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Advancing sustainable consumption and production in cities - A transdisciplinary research and stakeholder engagement framework to address consumption-based emissions and impacts

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Abstract Urban consumption patterns and lifestyles are increasingly important for the sustainability of cities today and in the future. However, considerations of consumption issues, social norms, behaviour and lifestyles within current urban sustainability research and practices are limited. Much untapped potential for the reduction of the environmental footprint of cities exists in combined production and consumption-based approaches, particularly in the “demand” areas of mobility, housing, food, and waste. To change unsustainable consumption and production patterns in cities, research needs to be transdisciplinary, actively involving stakeholders through co-creation processes. This paper builds on the premise that the perspectives and approaches of Sustainable Consumption and Production (SCP) for cities require the involvement of non-traditional stakeholders that are generally not included in urban planning processes such as social change initiatives, citizen groups and informal sector representatives. We present a transdisciplinary research and engagement framework to understand and advance the transition to sustainable SCP patterns and lifestyles in cities. This transdisciplinary approach to SCP transformations in cities combines co-creation, participatory visioning processes and back-casting methods, participatory urban governance and institutional change, and higher-order learning from small-scale community initiatives. We illustrate our conceptual framework through three empirical case studies in cities which take an integrative approach to lowering ecological footprints and carbon emissions.

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... In recent years, much progress has been made to address mobility in urban areas. The main issue is to reduce the use of private automobiles in cities without compromising access to mobility (Schröder et al., 2019). ...
... Based on these goals, the first technical standards for sustainable cities ISO 37120 (International Organization for Sustainable Mobility for All, 2017) and smart cities ISO 37122 (International Organization for Schröder et al., 2019), emerged. These establish sustainable and smart development indicators of communities structured around themes according to the sectors and services provided in a city. ...
... The Attractiveness and Environmental Quality dimension focused on the natural characteristics of the city, showing the preferences of pedestrians and cyclists for trees and bushes that reduce the exposure to pollution and causing a fresh feeling, and barring the look of traffic (Lusk et al., 2020;Schröder et al., 2019). Simultaneously, the dimension of Traffic signals encompasses the functionality of this facility for both drivers and pedestrians. ...
Article
The sustainable development of a city directly connects to the conditions of urban mobility. It is essential for public and private managers to know the citizens' perceptions of their mobility in the city. To this end, this research aims to develop and validate a scale to evaluate mobility according to the sustainable dimensions established by ISO 37120, ISO 37122, and the UN Sustainable Development Goals. The Sustainable Mobility scale (SMob scale) was developed from concepts underlying objective indicators to identify subjective attributes related to citizen perception. The final scale resulted in 21 attributes distributed in 6 dimensions through exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. As an additional contribution, a gap was identified related to urban mobility attributes for reduced mobility people. Given the changes necessary to promote an effective mobility strategy in South American countries, this study contributes to translating citizens' perceptions to identify weaknesses and then plan and propose improvements, contributing to sustainable mobility development.
... (2) Consumer awareness of CE: studies have indicated that the collaboration and co-creation approach involving consumers has raised awareness of the practices of CE for those involved (James et al., 2019;Schroder et al., 2019). One reason for this is that the co-creation approach and participative design facilitate the interaction and communication between companies and consumers, increasing awareness of the importance of sustainable consumption. ...
... The interaction of companies with consumers may empower the sense of responsibility consumers share, as well as allowing the joint development of future scenarios and environmentally sustainable product lifecycle planning (James et al., 2019). Schroder et al. (2019) also highlight that the co-creation processes developed together with nontraditional interested parties, such as citizen groups and representatives of the informal sector, may promote more sustainable lifestyles in cities. One example is the case of a car-sharing organization that set up conferences with the objective of gathering ideas and reducing the carbon footprint of the cities (Schroder et al., 2019). ...
... Schroder et al. (2019) also highlight that the co-creation processes developed together with nontraditional interested parties, such as citizen groups and representatives of the informal sector, may promote more sustainable lifestyles in cities. One example is the case of a car-sharing organization that set up conferences with the objective of gathering ideas and reducing the carbon footprint of the cities (Schroder et al., 2019). ...
Article
Purpose – Despite the potential of open innovation (OI) to reduce barriers to the adoption of the circular economy (CE), little is known about the integration of the two themes and how OI could contribute to a more sustainable economy. The objective of this study is to investigate how OI can contribute to the adoption of the CE. Design/methodology/approach – This study adopts a systematic review of the literature sampled from the Scopus and Web of Science scientific databases. Findings – The main findings of the study are (1) the utilization of OI within CE is still a recent phenomenon, one which emphasizes the collaboration between stakeholders and the co-creation approach; (2) the collaboration of stakeholders can be applied to align the objectives of interested parties, in a joint effort to resolve the environmental problems of the three levels of CE and (3) an action-creation approach can be adopted as a strategy to encourage the participation of consumers in the development of environmentally sustainable products, which may favor the transition to the CE. Originality/value – The article presents the state of the art on the CE guided by OI, highlighting the opportunities and challenges of the correlation between the two themes. The article also shows the theoretical and practical implications for an OI-driven circular economy.
... Algumas das principais barreiras ao consumo sustentável estão relacionadas ao preço alto dos produtos ecológicos, falta de informação e conhecimento por parte dos consumidores, hábitos insustentáveis e baixos níveis de consciência ecológica (Han, 2020), entre outras questões complexas e contextuais (Kreuzer, Weber, Off, Hackenberg, & Birk, 2019) que envolvem aspectos macroestruturais, institucionais e de mercado, os quais devem ser considerados no desenvolvimento de pesquisas e formulação de políticas para promover o consumo sustentável (Brizga, Mishchuk, & Golubovska--Onisimova, 2014;Byers & Gilmer, 2018;Jackson, 2005;Prothero et al., 2011;Schröder et al., 2019;Thøgersen, 2010;Tukker et al., 2008). O foco das definições de consumo sustentável tem recaído mais nos aspectos econômicos e ambientais, porém, aspectos sociais, como a qualidade de vida, equidade no acesso e distribuição dos recursos e satisfação de necessidades também devem ser considerados (Bartolj, Murovec, & Slabe-Erker, 2018). ...
... A perspectiva mais recente das pesquisas sobre consumo sustentável tem enfatizado o papel dos cidadãos que se organizam para estilos de vida mais sustentáveis com mudanças nos valores individuais (Bachnik & Szumniak--Samolej, 2018;John, Jaeger-Erben, & Rückert-John, 2016;Schröder et al., 2019), levando em consideração que o problema do consumo não se limita aos produtos ecológicos e aos impactos ambientais, mas também é uma questão social (Briceno & Stagl, 2006;Jaeger-Erben & Offenberger, 2014;Lorek & Spangenberg, 2014). ...
... As contribuições podem surgir de grupos que geralmente não são considerados na elaboração de políticas e criar condições favoráveis de aprendizado coletivo são fundamentais nesse processo. Nesse contexto, a participação da sociedade para mudar os padrões insustentáveis de produção e consumo surge por meio de uma governança inclusiva que envolve diversos grupos sociais, como iniciativas locais, representantes de bairro, organizações sociais e cidadãos engajados em provocar mudanças nos hábitos de consumo (Schröder et al., 2019). ...
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Purpose: Analyze the thematic evolution of the research field on sustainable consumption from 1999 to 2019. Originality/value: The study advances the understanding of the development of the research field on sustainable consumption, analyzing the main publications and topics covered. Design/methodology/approach: Systematic literature review through a bibliometric study with analysis based on citations supported by the CitNetExplorer software, using core publication and clustering techniques. Two hundred sixty-four articles were analyzed. Findings: The most recent publications converge on the need to change the current patterns and levels of consumption and to engage dif- ferent stakeholders in participatory and co-creation processes. Also, the existence of five research clusters was identified, namely: 1. eco-efficiency with a focus on greening the market; 2. consumer behavior with an emphasis on encouraging the purchase of green products; 3. social nature of consumption that inserts the sociological perspective; 4. dynamic approach for considering the interdisciplinarity of the field; and 5. the role of education for sustainable consumption. The various themes found reveal contributions from different areas of knowledge and the importance of developing research that integrates the dynamics of the challenges to achieve sustainable consumption. We emphasize the need for an integrated approach due to the inherent complexity of the theme that involves economic, technological, political, social, psychological, and environmental aspects for governance in favor of sustainable consumption.
... Understanding why and how to alter complex systems, requires an environment that is responsive to dynamic change. Single feedback loop learning is insufficient, "double loop" or "regenerative learning" is essential, for understanding and intervening in such dynamic systems (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2018; Schröder et al., 2019). As such, attaining a truly equitable sustainable food system, for and in cities, presents a significant challenge (Lang and Mason, 2017a,b;Sonnino et al., 2019). ...
... Citizen science has been (explicitly or implicitly) a tool for policymakers. However, to be a true force for change, the evidence produced by food citizen science (and the research process itself) must impact policy and culture (Schröder et al., 2019). ...
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To enhance sustainability, the food system requires shifts in production, processing and supply. Ideally, a sustainable food system should operate, not only to protect the biosphere, but also to provide nutritious, high-quality food, support social values, an equitable economy, and human and animal health. It should be governed responsibly within a supportive policy environment. Implementing these shifts is a task of immense scale; but citizen participation/engagement has the potential to help make sustainability a reality through distributed learning, dynamic sensing, and knowledge generation. Technological advancements in sensing and data processing have enabled new forms of citizen participation in research. When food system research is embedded within society it can help us to understand which changes toward sustainability work. Indeed, citizen engagement in food systems research has the potential to help bring citizens on-side, supporting the growth of a resilience food culture and sustainable practices (including dietary change). This commentary provides examples of how existing research and alternative food production systems and agroecological practices may provide possible frameworks for citizen participation in food system studies. We highlight potential future food and citizen science approaches. Widening citizen participation and encouraging the involvement of other food system actors, including those in local, national and international governance, is essential to capture the full potential of citizen science in enabling transition to a sustainable food system. For the research community citizen science offers engagement and empowerment of wider communities with science; collecting and analysing data; and creating viable solutions to food system and diet issues.
... Although the importance of TD approaches is increasingly recognised in promoting sustainability in African cities, coproduction processes involving the participation of a wide range of actors have neither been well documented nor systematically analysed in developing urban contexts. In cases where TD approaches are interrogated, much of the work has been on concepts [6] rather than reflection on local TD experiences, with a few notable exceptions [7]. Furthermore, while lessons from implementing TD research have been documented, few lessons are based on a systematic and comparative analysis of experiences in different settings. ...
