with chlorantraniliprole 9.3% + λ cyhalothrin 4.6
% @ 0.5 ml l-1 by recording 20.97 per cent of thrips
population over untreated control.
Efficacy of insecticides against whitefly: The data
presented in Table 2 the overall efficacy of post treatment
observations recorded at 1, 3, 5 and 10 DAS showed that all
the treatments were significantly superior over untreated
check in reducing the whitefly and Yellow Mosaic Virus
disease incidence. Among all the insecticidal treatments
flonicamid 50 WG @ 0.0325% was found to be very effective
by reducing 71.94 mean per cent whitefly population over
untreated control and also very effective in reducing YMV
disesase incidence (17.66%) over untreated control (58.45
%) which was significantly superior due to its novel systemic
insecticidal activity against hemipteran insects. The present
investigations are in agreement with Chandi et al. (2016),
Naik et al. (2017) and Kalyan et al. (2017) who reported the
efficacy of flonicamid against whitefly in cotton by recording
69.72 to 74.8 per cent reduction in population followed by
Acetamiprid 4% + fipronil 4% @ 2ml l-1 and thiamethoxam
25 WG @0.005% which were on par 64.92 and 62.39 mean
per cent reduction and also recorded 18.26 and 22.17 per
cent YMV disease incidence over untreated control. The
X 100
= 1-
702 INDIAN JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH
Table 2: Cumulative efficacy of insecticides against whitefly and YMV incidence on rice fallow blackgram during rabi, 2017-18.
Treatments PTC Per cent population reduction over control
1DAS 3DAS 5 DAS 10 DAS Overall MeanPer cent
Mean YMV incidence
T1 : Thiamethoxam 25WG (0.2g l-1) 61.39 29.25 74.33 82.76 62.82 62.39 22.17
(51.65)** (32.90)b(59.89)b(66.03)b(52.24)b(52.24)b(28.32)b
T2 : Thiacloprid 21.7SC(1.5ml l-1) 62.99 26.12 66.16 77.08 54.02 55.84 29.72
(52.83) (30.98)bc (54.63)c(61.68)c(47.58)c(48.73)c(33.52)c
T3: Flonicamid 50 WG (0.4g l-1) 62.66 36.78 84.55 92.66 73.78 71.94 17.66
(52.24) (37.17)a(66.81)a(75.23)a(59.02)a(58.37)a(24.73)a
T4 : Spinosad 45 SC (0.3ml l-1) 61.83 13.65 23.36 26.20 23.42 21.65 33.00
(51.65) (22.38)f(29.00)f(30.98)f(29.00)f(28.32)f(35.37)c
T5 : Flubendiamide 39.35 SC (0.2ml l-1) 65.66 18.81 27.93 31.34 26.72 26.20 30.91
(54.03) (25.48)e(32.27)ef (34.14)c(31.63)e(30.98)e(34.14)c
T6 : Chlorantraniliprole 18.5 SC 63.49 21.09 24.24 32.75 30.33 27.10 29.71 (0.2 ml l-1)
(52.83) (27.63)de (29.67)f(35.37)e(33.52)e(31.63)e(33.52)c
T7 : Acetamiprid 4% + Fipronil 4 % 62.49 35.08 76.66 83.17 65.18 64.92 18.26
(2 ml l-1) (52.24) (36.57)a(61.68)b(66.03)b(54.03)b(54.03)b(25.48)a
T8 : Flubendiamide19.9 %+ 61.99 23.60 37.33 42.89 35.36 34.79 28.91
Thiachloprid 19.9 % (1ml l-1) (52.44) (29.00)cd (37.76)d(41.27)d(36.57)d(35.97)d(32.90)c
T9 : Chlorantraniliprole9.3%+λ61.00 27.49 30.95 31.99 28.07 29.62 31.82
Cyhalothrin 4.6% (0.5ml l-1) (51.62) (31.63)b(34.14)d(34.76)e(32.27)e(33.52)d(34.76)c
T10 : Untreated check 63.33 58.45
(52.83) 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 (50.48)d
F test NS Sig. Sig. Sig. Sig. Sig. Sig.
SEm + 0.72 1.12 1.16 1.04 1.02 0.95
CD (p= 0.05) 2.17 3.39 3.47 3.11 3.03 2.82
PTC = Pre Treatment count DAS= Day After Spraying Sign.= Significant
NS = Non Significant Figures in Parentheses are ** Arc sinTransformed Values
Table 1: Cumulative efficacy of insecticides against thrips on rice fallow blackgram during rabi, 2017-18.
Treatments PTC Per cent population reduction over control
1DAS 3DAS 5 DAS 10 DAS Overall Mean
T1 : Thiamethoxam 25WG (0.2g l-1) 70.17 28.65 67.40 81.72 63.84 60.40
(57.10)** (32.90)de (55.24)d(65.27)c(53.49)b(51.06)c
T2 : Thiacloprid 21.7SC (1.5ml l-1) 68.33 41.77 85.46 92.78 79.19 74.80
(55.86) (40.69)a(67.62)a(75.23)a(63.08)a(60.33)a
T3: Flonicamid 50 WG (0.4g l-1) 72.16 26.56 62.00 76.72 57.97 55.56
(58.37) (30.98)ef (52.24)e(61.68)d(49.89)c(48.73)d
T4 : Spinosad 45 SC (0.3ml l-1) 68.66 32.03 37.04 37.04 28.57 33.67
(55.86) (34.76)c(37.76)f(37.70)e(32.90)de (35.97)e
T5 : Flubendiamide 39.35 SC (0.2ml l-1) 70.00 21.12 26.88 33.36 25.56 26.73
(57.10) (27.63)f(31.63)h(35.37)e(30.98)de (31.63)f
T6 : Chlorantraniliprole 18.5 SC (0.2 ml l-1) 73.66 23.78 32.85 35.96 28.90 30.67
(59.02) (29.67)ef (35.37)g(37.17)e(33.52)d(33.52)e
T7 : Acetamiprid 4% + Fipronil 4 % (2 ml l-1) 69.49 35.82 80.53 90.77 76.13 70.81
(56.48) (37.17)b(63.79)b(73.05)a(61.00)a(57.10)a
T8 : Flubendiamide19.9 %+ 70.16 31.88 74.93 88.11 65.16 65.02
Thiachloprid 19.9 % (1ml l-1) (57.10) (34.76)cd (60.33)c(70.18)b(54.03)a(54.03)b
T9 : Chlorantraniliprole9.3%+λ69.17 13.87 21.62 25.15 23.24 20.97
Cyhalothrin 4.6% (0.5ml l-1) (56.48) (22.38)g(27.63)i(30.33)s(29.00)e(27.63)s
T10 : Untreated check 71.17
(57.73) 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
F test NS Sig. Sig. Sig. Sig. Sig.