... In contrast, cities experience complex socioeconomic processes that can result in several urban problems and can become locations of poverty, environmental hazards, and inequality [33,35,36]. Urban challenges often differ between the Global North and the Global South, where the latter has faster-growing urban populations amid poor planning contexts, resulting in complex urban challenges [7]. In many African cities, migration to urban areas in search of better and securer livelihoods, safe living conditions, better healthcare, and educational services is increasing [37]. ...
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The notion of sustainability has been integrated into many aspects of development to emphasise human needs now and in the future. Sustainable urbanization objectives are pertinent in the context of rapidly expanding African cities, in which urban inhabitants experience challenges associated with poor sanitation, climate hazards, and energy and food insecurity. There are increasing calls for embracing transdisciplinary (TD) research for mapping pathways towards sustainability in these ever-growing cities, particularly by integrating academic, practitioner, and societal knowledge to design effective and contextually relevant responses to existing and emerging challenges. Though transdisciplinary processes are growing in developing countries, dispersed literature on and a growing number of projects applying TD research in different contexts make it difficult to learn from and develop useful frameworks for implementation. To make lessons more accessible to a growing audience, this paper provides a reflective account of two urban sustainability TD projects that were designed and implemented in Ghana, South Africa, and Zimbabwe. The contexts within which these TD research projects took place are described, as are ways in which relevant stakeholders were involved in and benefitted from the codesign and realisation of the respective projects. Based on experiences, the paper reflects on the challenges of and opportunities for TD research in Africa for urban sustainability, which provides insights for enhancing this practice in Africa. The paper ends with considerations for TD practice and theory.
... In the current context, it helps explain the reasons for barriers to sustainable food consumption and production that involve actors or stakeholders of varied characteristics and behaviors such as processors, wholesalers, traders, distribution channel partners, e-retailers, and consumers. The theory offers deliberations on multistakeholder engagement and governance that are imperative to the food processing industry and contribute to designing and co-creation processes in ensuing sustainability across food chains (Schröder et al., 2019). Besides, it provides normative explanations of why and what ways firms should consider stakeholder views in implementing sustainable and productionconsumption strategies. ...
... The results provide an analysis of the interactions between the barriers and these are implicitly addressing both inter-and intra-organizational subjective norms (Vergragt and Quist, 2011). As a result, future work that seeks to develop mechanisms to influence behaviour under pressure from external stakeholders, can use these results to analyse the potential for the co-creation of sustainability processes and food loss and waste management (Schröder et al., 2019). Future research might extend the TRA analysis by providing perspectives from government policy makers, as a key influencer of subjective norms in the country. ...
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The global agri-food sector is in a dire need of transitioning into sustainable consumption and production patterns. The circular economy concept offers a viable pathway to improve resource efficiency and recover value from food loss and waste. Although China has made circular economy a strategic component of its national development strategy, it has faced multiple barriers which persisted in the full-scale implementation of sustainable food consumption and production. We aimed to empirically investigate these barriers, based on data from three key stakeholder groups in the food supply chains: the food processors, sales and distribution firms, and consumers. We quantified the cause-and-effect relationships among barriers by the fuzzy decision making-trial and evaluation laboratory analysis (Fuzzy DEMATEL) technique. All groups identify weak enforcement of environmental regulations and lack of environmental education and accountability as key cause barriers in China. Our results suggest that policy level changes include enhanced regulatory attention, and new educational initiatives will be required in China. Managers should focus on waste separation and gaining economies of scale. Together, these initiatives will help promote sustainable consumption and production for a paradigm shift to a circular agri-food supply chain system.
... Firstly, any rebound effects or interactions between consumption areas may not be captured. Secondly, without a sustainable consumption framing important sectors such as food, procurement, clothing or water may be overlooked (Schröder et al., 2019), missing considerable environmental impacts associated along supply-chains. Thirdly, the focus on single dimensions of sustainable consumption reduces the possibility to analyse the effects of local government policies, such as spatial planning, that may have an impact on multiple dimensions at the same time. ...
... This is in line with case studies such as Pape et al. (2011) which highlight the importance of a multi-stakeholder approach and participatory processes for sustainable consumption policy-making. Similarly, Schröder et al. (2019) offer cocreation and participatory visioning processes as key elements of an engagement framework to enhance sustainable consumption and production in cities. ...
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The consumption of goods and services can be a driver of environmental and social impacts around the world. Understanding the role that the different levels of government can play in incentivising sustainable consumption is therefore critical. Using systematic review techniques, this paper reviews the latest evidence on the importance, effectiveness, successes and failures of local government in advancing sustainable consumption. We find that there is little focus on sustainable consumption in its entirety or whether it is being achieved at the local government level. Important consumption aspects like food, procurement, water, waste prevention, clothing, other consumables or services are understudied. Evaluation of the outcome of interventions was limited, and the assessment that was completed gave mixed results. The most popular policy instruments were of the less coercive administrative and informative type. Multiple barriers to the success of an intervention were identified, the top ones being funding; staff capacity, knowledge or data; lack of flexibility and lock-in to the status quo; lack of guidance or political will; administrative burdens; and lack of regulatory powers or tools. Sustainable consumption interventions by local government were most effective when they had strong leadership, good stakeholder engagement, participatory approaches and extensive consultations.
... Beyond control of pollution from production alone or consumption life styles alone to joint consideration of coupled consumption and production activities (Geels et al. 2015;Schröder et al. 2019) Coupled human and natural systems (CHANS); ...
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This review synthesizes diverse approaches that researchers have brought to bear on the challenge of sustainable development. We construct an integrated framework highlighting the union set of elements and relationships that those approaches have shown to be useful in explaining nature-society interactions in multiple contexts. Compelling evidence has accumulated that those interactions should be viewed as a globally interconnected, complex adaptive system in which heterogeneity, nonlinearity, and innovation play formative roles. The long-term evolution of that system cannot be predicted but can be understood and partially guided through dynamic interventions. Research has identified six capacities necessary to support such interventions in guiding development pathways toward sustainability. These are capacities to: i) measure sustainable development; ii) promote equity; iii) adapt to shocks and surprises; iv) transform the system into more sustainable development pathways; v) link knowledge with action; vi) devise governance arrangements that allow people to work together in exercising the other capacities.
... Therefore, the reality of 'greener cities' can only be achieved through indigenous knowledge and projects that involve a diverse network of natural scientists, health scientists, social scientists, engineers, and non-scientists (e.g., citizenry). Importantly, to address these scales of impacts and prepare for global projections in urban and suburban landscapes, a robust multidisciplinary approach coupled with transdisciplinarity is necessary to contribute towards a growing trend of understanding in urban ecology and moving the field towards ecology "for" the city (Schröder et al. 2019). ...
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The urban forest should be viewed as living ‘public health’ and an environment ‘bio-recording’ infrastructure in urban environments. This infrastructure is extremely vital to achieving ‘greener’ cities, as the globe becomes more urbanized. However, plant data supporting urban plants as environmental mitigating infrastructures are sparse, inconsistent, and not long-term in approach. Moreover, the lack of data on the physiology, biochemistry, morphology, and long-term stress adaptation of plants in urban environment is a current gap in urban plant-ecology research. Cities are a natural ‘open lab’, and city size can be a proxy for multiple co-occurring impacts on plants that determine productivity and acclimation to better assess plant effectiveness. The FoRests Among Managed Ecosystem (FRAME) network was used to investigate urbanization (e.g., city size) impacts on the physio-biochemistry and morphology of red maple (Acer rubrum L.) in urban forests in a small (Newark, DE) and large (Philadelphia, PA) city. In addition, a manipulated field experiment was used to decipher above- and below-ground urbanization impacts on the physio-morphology of red maple (A. rubrum) saplings in urban forests. I measured health indicating pigments, nutrient ions, stress signaling metabolites, and morphological traits that can integrate multiple stress impacts and provide insight into urban forest trees’ ability to effectively mitigate urban conditions. I found greater chlorophyll, free amino acids and spermine, nutrient ions (N, P, K), and stomatal size in red maples in Philadelphia forests relative to Newark forests suggesting these traits are good indicators and integrators of multiple co-occurring stress impacts on plant growth, productivity, and acclimation in the large city. The results indicate cities as a surrogate and red maple as a biomonitor for urbanization impacts can be a good model system to study urban plant physiology and long-term stress mitigation-adaptation. The findings showing greater physio-biochemical and morphological response in the large city suggest theoretical models that do not account for physiological acclimation are overestimating deciduous forest tree mitigating potential in urban environments.
... A multidisciplinary approach is required to understand consumption patterns, social norms, behavior, and lifestyles. This approach will help develop acceptable transitions to reduce waste and lower ecological footprints and carbon emissions to develop food ecosystems for sustainable urbanization (61). ...
Article
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Food scientists need to work together with agriculturists, nutritionists, civil society, and governments to develop an integrative approach to feed a growing population sustainably. Current attention on food sustainability mainly concentrates on production agriculture and on nutrition, health, and well-being. Food processing, the necessary conversion of raw materials to edible, functional, and culturally acceptable food products, is an important link between production and consumption within the food value chain. Without increased attention to the role of food processing for a maintainable food supply, we are unlikely to succeed in addressing the mounting challenges in delivering sustainable diets for all people. The objective is to draw on multidisciplinary insights to demonstrate why food processing is integral to a future food supply. We aim to exemplify the importance of essential relevant sustainability indicators and impact assessment for developing informed strategies to feed the world within planetary boundaries. We provide a brief outlook on sustainable food sources, review food processing, and recommend future directions. We highlight the challenges and suggest strategies for improving the sustainability of food systems, to hopefully provide a catalyst for considering implementable initiatives for improving food and nutrition security.
... The world is experiencing one of the biggest sustainability crises that could jeopardize future generations. Urban waste is one of the aspects of this crisis that hampers the sustainability of the planet due to the behavior of production and consumption resulting from economic growth [1]. The consumption of economic agents and the degree of satiety of society drive the supply chain of materials and the development of products with a shorter life cycle [2]. ...
Article
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Socioeconomic metabolism (SEM) is the exchange of materials and energy between society and the environment involving the social, economic and environmental sectors. In this paper, a boundary was defined between the economic (consumption) and environmental (waste recovery) limits in a city of 300,000 inhabitants in relation to the circulation (generation, reuse and disposal) of end-of-life tires (ELTs). The objective was to elaborate a theoretical structural model to evaluate the socioeconomic metabolism of waste (SEMw) by means of technical constructs (direct material flows (DMF), reverse material flows (RMF), socioeconomic environment (SEF) and sociodemographic factors (SDF)). Structural Equation Modeling (SEMm) was performed using Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (SmartPLS) software. The results obtained from the hypotheses show the causal relationships between the technical and social constructs and suggest guidelines for supporting the planning and management of urban solid waste in the collection and final disposal of ELTs. The processed information also contributes to the analysis of the city’s socioeconomic scenarios in relation to the disposal of ELTs. One of the hypotheses tested (RMF have a direct effect on SEMw) shows the importance of managing ELTs through the correct final disposal of waste and recycling. SEMw was evaluated from the perception of the local society and it is concluded that it is possible to plan public policies to avoid the formation of waste inventory in the city.
... This study employs the STIRPAT model [65] and selects the following six control variables: population (units of 10,000 people), GDP per capita (units of 10,000 Yuan per person), technical level (units of %), household consumption (units of 10,000 Yuan), proportion of pollution control investment to GDP (units of %), and proportion of the secondary industry (units of %). Among them, population size, GDP per capita [66], household consumption [67], and proportion of the secondary industry [68] are expected to have a positive effect on the ecological footprint. Conversely, the technological level [69] and proportion of pollution control investment to GDP are expected to have a negative effect [70]. ...
Article
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Innovation is an important motivating force for regional sustainable development. This study measures the innovation efficiency of 280 cities in China from 2014-2018 using the super-efficiency slack-based measure and it also analyzes its impact on the ecological footprint using the generalized spatial two-stage least squares (GS2SLS) method and uses the threshold regression model to explore the threshold effect of innovation efficiency on the ecological footprint at different economic development levels. We find the corresponding transmission mechanism by using a mediating effect model. The major findings are as follows. First, we find an inverse U-shaped relationship between innovation efficiency and the ecological footprint for cities across China as well as in the eastern and central regions. That is, innovation efficiency promotes then suppresses the ecological footprint. Conversely, in western and northeastern China, improvements in innovation efficiency still raise the ecological footprint. Second, for the entire country, as economic development increases from below one threshold value (4.4928) to above another (4.8245), the elasticity coefficient of innovation efficiency to the ecological footprint changes from −0.0067 to −0.0313. This indicates that the ability of innovation efficiency improvements to reduce the ecological footprint is gradually enhanced with increased economic development. Finally, the industrial structure, the energy structure, and energy efficiency mediate the impacts of innovation efficiency on the ecological footprint.
... Scenario methods and backcasting exercises have proven to be useful for stakeholder interactions in our case studies and can foster "higher-order learning from small-scale community initiatives" (Schröder et al., 2019). In our participatory modelling approach, the participants discussed and identified the most relevant factors for scenario building. ...
Article
The key challenge for transdisciplinary research aiming to integrate social and scientific knowledge is to produce societal and scientific impacts at the same time. Participatory modelling is a method that uses models in three ways: as a means to generate knowledge, to achieve knowledge integration and to enable societal impact. Agent-based modelling is a computer simulation technique that allows for simulating different actors as agents, the socioeconomic and natural environment they are embedded in, and the interactions among agents and between agents and their environment. This paper presents projects developing agent-based models of Austrian regions with single farm households as agents. The models simulate how changes in socioeconomic and political conditions affect patterns of land use, agricultural production and the socioeconomic situation within this region. Farm households and their decision-making process with its ecological, economic and social implications represent the basis of the agent-based models. We discuss how and why participatory modelling can help foster the impact potentials of transdisciplinary research and what the limitations of the different types of models are. We show that participatory modelling allows for the integration of the most relevant issues in the models and for the development of scenarios and strategies together with the stakeholders. Participatory modelling shows its strength in structuring communication on future scenarios and recommendations for action towards reaching the targets of the various groups involved in transdisciplinary research. Stakeholders can use the model for effective discussion and education processes to find sustainable pathways in agricultural development.
... We emphasize that this framework is not intended as a master plan for some grand theory of the field. Rather, we offer it as our admittedly subjective synthesis of the building blocks that past research has shown to be particularly useful across a wide range of contexts and that should therefore be given serious consideration in Beyond control of pollution from production alone or consumption lifestyles alone to joint consideration of coupled consumption and production activities 40,41 Welfare, wealth, and capital assets Well-being across generations linked to wealth defined by access to resource stocks from nature and society; substitutability among stocks 42,43 ongoing efforts to construct and test middle-range theories about how to promote sustainable development (44). We believe that adoption of a common framework of elements and relationships such as that proposed here would help to integrate the various pieces of sustainability science, to facilitate interaction across the field, and thus to accelerate progress in the pursuit of sustainability. ...
... We emphasize that this framework is not intended as a master plan for some grand theory of the field. Rather, we offer it as our admittedly subjective synthesis of the building blocks that past research has shown to be particularly useful across a wide range of contexts and that should therefore be given serious consideration in Beyond control of pollution from production alone or consumption lifestyles alone to joint consideration of coupled consumption and production activities 40,41 Welfare, wealth, and capital assets Well-being across generations linked to wealth defined by access to resource stocks from nature and society; substitutability among stocks 42,43 ongoing efforts to construct and test middle-range theories about how to promote sustainable development (44). We believe that adoption of a common framework of elements and relationships such as that proposed here would help to integrate the various pieces of sustainability science, to facilitate interaction across the field, and thus to accelerate progress in the pursuit of sustainability. ...
... Ülkü and Hsuan (2017) proposed modeling a green consumer's decision-making for two competing products. Researches on the sharing economy include sharing cities-SCP typology for cities (Cohen and Muñoz, 2016), sharing mobility businesses in China (Ma et al., 2019), and three case studies in the U.S., Japan, and India (Schroeder et al., 2019). ...
Article
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In the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) adopted by the United Nations (UN), goal 12 (“ensure sustainable consumption and production [SCP] patterns”) has eight outcome targets (12.1–12.8) and three targets for the means of implementation (MoI) (12.a–12.c). This “SCP-via-SDGs” approach is a much narrower, specific concept based on historical agreements that range from the Stockholm conference (1972) to the 10-Year Framework of Programmes (10YFP) (2012–2022). Meanwhile, “the academic SCP” is a highly interdisciplinary and complex approach that pursues an answer to what sustainability is, and it has not explicitly provided the SCP-via-SDGs framework at present. Thus, this study proposes a five-by-five framework for the SCP-via-SDGs approach from the production perspective (i.e., for individual firms), following the literature on corporate environmental management. The five stages (I–V) consider environmental management systems (EMS; I. strategy and process) for target 12.4, environmental management accounting (EMA; II. accounting and disclosure) for 12.6, and environmental management control systems (EMCS; III. financial, IV. environmental, and V. overall performance) for 12.2. Meanwhile, the five factors (1–5) consider the baseline and material flow (MF) factors (total waste, hazardous waste, raw materials used, and recycled waste) for targets 12.3 and 12.5. As an application, this study surveyed non-financial listed firms in Vietnam and compared the results to a previous study on Thailand. The results show that the firms are more likely to be at stage III (financial performance of EMCS) in Thailand and stage I or II (EMS or EMA) in Vietnam, suggesting that each market requires its own SCP policies, depending on the economic growth of each.
... In the research realm of sustainability science, there seems to be an agreement that sustainability challenges require TD research [10]: a conceptual framework to analyse TD research is proposed and applied to energy transition [11], and a reference framework is adopted for TD research addressing socio-environmental systems [12]. TD research can be a promising way to gain insights to enhance implementation of SCP, which tackles societal problems often requiring multiple disciplines, as indicated by an advanced work [13]. However, a practical yet science-based procedure for assessing research planned or performed from the TD research perspective is still debated [14][15][16]. ...
Article
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In light of the escalating challenges for the sustainability of our societies, the need for improving the research of sustainable consumption and production (SCP) aiming to make real changes on the societies towards sustainability is evident. Transdisciplinary (TD) research is a promising way to enhance SCP research; however, insights to operationalize the concept of TD research are needed for both funders and researchers. Therefore, this article proposes an innovative way to capture and analyse a research series for transdisciplinarity assessment in qualitative and quantitative terms. This new way is termed research series review (RSR). This article adopted literature analysis and partly reflexive retrospective reasoning. In particular, citation content analysis was carried out in relation to two research series selected as the cases. The results show that RSR has advantages such as clearer traceability with cause-and-effect relationships. Furthermore, a successful SCP research series is hypothesised to form an iterative process between practical and theoretical fields as well as finding opportunities and proposing solutions.
... Entretanto, ainda não há consenso sobre uma definição precisa do termo consumo sustentável, ou sobre o domínio de aplicação do conceito (Jackson, 2007;Quoquab et al., 2019). Por tratar-se de um fenômeno complexo, uma interação entre diversos atores da sociedade é necessária: com o governo, as empresas e a sociedade, assumindo responsabilidade para enfrentar os desafios da proposta (Di Giulio et al., 2019;Kiss, Pataki, Koves, & Kiraly, 2018;Reisch et al., 2016;Schroder et al., 2019;Tukker et al., 2008). ...
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O objetivo deste artigo é analisar elementos de inovação social que podem contribuir para promoção do consumo sustentável. Para tanto, foi realizado um estudo de caso da moeda social operacionalizada pelo Banco Palmas. Desse modo, utilizou-se o framework proposto por Araújo (2020). O Banco Palmas é considerado um caso emblemático de inovação social que favorece a satisfação das necessidades sociais em diversas áreas, inclusive as de consumo. A compreensão da inovação social a partir da perspectiva do consumo sustentável ressalta a importância de analisar novos formatos organizacionais caracterizados por estruturas inovadoras, inclusivas e sustentáveis. A moeda social desempenha um papel-chave nesse processo porque reorganiza a economia local e promove uma transformação social. Além disso, ela auxilia no acesso ao consumo, incentivando a valorização dos recursos e potencialidades locais, de forma a promover uma rede local de produtores e consumidores. Isso representa uma mudança social e cultural da comunidade por meio de processos participativos e de emancipação.
... Considering at the city scale, Schroder et al. (2019) support the need for a transdisciplinary research and engagement framework to advance the transition to SCP patters. They suggest cocreating participatory visioning and back casting methods as the means to support governance and institutional change while also supporting grass roots initiatives. ...
... Four papers in this special issue cover this topic, each with a varying perspective and insight. Schröder et al. (2019) author the first in this topical series. They argue that consumption patterns and lifestyle choices are important urban carbon and material footprint determinants. ...
Article
Rapid urbanization brought many environmental issues, leading to an urgent need on urban environmental governance. This special issue aims to focus on such a topic so that cities can accelerate their transition to equitable, sustainable, and livable Cities. Twenty-six papers were selected in this special issue, with different foci on different topics in different cities. These papers can be categorized into the following: reviews, policy orientations, metric and indicators, consumer behaviors and lifestyles, innovative designs and implementations, and tools. These papers discuss various topics related with urban environmental governance and can provide valuable insights to those city managers so that they can improve their environmental governance and move their cities toward post-fossil carbon societies. By summarizing the key contributions of these papers, an integrated framework on effective urban environmental governance is proposed so that cities can increase their resources efficiency, reduce overall waste production, and respond global climate change.