SEm + 0.96 0.82 0.88 1.02 0.92
CD (p= 0.05) 2.87 2.45 2.62 3.05 2.74
PTC = Pre Treatment count DAS= Day After Spraying Sign.= Significant NS = Non Significant
Figures in Parentheses are ** Arc sin Transformed Values
Volume 52 Issue 6 (December 2018)
703
effectiveness of acetamiprid + fipronil against BPH and GLH
in paddy has been reported by Roshan et al. (2018), hence
confirm the present findings in this respect. Similar results
regarding the efficacy of thiamethoxam 25 WG @0.005%
obtained in the present investigation also corroborating with
the earlier findings of Ganapathy and Kuruppiah (2004),
Ahirwar et al. (2016), Sujatha and Bharpoda (2017) against
whitefly in various crops.
The lowest mean per cent reduction of population
is observed with Spinosad 45 SC @ 0.0135% by recording
21.65 per cent reduction of whitefly population over
untreated control. The results of spinosad is in conformity
with Mahalakshmi et al. (2015), Lalbabu et al. (2017) against
sucking pests in blackgram.
In the present study, it can be concluded that the
lower doses of thiacloprid 21.7 SC @ 0.0325% and
flonicamid 50 WG @ 0.0325% were found to be highly
effective to minimise the infestation of thrips, whitefly and
also protected the crop from the deadly YMV disease in
rice fallow blackgram. These findings may help the farmers
in curbing the biotic stress at critical stages of the crop
growth.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The senior author is highly thankful to Acharya N.G.
Ranga Agricultural University, Lam, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh
for providing the financial support in the form of stipend
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... Our results were agreed with the Archana et al., (2018) and Jayappa et al., (2017) where they reported seed treatment with imidacloprid contributed to relatively low disease incidence of YMV on blackgram. Swathi et al. (2018) reported foliar spray with flonicamid 50 WG @ 0.0325% was found to be very effective in reducing YMV disease incidence (17.66%). Similarly, Ghosh et al. (2009), reported that Imidacloprid and Thiamethoxam were more effective in reducing the incidence of YMV when compared to conventional insecticides. ...
... Corresponding results were reported by Rhadika et al., (2018), lowest population of whiteflies were recorded in seed treatment with thiamethoxam @ 3 g/kg with 2.40 whiteflies and was on par with seed treatment of imidacloprid @ 5 g/kg with 2.60 whiteflies per six leaves. Swathi et al., (2018) reported foliar spray of flonicamid @ 0.0325% was found to be highly effective in reducing whitefly population. Similarly, the present investigations are also in agreement with Naik et al. (2017) and Kalyan et al., (2017) who reported flonicamid followed by acetamiprid 4% + fipronil 4% @ 2ml/l were very effective against whitefly population in Bt.cotton. ...
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Yellow mosaic disease (YMD) remains a most important destructive viral disease of blackgram production in the Indian subcontinent with the economic losses account up to 85%. YMD is caused by a single stranded DNA containing begomovirus viz., Mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) which is mainly transmitted through whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Genn.). However, management of this deadly disease is still the biggest challenge. A field experiment with botanicals, micronutrients and chemical insecticides was conducted at RARS, Lam, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh during kharif and rabi 2019-20 to find out the best treatment for the management of MYMV and to increase the grain yield of blackgram. Results from the two field trials suggest seed treatment with thiamethoxam (5.0g/kg) and two sprays of acetamiprid (4%) + fipronil (4%) (2.0ml/l) (T 7) reported the least mean MYMV incidence (3.75 and 4.84%) and severity (6.01% and 7.32%) with whitefly population of (4.14 and 2.95/plant) during kharif and rabi followed by seed treatment with imidacloprid 600 FS @ 5.0 ml/ kg and 2 sprays of flonicamid @ 0.2ml/l (T 6). Observations also revealed seed treatment with thiamethoxam and two sprays of acetamiprid (4%) + fipronil (4%) (T 7) have showed highest number of primary branches, pods per plant, seeds per pod, grain yield per plant and seed yield per hectare as compared to other treatments employed in the experiment and it was cost-effective, as it provided the highest benefit cost ratio. However, based on results obtained Mirabilis jalapa leaf extract (white flower) @ 10.00 % spray was not effective in the management of MYMV.
... Some new insecticides, such as thiacloprid, acetamiprid and flonicamid were effective against thrips population reduction up to 70.8-74.8%, whereas flonicamid was very effective against the whitefly population reduction upto 72.2% over control (Swathi et al., 2018). Imidacloprid was highly effective against thrips infesting the bean (Cermeli et al., 2002) and was also reported to be effective against whitefly and thrips population on mothbeans (Naga et al., 2015). ...
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