... Authors analysing environmental impact stated that unsustainable consumption or environmentally unfriendly behaviour are related to environmental issues (Schröder et al., 2019;Paddock, 2016;Brizga et al., 2017;Vergragt et al., 2016). The pro-environmental behaviour and sustainable consumption is related to the promotion of sustainable production as converting organic waste into clean fuels (Fahmy et al. 1982(Fahmy et al. , 2017(Fahmy et al. , 2020. ...
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The changes in pro-environmental behaviour, whether people become more environmentally friendly or not, have been analysed very scarcely. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to analyse the changes in pro-environmental behaviour and its determinants in Lithuania as a transition European Union country comparing years 2011 and 2020. Applying Chi-Square and t test statistics, the results showed a significant increase in performance of pro-environmental behaviour in 2020. Waste sorting and purchase of environmentally friendly goods increased the most, meanwhile water and energy saving behaviour increased the least. Applying the value-belief-norm theory and leaner regression analysis, we analysed whether the same determinants influenced pro-environmental behaviour in 2011 and 2020. The results revealed that the impact of determinants differed. In 2020, the main factor of pro-environmental behaviour was the perception of environmental problems but not self-transcendence values dimension. Furthermore, self-enhancement values and awareness of behavioural consequences negatively influenced pro-environmental behaviour in 2020. Analysing the changes in these factors, an insignificant difference was observed in self-enhancement values. The changes in other factors were significant, particularly the changes in the level of environmental responsibility was the biggest. Therefore, implementation of environmental education and information programmes and various environmentally friendly public initiatives positively contributed to the enhancement of environmental awareness and pro-environmental behaviour.
... Although there is an international consensus that food consumption must undergo significant changes, it is not very clear how this would happen (Armstrong, Kamieniecki, 2019). One of the most promising ways to solve this problem is public support and stimulation of changes in the food consumption profile (Dawkins et al., 2019;Schröder et al., 2019). The paper is an incentive for scientific and public debate on how we should implement the right to food for everyone respecting the interests of local communities and the global community (Baer-Nawrocka, Sadowski, 2019) and towards more inclusive growth and environmental protection. ...
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Research background: The great importance of food consumption for the sustainability of food systems means that active public policy in this area can have a lot of positive effects. Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to present the challenges facing the agri-food sector and to study consumer attitudes towards seasonal and organic food, local food, urban agriculture, food waste and meat consumption, carbon footprints and how these attitudes relate to the acceptance of public policy tools (a tax on junk food, a green public procurement, a deposit on plastic bottles, a tax-free donation of food to public benefit organisations, a fee for wasted food for large retailers) that could transform food distribution and consumption. Research methodology: cardinality tables and interdependence analysis using Pearson’s linear correlation coefficient Results: The study revealed that most respondents buy seasonal food when possible and limit meat consumption to some extent. They are rarely influenced by the impact of food on the climate. Most people are in favour of offering dishes based on local food in public institutions with catering (hospitals, schools, prisons, etc.). Most respondents were negative about gardening for food production. Involvement in local food was associated with a higher acceptance for green public procurement and higher VAT on junk food. Novelty: Both the range of considered policy instruments and the analysis of their acceptance in the context of selected behaviours and attitudes have not been previously studied and make up a new area of inquiry essential in the debate on sustainable food consumption.
... Cities take many forms across the globe, bringing a variety of challenges depending on the location. A consistent view is that cities are central hubs of consumption, distribution, production and waste generation [61,62]. One way to understand this flow of materials is through urban metabolism so as to discover ways of closing the loop on materials, such as food and water, or reducing CO 2 emissions through energy efficiency [1]. ...
Article
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The literature on agricultural technology (ag-tech) for urban agriculture (UA) offers many narratives about its benefits in addressing the challenges of sustainability and food security for urban environments. In this paper, we present a literature review for the period 2015–2022 of research carried out on currently active UA installations. We aim to systematise the most common narratives regarding the benefits of controlled environment agriculture (CEA) and soil-less growing systems in urban buildings and assess the existence of peer-reviewed data supporting these claims. The review was based on 29 articles that provided detailed information about 68 active UA installations depicting multiple types of ag-tech and regions. The results show that most research conducted for commercial UA-CEA installations was carried out in North America. Standalone CEA greenhouses or plant factories as commercial producers for urban areas were mostly found in Asia and Europe. The most often cited benefits are that the integration of multiple CEA technologies with energy systems or building climate systems enables the transfer of heat through thermal airflow exchange and CO2 fertilisation to improve commercial production. However, this review shows that the data quantifying the benefits are limited and, therefore, the exact environmental effects of CEA are undetermined.
... In addition, the growing concentration of cities, together with the population and the growth of new large cities, causes environmental 2 of 12 and ecological changes [8][9][10][11][12] which directly affect the living environment, and public health [13]. Despite the fact that urban living offers a lot of economic, social, technological, and educational opportunities [14], it is associated with higher levels of air pollution, toxins, traffic noise, temperature changes, and poorer water and food quality, which is affecting the well-being and quality of life of citizens [15][16][17][18][19][20]. Therefore, a great number of discussions and studies have been undertaken to understand the changes of the physical and mental health of urban populations as cities evolve [20][21][22]. ...
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The identification of the main steps for the creation of a unified ecosystem from the institutional point of view and the framework for ecosystem design is presented and discussed. Based on the expertise and the knowledge gained during the time when the ELISE project had been implemented, a unified Kaunas city ecosystem is being designed using the Ecosystem Map method. As the review of the ELISE project reports helped to identify the main steps of each project partner in building ecosystems’ networks, Kaunas city chose to create a co-Creation Hub (c-CH), which is the first step in developing an ecosystem management model. The main tasks of such a hub are listed, and should involve the preparation of a long-term action plan involving not only the coordination of the stakeholder meetings, organisation of seminars, the preparation of new materials, and methodology but also the development of a clear strategy for each stakeholder based on national economy and government and municipality policies. The role of the c-CH is to ensure the ease of cooperation and knowledge distribution among stakeholders within the city, public authorities, and the national government. This approach could become a fundamental background tool for the regional and/or city municipal and stakeholder-based creation and development of unified ecosystem development.
... Life cycle thinking implies that everyone in the whole chain of a product's life cycle, from cradle to grave, has a responsibility and a role to play, taking into account all the relevant external effects. The impacts of all life cycle stages need to be considered comprehensively when taking informed decisions on production and consumption patterns, policies and management strategies (Patrick et al., 2019). Furthermore, life cycle thinking is a way of addressing environmental issues and opportunities from a system or holistic perspective. ...
Article
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At a global level, it has been scientifically reported that the processes of water purification, management and disposal of wastewater, and solid waste generate environmental impacts, especially they contribute to global warming potential (GWP), which, in turn, is caused by the greenhouse gases emissions (GHGs). In this context, the main objective of the present research has been to assess the GWP of the water treatment, sewer and sanitation services of the city of Pamplona (Colombia) with a population of 50.000 inhabitants through Life Cycle Assessment but focusing only on the global warming potential impact. The results show that the operation of the three services emitted 1.07E+01 kg CO2-eq per inhabitant and per year, which emissions of GWP produced in water treatment is the most influential utility, accounting for 66% of the entire GWP, while the CO2 emitted from the sewer accounts for 20%, and the sanitation count for 14% of the total. Finally, strategies leading to the mitigation of the adverse GHGs currently produced by these public utilities are proposed.
... There is no one route or pathway for a city to achieve this vision and these dimensions. The pathways presented in chapter 5 will depend heavily on the characteristics of each individual city and historical, geographic and biophysical differences, as well as those related to culture, patterns of consumption, population size and diversity, and political and economic structures and dynamics (Schröder et al. 2018). The degree of acceptance or resistance when it comes to change in cities (chapter 2) could be highly significant. ...
Book
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Prólogo (extracto) Cities can be dynamic engines of economic and social development but come with a huge environmental footprint. Our cities are also weathering the impacts of climate change, sometimes almost daily. The sixth Global Environment Outlook (GEO-6) identified urbanization as one of five main drivers of environmental change. The report also looked at the impact on cities and city residents of related challenges such as biodiversity loss and pollution. The GEO for Cities looks at these issues, but also presents the types of solutions that can lead to environmentally sustainable and just cities. https://www.unep.org/resources/report/geo-cities-towards-green-and-just-cities
... Furthermore, the situation is conducive to improving China's ecological environment, while strengthening the tertiary industry's inhibitory effect on China's ecological footprint. The ecological footprint is affected by population characteristics and consumption patterns; in model (1), the consumption levels of urban residents have a significant promoting effect on the ecological footprint, thus, if we increase urban consumption levels, ecological pollution will increase, however, an inhibitory effect is shown in models (3), (5), and (6), and the reason for this could be that improvements in environmental technology innovation are more likely to occur in developed urban areas than in nonurban ones (Schröder et al. 2019). Consumption by rural residents shows a significant promoting effect on the ecological footprint in models (3), (5), and (6), as consumption is an important channel of ecological pollution, the greater the resource consumption, the greater is the pressure on the natural environment; similarly, the higher the total energy consumption, the greater the ecological occupation (Denisova 2019), therefore, energy consumption shows a significant promoting effect on the ecological footprint in models (2), (4), and (5). ...
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Innovation is an important driving force in regional sustainable development, and innovation efficiency improvements can promote regional innovation. This study uses the Hansen threshold regression model to examine innovation efficiency’s impact on the ecological footprint at different economic development levels in China’s provinces from 2003 to 2013. It uses the super efficiency slacks-based model to measure innovation efficiency, with night light data from the operational line-scan system employed by the defense meteorological program representing the regional economic development level. The conclusions are as follows: (1) improvements in regional innovation efficiency have an inhibitory effect on the ecological footprint, and this effect gradually weakens with increasing levels of economic development. (2) The inhibitory effect is spatially heterogeneous: it is stronger in eastern China than in central and western China. (3) Scientific and technological human resources are inhibitory at first, later promoting the ecological footprint. Scientific and technological financial and informational resources, as well as the number of scientific papers, promote the ecological footprint, but the promoting effect of financial resources is relatively smaller. Meanwhile, the number of patent applications has an inhibitory effect on the ecological footprint.
... In order to optimize citizen's participation outcomes, platform administrators might consider either increasing private value perceived by the citizen or public value where private value has a greater effect on continuous eparticipation intentions than public value creation (Ju et al, 2019). There is a requirement for cities to involve non-traditional stakeholders in urban planning processes such as social change initiatives, citizen groups and informal sector representatives (Schröder et al., 2019). Andreani et al., (2019) presented a reference model in relation to citizencentred built environments, in the process of cocreating the proposals by sharing a common design path between public authorities, private citizens, associations at different levels, and research centres, and resulting in engaging the local community in creating and providing feedback to the design proposals (Andreani et al., 2019). ...
Conference Paper
The initiatives around the involvement of citizens in smart city development is increasing significantly with the aim of enhancing the quality of life for the citizens of these cities through better public services. There is plethora of studies discussing various technologies and platforms to obtain citizen’s feedback for smart city development. Nonetheless, there are very limited studies which provide guidance on how to utilise those feedbacks and improve quality of the services in order to provide better experience to the citizens. This paper examines past work regarding different aspects of citizen’s involvement in smart cities and classify the existing literature through the lens of a smart city framework. This study offers an overview of diverse concepts and platforms associated with the role of citizens in smart city design and development by featuring possible linkages to the related layers of the adopted framework. This study further proposes a conceptual model to incorporate citizen’s feedback in more structured way at architecture level in order to meet their requirements and to provide improved quality of services to them.
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Corporate social responsibility (CSR) connotes Government agencies and private enterprises services for effective change and in this regards the recreational provision. The inadequate provision of the recreational services thwarted recreation, resulting to unsuitable funding of recreational facilities and unsuccessful synergy between government and the private enterprises embarking on CSR. This paper examines the roles of government and the private enterprises in the services of CSR with the view to enhance their performances in the provision of recreational facilities. The paper applied the qualitative method using atlas ti.8 for the data analysis. The findings reveal inadequate facilities provision for recreation resulting from lack of funding, lacklustre attitude and poor synergy of the stakeholders. The paper recommends that government should be positive in implementing policies that promote recreational activities and improving the efforts of the private enterprises for CSR. With the effectiveness and efficiency of the provision of recreation facilities, CSR will be acknowledged as a case of Greater Jos. Plateau State, Nigeria.
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Sustainable consumption studies often have a narrow focus on individuals' behaviours and products' characteristics, but little is known about analyses related to tourism structure and willingness for sustainable development. To address this research gap, this study used practice theory to investigate whether and how sustainable tourism through sustainable consumption is practised. Through a study at Jericoacoara National Park, Brazil, a qualitative research of the seahorse tour was conducted using a content analysis of doings and sayings. The findings identified few sustainable tourism elements carried out by practitioners over years, that is, the meanings, materials, and competences represented by the tours’ interactions to tackle climate change. However, changes should take place in the tourism practice to reduce the existing unsustainability. For example, the seahorse preservation meaning was not the same for all practitioners, which has led to misbehaviours and imbalance of environmental actions to manage appropriately the touristic activity. This paper makes a significant contribution to theory by revealing that existing practices may not fully contribute to sustainable tourism as expected, as environmental elements have affected the existence of proper sustainability. Management implications As the National Park is seen as a sustainable destination because of laws and local interests, managers (i.e., entrepreneurs and service providers, including practitioners) need to rethink their impact on the seahorse tour.Different actions need to be developed beyond trainings to ensure sustainable tourism. It is necessary to create further plans to continue operating the attraction with a more sustainable approach.Changes on capture of seahorse should reduce to avoid the elimination of the attraction. In addition, the national park management should focus more on sustainable consumption using the tax paid by tourists to join the park as a source to oversee if the local practice is well ensured.
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This assessment report identifies six key areas of sustainable consumption. Transforming those areas is associated with a significant, positive impact on sustainable development. In this way, those key areas lay the foundation to set clear priorities and formulate concrete policy measures and recommendations. The report describes recent developments and relevant actors in those six fields, outlines drivers and barriers to reach a shift towards more sustainability in those specific areas, and explores international good-practice examples. On top of this, overarching topics in the scientific discourse concerning sustainable consumption (e.g. collaborative economy, behavioural economics and nudging) are revealed by using innovative text-mining techniques. Subsequently, the report outlines the contributions of these research approaches to transforming the key areas of sustainable consumption. Finally, the report derives policy recommendations to improve the German Sustainable Development Strategy (DNS) in order to achieve a stronger stimulus effect for sustainable consumption.
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The food production challenges for growing population are the global issue that is highly proliferated in the United Nation Sustainable development Goal (SDG-12) with responsible consumption and production. The goal further emphasized the need to reduce global food waste at retailers, consumers, production, and supply chains level by 2030. This study is in line with the SDG-12 to analyze the relationship between sustainable food production, forest biodiversity, and mineral pricing by using world aggregated data for a period of 1970–2018. The study used different cointegrating regressions, including Fully Modified OLS (FMOLS), Dynamic OLS (DOLS), Canonical Cointegrating Regression (CCR) and ARDL-Bounds testing approach for robust inferences. The results show that forest biodiversity increases carbon emissions due to inadequate land use planning and animal rich biodiversity, while food production is merely carbon associated that supported ‘food production footprints’ at global scale. Mineral rents and energy demand both increases carbon emissions that substantiate the ‘mineral resource curse’ hypothesis and energy associated global emissions. Although the result is not supported the ‘pollution haven’ hypothesis and population associated emissions, however, there is a strong evidence of ‘race-to-the-bottom’ hypothesis at global scale. The simulation results suggested that forest biodiversity, food prices, mineral rents, population density, and combustibles and renewables waste will negatively affect the global environment in the form of high mass carbon emissions that sabotaged the United Nation sustainable development agenda. The study emphasized the need to adopt sustainable policy instruments, including advancement in the clean energy resources, cleaner production technologies, sustainable resource management, and conservation of forest biodiversity, which will be helpful to reduce carbon abatement costs at worldwide.
Chapter
Abstract. Urban consumption is critical to achieving the UN's sustainable development goals. In recent years, the tendency of the earth's population to concentrate in urban settlements has become increasingly clear. This brings to the fore the task of managing the consumption of cities. Sustainable urban consumption management processes require constant monitoring of key indicators and variables related to it. Maintaining good information of the solutions for sustainable consumption management of the cities requires maintaining adequate data and information. For various reasons, local administrations are not always able to provide the necessary data to derive up-to-date levels of monitoring variables and trends. Such problems put the whole system for monitoring variables for sustainable consumption to the test. The purpose of this article is to show the application of a GIS-based approach to vectorize cadastral data in support of monitoring sustainable urban consumption variables. The main approach is giving a methodology for using raster data, their vectorization in GIS and analysis of the vectorized data with Delphi. The use of free GIS software and a Delphi program allows fast calculations of the density of built area within several seconds. The practical implication of the research is for people who want to make fast and reliable analysis of raster data concerning the calculation of the density of built area. The research is funded by the Research Fund of Republic of Bulgaria in 2019 and is part of the scientific project “Sustainable Urban Consumption – Regional Diversity” № КП-06-Н35/7. Keywords: Vectorization, Delphi, Cadaster, Density of built area, Sustainable consumption, Sustainable Cities, Monitoring variables.
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The circular economy (CE) aims to reduce resource input and systematically avoid or reduce waste. In addition, the CE is an essential framework for achieving sustainable development. Understanding the barriers to construction and demolition waste (C&DW) recycling development under the CE model can promote sustainable C&DW management. This study used social network analysis (SNA) to explore the potential barriers, extent and key stage of the transition to CE for C&DW recycling in Guangzhou, China. The results show the following: 1) The network was loose and did not show a clear trend towards a certain point, indicating that the development of current C&DW recycling shows a lack of effective management mechanisms to control and constrain the barrier factors. 2) The key barriers to the network include inadequate incentives from the government sector, inadequate supportive policies, insufficient publicity and education on the recycling of C&DW, and an inadequate legal framework for the management of C&DW. The key stage of the “control power” and “adjustment ability” is the promotion and application of recycled products. 3) The network had three core cluster positions. The authors proposed corresponding suggestions for the results, which will provide theoretical guidance for policy-making for the transition of recycling C&DW move to CE, enabling timely advancement of CE initiatives in the construction industry.
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Ongoing urbanization and increasing decentralization of production have increased interest in the urban factory concept. Urban factories are production systems located in an urban environment that make use of the unique resources and characteristics of their surroundings to create products locally with a potentially high degree of customer involvement. This paper explores key technologies and methods, enabling production in cities and requirements to expand and support the urban factory concept. Industry examples are presented to highlight the opportunity that urban factories provide to deliver better, more customizable products at a lower cost, lower environmental impact and shorter lead-time. In general, there are still high uncertainties on how the underlying physical and immaterial exchange flows of urban factories influence urban systems and vice versa. Technological solutions fostering positive urban production systems are mainly coming from single disciplinary backgrounds and are increasingly transferred to the application in urban production sites.
Chapter
Production sites and factories in urban areas recently receive significant attention in research and planning. However, the impacts of production sites located in cities on their urban surroundings, the (socio-)economic implications and possible further effects, for instance on consumption behavior, are not yet fully analyzed.
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This paper proposes pathways and triggers of change for city representatives and decision makers to consider for enabling transition to sustainable, resilient and adaptive cities. It investigates a range of triggers of change, including regulatory, structural/operational, behavioural, awareness, and resources. A conceptual framework for identifying the triggers of change is presented that was developed under a participatory process and tested during stakeholder dialogues with representatives from 15 cities from 12 European countries. The framework comprises of the following three steps: 1. Indicator-based vulnerability assessment, conducted to analyse city vulnerability and problem identification; 2. Constructed visions of the underpinning factors; and 3. Backcasting exercise, to detect the triggers of change. Following a prioritisation exercise across our European sample, regional differences and the prominence of the following patterns in supporting triggers of change have been noted. In Mediterranean region main triggers were public decision and political leadership, regulatory framework (including building codes, accountability, pricing, taxation, penalties and incentives) and learning from disasters triggers of change. Whereas in the Southern-Central region: adaptive multi-level governance, horizontal and vertical improved relationships governance were the main triggers of change. These patterns and framework are applicable to other cities, and indeed to other topics (e.g. mitigation, sustainability, etc.) that support implementation on the ground to achieve truly sustainable, resilient and adaptive cities. We acknowledge the challenges in deriving universally applicable triggers of change, however the study identifies eight overarching triggers of change that can facilitate the transformation of cities.
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The article reflects the results of integrated study about providing balanced consumption and production. It is established that to achieve sustainable economic development one of the most promising areas is to develop a mechanism for balanced consumption and production, which is based on the resource approach and the model of intersectoral balance and is an extremely complex task that requires a systematic approach and generalization of economic, social, human and environmental development in the long run, has general scientific and methodological significance and requires further research. The paper reflects the structural and logical scheme of the studying process the terminology of the balanced consumption and production in Ukraine, which takes into account globalization, information and digital transformations. The article analyzes endowment of the natural resources in the world and proves the expediency of developing a mechanism for ensuring balanced consumption and production in Ukraine. The main goals and objectives for ensuring the transition to models of balanced consumption and production in accordance with the regulatory and legal support of Ukraine. A comparative analysis of balanced consumption and production models was carried out, grouping the said models according to main characteristics. A mechanism has been developed to ensure a system of balanced consumption and production, the main principle of which is the integration of environmental, economic and social aspects of the use of natural resources, which is one of the provisions of the basic organisation of "green economy". It is substantiated that the main purpose of the mechanism developed in this study is to improve the system of natural resources management in the national economy by determining the level of balance between consumption and production by assessing economic, environmental and social indicators followed by the development of supportive or transformational policies.
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Sustainable management and informed policy making at the sub-national level requires an understanding of regional resource base regeneration and the demand it places on wider geographical areas. Ecological Footprint is one of the most widely used and accepted ecological accounting methodologies and available for calculating multiple consumption categories such as food, housing and transportation. Japan’s 47 prefectures are diverse in their urbanization and ageing situations and provide an opportunity for understanding the relationship between regional socioeconomic and demographic factors and Ecological Footprint outcomes. To assess potential environmental impacts and planning implications of future urbanization and ageing, we analyzed the existing relationships between the proportion of urban and elderly populations and incomes, and the total and categorical Ecological Footprint per capita. We used a standard top-down scaling methodology to quantify the Ecological Footprint of prefectures, that included three steps: 1) acquiring national level data of Ecological Footprints, 2) applying environmental extended multi-regional input-output model to derive Ecological Footprint values by economic sector, and 3) scaling down Ecological Footprints to the prefecture level with household expenditure survey and other data sources. We show that Ecological Footprint varies considerable among prefectures, being highest in Tokyo (5.24 global hectare) and lowest in Yamanashi (4.06 global hectare). Prefectures with a higher proportion of urban and elderly population had high total and food Ecological Footprint per capita. Prefectures with higher income per capita also had higher total and food Ecological Footprint per capita. Lower Ecological Footprints of less urbanized prefectures provide an argument for economic decentralization. Policy makers in ageing regions should consider supporting local food activities with elderly populations, as processed food dominates majority part of the food Ecological Footprint.
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Cities are a key target in the global quest for sustainability and are increasingly acting independently to take the lead in sustainability initiatives. To truly achieve sustainability, cities need to ensure that their consumption is compatible with absolute sustainability and validate achievements from a perspective that includes transboundary impacts. The aim of this review is to assess how well these topics are incorporated in commonly used urban sustainability assessment methods, using the safe and just space (SJS) framework definition of a minimum acceptable threshold for both ecological stability and standard of living. The review identified 277 different sustainability indicator frameworks that have been applied to cities and undertook a detailed assessment of the most commonly cited of these. Consumption-based footprint studies were separately assessed to determine the extent to which they measure SJS indicators for cities. Both indicator frameworks and footprint studies had a focus on indicators of medium-concern boundaries including carbon, water, and land use, however few measured highly exceeded boundaries including nitrogen and phosphorus use, biodiversity, and chemical pollution. Social impacts were well covered in indicator frameworks, except food intake, but largely absent from footprint studies. Cities are largely not measuring their impact on planetary tipping points or transboundary impacts, risking resolving some environmental issues while exacerbating others.
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Agri-food systems are in constant movement, constituted by practices that are shared by actors; however, in a context where new practices are established by the sharing economy, it is necessary to understand them. Thus, this article identifies and describes the sharing economy practices adopted by agri-food rural settlements. Using as basis a systematic review and a multiple case study, the literature revealed 11 practices although the multiple case studies just did not find the practice of housing sharing in the settlements; on the other hand, uncover a new practice, labor sharing, that was not yet mentioned in the literature. This study reveals that the sharing economy practices in agri-food production are strongly linked by the integration of resources and this reality generates the interdependence and interdefinition of the actors in rural settlements.
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The United Nations proposes to ensure a sustainable future for all through the Sustainable Development Goals, assigning a new role to each individual in all sectors of society. Higher Education Institutions are outstanding agents of change, introducing and implementing sustainability in a holistic way, connecting people, and including social and institutional considerations, with students being a key component of change. This study presents a co-creation model to incorporate sustainability in Higher Education Institutions, integrating all members of the university community with a multidisciplinary approach, seeking to address global needs with development tools for new products and services to facilitate the transition of consumers towards responsible consumption. The model aims to analyze the daily consumption pattern of the community at the university, to identify the degree of commitment to sustainability of its members, and to co-create in search of solutions related to responsible consumption and production. This is achieved through five phases of a model, each with specific tasks and objectives based on co-creation processes and tools. As a result, the model enables stakeholders to understand the needs of their community by actively participating within the five phases for developing more democratic solutions and social involvement regarding sustainability issues that can be solved through a co-creative process. The model combines the benefits through ethnographic techniques to discover habits, tools to involve participation, and co-creation to manage complex problems. Future research will focus on the application of the proposed model to more generalist contexts of society, addressing potential challenges due to vertical collaboration and barriers pre-established by society for the adoption of a sustainable lifestyle. Free access: https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1dG~~8Mw7nzbiR
Chapter
There have been many initiatives to involve citizens in the development of smart cities. The aim is to enhance the quality of life for the citizens of these cities by providing better services to them. There are various concepts and platforms discussed in the literature to support citizen’s feedback in smart city development. However, there is a lack of studies that guide how to utilize citizens’ feedbacks to improve the quality of life for the citizens of the city. This paper provides an overview of existing platforms and concepts which are associated with the involvement of the citizens in the smart city domain. The smart city framework has been adapted to classify the existing literature from different architectural layer’s perspectives. Moreover, this study proposes key concepts for service and context layers for an adapted smart city framework based on the conducted case study and a literature review. These key concepts can assist city authorities in better decision-making of designing effective services that meet citizen’s requirements based upon their feedback.KeywordSmart city frameworke-parking serviceService layerContext layerCitizensSmart service
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Local sustainability initiatives are studied from two scholarly perspectives: the perspective of sociotechnical innovation, which relates to the capacity of bottom-up initiatives to contribute to the development of sociotechnical alternatives; and the perspective of civic engagement which relates to the capacity of citizens to organize themselves in order to pursue community goals. This paper argues that taking both these perspectives into account overcomes the problem of being too instrumental or the problem of neglecting the role of technology and innovation in local initiatives. The perspective of sociotechnical innovation presents different types of innovation pursued by local initiatives: the creation of new technology, the application of existing technology and the development of social innovation. Furthermore, innovations might diffuse over wider society by: replication, scaling up, and translation. In turn, civic engagement may take the shape of: the strengthening of social capital, the formation of social movements, and the substitution of functions and services. The insights from literature are illustrated and qualified by applying them in the context of concrete local initiatives. Finally, local initiatives will be portrayed as social contexts that are successful in gathering actors with different motivations and world views and that may contribute to the democratization of innovation.
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Can shrinking cities harness population decline to improve their sustainability by repurposing land use, for example, for localizing food production? Whether such a transition is feasible depends on the pre-shrinkage state of urban agricultural land use, including ongoing trends in local land use change. This study examined agricultural land use from 2007–2017 in Kyoto City, Japan. Kyoto is on the brink of a large projected population decline (~190,000 or ~13% until 2040) and serves as a representative for a large number of regional Japanese cities in a similar situation. Analysis was based on a public 2007 land use data set, aerial and satellite imagery and ground truthing. Results showed a decline of 209 ha or 10% in agricultural land use over ten years, but also highlight the diversity of ongoing agricultural land use types not captured by standard categories. The main post-agricultural land uses were residential (40%) and vacant land (28%). These results have implications for planning and policy. Kyoto City is currently not set to benefit from the projected shrinking process through localizing food production, despite a tradition of vegetable production. Future research should analyze drivers of change for observed agricultural land use.
Technical Report
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ABSTRACT Open burning of waste is estimated to cause 14,000 premature deaths a year in Pakistan and could account for a quarter of the nation's reported carbon emissions, according to recent estimates. Dumped waste is also a major cause of diarrhoeal diseases. A community-based approach to waste management addresses these problems while also creating jobs. A centre piloting this approach offers ten dollars in benefits for every dollar invested in establishing it, and the centre became self-financing in its third year. This approach reduces the need for more expensive, centralised waste management facilities by up to 90 per cent. These figures are consistent with the wider success of this model across Asia.
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Xuemei Bai and colleagues call for long-term, cross-disciplinary studies to reduce carbon emissions and urban risks from global warming.
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Environmentally extended multiregional input-output (EE MRIO) tables have emerged as a key framework to provide a comprehensive description of the global economy and analyze its effects on the environment. Of the available EE MRIO databases, EXIOBASE stands out as a database compatible with the System of Environmental-Economic Accounting (SEEA) with a high sectorial detail matched with multiple social and environmental satellite accounts. In this paper, we present the latest developments realized with EXIOBASE 3—a time series of EE MRIO tables ranging from 1995 to 2011 for 44 countries (28 EU member plus 16 major economies) and five rest of the world regions. EXIOBASE 3 builds upon the previous versions of EXIOBASE by using rectangular supply-use tables (SUTs) in a 163 industry by 200 products classification as the main building blocks. In order to capture structural changes, economic developments, as reported by national statistical agencies, were imposed on the available, disaggregated SUTs from EXIOBASE 2. These initial estimates were further refined by incorporating detailed data on energy, agricultural production, resource extraction, and bilateral trade. EXIOBASE 3 inherits the high level of environmental stressor detail from its precursor, with further improvement in the level of detail for resource extraction. To account for the expansion of the European Union (EU), EXIOBASE 3 was developed with the full EU28 country set (including the new member state Croatia). EXIOBASE 3 provides a unique tool for analyzing the dynamics of environmental pressures of economic activities over time.
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Meeting the commitments made in the Paris Agreement on climate change will require different approaches in different countries. However, a common feature in many contexts relates to the continued and sometimes increasing significance of the carbon footprints of urban centres. These footprints consider both production or territorial (i.e. Scope 1 and 2) emissions, and consumption or extra-territorial (i.e. Scope 3) emissions. Although a growing number of cities have adopted targets for their production-based emissions, very few have even started to analyse or address their consumption-based emissions. This presents a potential challenge for urban policymaking if consumption emissions rise while production emissions fall, and for climate mitigation more broadly if emissions are effectively migrating to areas without carbon reduction targets or capabilities. To explore these issues, in this paper we analyse and compare production- and consumption-based emissions accounts for urban centres in China, the UK and the US. Results show that per-capita income and population density are strong predictors of consumption-based emissions levels, and consumption-based emissions appear to diminish but not decouple with higher per-capita incomes. In addition, results show that per-capita income is a predictor of net emissions - or the difference between production- and consumption-based accounts - suggesting that continuing increases in per capita income levels may drive the ‘leakage’ of urban emissions. These findings highlight a risk in placing too much faith in city-level climate strategies focused only on production-based emissions, and stress the importance of new city-level initiatives that focus on consumption-based emissions, especially in cities that are shifting from producer to consumer city status.
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Transdisciplinary research between diverse academic and societal actors is a core practice in sustainability science. However, it often seems to fail in delivering new scientific insights while also significantly contributing to sustainability transformations. It is also often experienced as a burden instead of adding value, which leads to fatigue and disengagement. To address these challenges, we propose to bridge four divides: (i) positioning and linking disciplinary and transdisciplinary research; (ii) transferring and scaling insights from real-world experimentation; (iii) opening the “extended ivory towers” and reaching a majority of relevant societal actors; (iv) aligning research practice with broader sustainability values such as collaboration, mindfulness, and altruism.
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Global climate change and inequality are inescapably linked both in terms of who contributes climate change and who suffers the consequences. This fact is also partly reflected in two United Nations (UN) processes: on the one hand, the Paris Agreement of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change under which countries agreed to hold the increase in the global average temperature to below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels and, on the other hand, the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals aiming to end poverty. These agreements are seen as important foundation to put the world nations on a sustainable pathway. However, how these agreements can be achieved or whether they are even mutually compatible is less clear. We explore the global carbon inequality between and within countries and the carbon implications of poverty alleviation by combining detailed consumer expenditure surveys for different income categories for a wide range of countries with an environmentally extended multi-regional input–output approach to estimate carbon footprints of different household groups, globally, and assess the carbon implications of moving the poorest people out of poverty. Given the current context, increasing income leads to increasing carbon footprints and makes global targets for mitigating greenhouse gases more difficult to achieve given the pace of technological progress and current levels of fossil fuel dependence. We conclude that the huge level of carbon inequality requires a critical discussion of undifferentiated income growth. Current carbon-intensive lifestyles and consumption patterns need to enter the climate discourse to a larger extent.
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Full-text available: http://www.mdpi.com/2073-445X/6/3/59/htm Abstract: Urban residents’ health depends on green infrastructure to cope with climate change. Shrinking cities could utilize vacant land to provide more green space, but declining tax revenues preclude new park development—a situation pronounced in Japan, where some cities are projected to shrink by over ten percent, but lack green space. Could informal urban green spaces (IGS; vacant lots, street verges, brownfields etc.) supplement parks in shrinking cities? This study analyzes residents’ perception, use, and management preferences (management goals, approaches to participatory management, willingness to participate) for IGS using a large, representative online survey (n = 1000) across four major shrinking Japanese cities: Sapporo, Nagano, Kyoto and Kitakyushu. Results show that residents saw IGS as a common element of the urban landscape and their daily lives, but their evaluation was mixed. Recreation and urban agriculture were preferred to redevelopment and non-management. For participative management, residents saw a need for the city administration to mediate usage and liability, and expected an improved appearance, but emphasized the need for financial and non-financial support. A small but significant minority (~10%) were willing to participate in management activities. On this basis, eight principles for participatory informal green space planning are proposed.
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The article describes the field of sustainability transitions research, which emerged in the past two decades in the context of a growing scientific and public interest in large-scale societal transformation toward sustainability. We describe how different scientific approaches and methodological positions explore diverse types of transitions and provide the basis for multiple theories and models for governance of sustainability transitions. We distinguish three perspectives in studying transitions: socio-technical, socioinstitutional, and socio-ecological. Although the field as a whole is very heterogeneous, commonalities can be characterized in notions such as path dependencies, regimes, niches, experiments, and governance. These more generic concepts have been adopted within the analytical perspective of transitions, which has led three different types of approaches to dealing with agency in transitions: analytical, evaluative, and experimental. The field has by now produced a broad theoretical and empirical basis along with a variety of social transformation strategies and instruments, impacting disciplinary scientific fields as well as (policy) practice. In this article, we try to characterize the field by identifying its main perspectives, approaches and shared concepts, and its relevance to real-world sustainability problems and solutions. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Environment and Resources Volume 42 is October 17, 2017. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
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As cities try to lower their carbon footprints, the concept of transforming brownfield sites into ‘eco-precincts’ has gained substantial traction. There is not yet however, an established way of combining technological innovation with social and behaviour change. The design, and operation of an ‘eco-precinct’ requires the cooperation of a wide variety of disciplines and stakeholders. Without this cooperation, there is often a disparity between the aspirations for these precincts and the final outcomes. Co-creation is increasingly being looked-to to support precinct development in that it facilitates deeper user engagement in the design process. There a number of challenges to applying co-creative models to larger scales of development. One of which is defining the user in greenfield or brownfield development. This complexity is added to by the perceived risk to budgets and timelines due to the uncertainty associated with the feedback loops of the co-creation process, and the complex power dynamics and process challenges between various professional and non-professional actors. This paper suggests that addressing these challenges is critical in facilitating a shift from ‘consultation’ (both professional and public) being considered as a discrete event (noun), to an ongoing and iterative process (verb) that can facilitate the creation of innovative user centred low-carbon urban environments.
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Humanity is approaching an historic transformation. Towards the end of the 21st century the world’s population will very possibly begin to decline in number, and East Asia is in the vanguard. This is being achieved in nearly all countries not via coercion, but voluntarily, as female emancipation and education, urbanisation, and economic development spread across the world, lifestyles and life choices change, and medical knowledge and technologies advance.
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India faces major environmental challenges associated with waste generation and inadequate waste collection, transport, treatment and disposal. Current systems in India cannot cope with the volumes of waste generated by an increasing urban population, and this impacts on the environment and public health. The challenges and barriers are significant, but so are the opportunities. This paper reports on an international seminar on ‘Sustainable solid waste management for cities: opportunities in South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) countries’ organized by the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research-National Environmental Engineering Research Institute and the Royal Society. A priority is to move from reliance on waste dumps that offer no environmental protection, to waste management systems that retain useful resources within the economy. Waste segregation at source and use of specialized waste processing facilities to separate recyclable materials has a key role. Disposal of residual waste after extraction of material resources needs engineered landfill sites and/or investment in waste-to-energy facilities. The potential for energy generation from landfill via methane extraction or thermal treatment is a major opportunity, but a key barrier is the shortage of qualified engineers and environmental professionals with the experience to deliver improved waste management systems in India.
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The rapid urbanisation of the twentieth century, along with the spread of high-consumption urban lifestyles, has led to cities becoming the dominant drivers of global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Reducing these impacts is crucial, but production-based frameworks of carbon measurement and mitigation—which encompass only a limited part of cities’ carbon footprints—are much more developed and widely applied than consumption-based approaches that consider the embedded carbon effectively imported into a city. Frequently, therefore, cities are left blind to the importance of their wider consumption-related climate impacts, while at the same time left lacking effective tools to reduce them. To explore the relevance of these issues, we implement methodologies for assessing production- and consumption-based emissions at the city-level and estimate the associated emissions trajectories for Bristol, a major UK city, from 2000 to 2035. We develop mitigation scenarios targeted at reducing the former, considering potential energy, carbon and financial savings in each case. We then compare these mitigation potentials with local government ambitions and Bristol’s consumption-based emissions trajectory. Our results suggest that the city’s consumption-based emissions are three times the production-based emissions, largely due to the impacts of imported food and drink. We find that low-carbon investments of circa £3 billion could reduce production-based emissions by 25% in 2035. However, we also find that this represents <10% of Bristol’s forecast consumption-based emissions for 2035 and is approximately equal to the mitigation achievable by eliminating the city’s current levels of food waste. Such observations suggest that incorporating consumption-based emission statistics into cities’ accounting and decision-making processes could uncover largely unrecognised opportunities for mitigation that are likely to be essential for achieving deep decarbonisation.
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This paper combines the concept of leapfrogging with systems-thinking approaches to outline the potentials for and barriers to enabling systemic shifts to strong sustainable consumption in the emerging economies of China and India. New urban consumers in China and India have the potential to “lifestyle leapfrog” the high impact lifestyle models of the industrialized countries while simultaneously improving their quality of life. This paper argues that by implementing systemic approaches in the consumption domains of mobility and housing, the historical trajectory of high environmental footprints of mobility and housing can be avoided. The analysis based on systems-thinking principles identifies existing barriers and possible solutions. The importance of policies for strong sustainable consumption is highlighted to induce positive feedbacks in the areas of markets and society facilitating both efficient technology uptake and behavioural changes.
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While the field of sustainable consumption research is relatively young, it has already attracted scholars from all corners of the social sciences. The time has come to identify a new research agenda as trends in sustainable consumption research seem to suggest the dawning of a new phase. Not only does research need to be guided, but sustainable consumption policymaking, too, involving best practices around the application of standard and more innovative instruments.
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In this paper, we explore the entrepreneurial leadership strategies and routine work of actors located across a diverse array of organizational settings (i.e., farmers’ markets, community farms, community-supported agriculture programs, food and seed banks, local food print media) that combine to shape and sustain the Southern Arizona (AZ) local food system (LFS). We use the theoretical principles of institutional entrepreneurship and logic multiplicity to show how the strategies and routine work of local food actors at the organizational level combine to negotiate system-level meaning and structure within and across the Southern AZ LFS, which is an otherwise seemingly fragmented and contentious social space. We illustrate how the entrepreneurial work performed within multiple organizations and organizational types converge to form a hybrid (or blended) local food logic. Implications are discussed and recommendations for practice are proposed.
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Developing cities have historically looked to developed cities as exemplary models for waste management systems and practices without considering the consequent resource requirements or the key characteristics of the local setting. However, direct adoption of developed cities’ approaches without proper consideration of the local circumstances may lead to unsustainable future waste management in developing cities. This study evaluates waste management in London and Kuala Lumpur, representing developed and developing cities, focusing on the integration of policy changes, socio-economic background and waste data trends on a multi-decadal scale. This analysis reveals the gradual implementation of initiatives, the challenges faced and the attempted solutions that were applied differently in both cities. Conceptual models of waste management status in different scenarios for both cities were developed. These models highlight that societal behaviour shifts from minimal waste generation (wasteless) to throw-away society (wasteful) and a drive to achieve sustainable waste behaviour with integration of resource recovery and waste minimization (wasting less). A detailed understanding of the evolution of waste management systems towards fulfilling public needs alongside rapid urbanization can provide new perspectives on future waste scenarios, especially in developing cities. Ultimately, reliable and accurate data are crucial to avoid inaccuracies in planning for future waste management.
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India generates nearly 62 million tons of MSW annually that creates huge problems in the environment. Small number of initiatives of waste treatment, e.g., incineration, pyrolysis, bio-refining & biogas plants, composting, recycling and SLFs are available in the country. For the sustainable Solid Waste Management (SWM), an inclusive improvement policy and paradigm shift is necessary. SBM (SBM), flagged off on October 2, 2014, is considered as a paradigm shift in Indian SWM movement. SBM is the country's biggest-ever cleanliness drive costing over 10,600 million USD for 5 years in 4,041 towns in which SWM considered as one of the six components. One of the stated objectives of SBM is to ensure door-to-door garbage collection and proper disposal of municipal solid waste in all the 83,000 wards in urban areas by 2019. Swachh Bharat citizen communities were formed subsequently to generate awareness and citizen participation. Since then, over a period of 12 months, over 335,000 citizens have become part of the various Swachh Bharat citizen communities across more than 100 cities of India. The study reviews the present status and sustainability of the activities undertaken and proposes some improvement scopes in the schemes under the SB mission for effective SWM in India. The study will definitely help in revisiting the scheme periodically for continual improvement.
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Multiple factors like population density with high degree of commercialization and rapid urbanization has resulted in problems of solid waste disposal which produce 120,000 tones of solid waste per day in India (2014) and its detrimental consequences. But separate studies on the health hazards associated with waste disposal in the localities of Kolkata are scanty. The aim of this study is to explore the adverse health effects prevalent in the community associated with the solid waste disposal system in a specific locality (i.e. Garia) of Kolkata. A garbage disposable area of Kolkata was selected in Garia and the nearby households (within 500 m from the waste disposable land) were randomly selected and case study was done by interview on the effect of garbage disposal on the health of the adjacent residents with two self structured questionnaires, taking note of perception and awareness about garbage disposal practices. Their recommendation was also sought for eradication of menace. The study clearly indicates failure of the existing facilities, high volume of waste generation, inadequate collection space, and the presence of open-dump sites which generates serious health risks. Information of various types of waste materials like polythene bags, construction wastes, regular solid wastes from households were obtained. It was observed that the people living in this area have poor health like allergy, asthma, skin irritation and other gastro intestinal diseases. The public perception indicated that most people lack knowledge of the harmful effects of waste heaps including that they are breeding grounds for flies, cockroaches, and mosquitoes, rodents etc which are responsible for transmission of germs and zoonotic infections to the people living nearby. The findings of the study will help the stakeholders to take necessary steps to eradicate the problem and to grow a healthier environment.
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For many consumers serious about sustainability, reconnecting with the backstories that permeate our food involves creating closer relationships with the people, products, and places involved in its provisioning and highlights the importance of trusting relationships. Forming trusting relationships can be a difficult process as personal, social, and cultural factors play a role in fostering or suppressing trust, ultimately affecting long-term prospects for sustainable food consumption. Answering the call for inquiries on the link between agency and culture, this chapter focuses on the cultural factors that are unique to consumers, farmers , and groups involved with sustainable food consumption activities in Japan. Drawing on examples from the literature, cases from our previous research, and cross-cultural survey data we examine the ways in which objects, symbols, and relationships are employed by various actors in the creation or erosion of trust, assurance , and commitment. We pay particular attention to how the culturally pertinent factors of in-group trust and assurance, monitoring and sanctioning, and the emphasis on long-term personal relationships and commitments play out in helping or hindering the diffusion and maintenance of organic teikei food cooperatives and chisan-chisho (local production for local consumption) activities. Additional studies on the ways trust and food consumption practices are shaped by cultural factors are needed in other countries to better understand and facilitate a culturally sensitive steering of sustainable consumption.
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In cities worldwide, low-carbon urban initiatives (LCUIs) are realised by pioneers that prove that climate mitigation strategies can be integrated in urban development trajectories. Practitioners and scholars reflect on the need to scale-up such initiatives in order to accelerate the transition to low-carbon cities. Yet, limited conceptual clarity exists regarding the meaning of the concept of ‘scaling-up’ and the factors driving this process. This article aims to contribute to practice and theory on low-carbon urban development by presenting a taxonomy on the concept of scaling-up. Moreover, an explanatory framework is presented consisting of factors expected to contribute to the impact and scaling-up of LCUIs. Two case studies were conducted to illustrate the explanatory framework. The studies are illustrative but suggest that the explanatory framework allows for a systematic understanding of how the impact of former initiatives can be explained, and how their scaling-up can be promoted.
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The global urban transition increasingly positions cities as important influencers in determining sustainability outcomes. Urban sustainability literature tends to focus on the built environment as a solution space for reducing energy and materials demand; however, equally important is the consumption characteristics of the people who occupy the city. While size of dwelling and motor vehicle ownership are partially influenced by urban form, they are also influenced by cultural and socio-economic characteristics. Dietary choices and purchases of consumable goods are almost entirely driven by the latter. Using international field data that document urban ways of living, I develop lifestyle archetypes coupled with ecological footprint analysis to develop consumption benchmarks in the domains of: food, buildings, consumables, transportation, and water that correspond to various levels of demand on nature's services. I also explore the dimensions of transformation that would be needed in each of these domains for the per capita consumption patterns of urban dwellers to achieve ecological sustainability. The dimensions of transformation needed commensurate with ecological carrying capacity include: a 73% reduction in household energy use, a 96% reduction in motor vehicle ownership, a 78% reduction in per capita vehicle kilometres travelled, and a 79% reduction in air kilometres travelled.
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Linking environmental sustainability with poverty reduction and social justice, and making science and technology work for the poor, have become central practical, political and moral challenges of our times. These must be met in a world of rapid, interconnected change in environments, societies and economies, and globalised, fragmented governance arrangements. Yet despite growing international attention and investment, policy attempts often fail. Why is this, and what can be done about it? How might we understand and address emergent threats from epidemic disease, or the challenges of water scarcity in dryland India? In the context of climate change, how might seed systems help African farmers meet their needs, and how might appropriate energy strategies be developed? This book lays out a new 'pathways approach' to address sustainability challenges such as these in today's dynamic world. Through an appreciation of dynamics, complexity, uncertainty, differing narratives and the values-based aims of sustainability, the pathways approach allows us to see how some approaches are dominant, even though they do not produce the desired results, and how to create successful alternative 'pathways' of responding to the challenges we face. As well as offering new ways of thinking about sustainability, the book also suggests a series of practical ways forward - in tools and methods, forms of political engagement, and styles of knowledge-making and communication. Throughout the book, the practicalities of the pathways approach are illustrated using four case studies: water in dryland India, agricultural seeds in Africa, responses to epidemic disease and energy systems/climate change. Published in association with the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC). © M. Leach, I. Scoones and A. Stirling, 2010. All rights reserved.
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The challenges of sustainable development (and climate change and peak oil, in particular) demand system-wide transformations in sociotechnical systems of provision. An academic literature around coevolutionary innovation for sustainability has recently emerged as an attempt to understand the dynamics and directions of such sociotechnical transformations, which are termed 'sustainability transitions'. This literature has previously focused on market-based technological innovations. Here we apply it to a new context of civil-society-based social innovation and examine the role of community-based initiatives in a transition to a low-carbon sustainable economy in the UK. We present new empirical research from a study of the UK's Transition Towns movement (a 'grassroots innovation') and assess its attempts to grow and infl uence wider societal sociotechnical systems. By applying strategic niche management theory to this civil society context, we deliver theoretically informed practical recommendations for this movement to diff use beyond its niche: to foster deeper engagement with resourceful regime actors; to manage expectations more realistically by delivering tangible opportunities for action and participation; and to embrace a community-based, action-oriented model of social change (in preference to a cognitive theory of behaviour change). Furthermore, our study indicates areas where theory can be refi ned to better explain the growth and broader impacts of grassroots innovations —namely, through a fuller appreciation of the importance of internal niche processes, by understanding the important role of identity and group formation, and by resolving how social practices change in grassroots innovations.
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Today’s society is facing a broad array of societal challenges, such as an unstable economic system, climate change and lasting poverty. There are no straightforward solutions, rather these challenges ask for fundamental societal changes, that is, sustainability transitions. Faced with the question of how these challenges can be understood and dealt with, we argue for action research as a promising approach. Focusing on their localized manifestations, we ask whether and how action research can support understanding and addressing societal challenges and making sustainability meaningful locally. We tackle this question on the basis of two case studies in local communities based on principles of transition management. Our main finding is that societal challenges, sustainability and sustainability transitions acquire meaning through practice and interactions in the local context. Action research can offer a space in which alternative ideas (e.g., knowledge, future visions), practices (e.g., practical experiments, transformative action) and social relations (e.g., new actors) can emerge to further a sustainability transition.
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The challenges formulated within the Future Earth framework set the orientation for research programmes in sustainability science for the next ten years. Scientific disciplines from natural and social science will collaborate both among each other and with relevant societal groups in order to define the important integrated research questions, and to explore together successful pathways towards global sustainability. Such collaboration will be based on transdisciplinarity and integrated research concepts. This paper analyses the relationship between scientific integration and transdisciplinarity, discusses the dimensions of integration of different knowledge and proposes a platform and a paradigm for research towards global sustainability that will be both designed and conducted in partnership between science and society. We argue that integration is an iterative process that involves reflection among all stakeholders. It consists of three stages: co-design, coproduction and co-dissemination.
Article
Rural places are continually experiencing socio-economic change and the conceptual frameworks of re-deagrarianisation and re-de-peasantisation were devised to explain agrarian transformations in a broad sense. Following empirical studies from other geographical contexts, this paper revisits the concepts of re-de-agrarianisation and re-de-peasantisation through the historical, theoretical, and empirical lens of agrarian and rural change in Japan. After detailing the circumstances of post-WWII agricultural reconstruction and current rural conditions, as well as outlining the development of the field of Japanese agrarian studies and a selection of the endogenous theories within to explain transformations, contemporary examples and a case study are used to provide a rich contextual account of Japan’s experiences of re-agrarianisation and re-peasantisation. We find that economic, social, cultural, geopolitical, and biophysical conditions in Japan have shaped the processes of agrarian change and bring into focus particular uniqueness of endogenous responses to de-agrarianisation and neoliberal agricultural trends. In particular, socio-cultural pressure to cooperate and identify with local community and place allows “peasant-like” elements to persist despite the strong push toward entrepreneurial and corporate farming. Understanding these trajectories of the transformation of Japanese agriculture would then challenge and/or validate the applicability of commonly accepted definitions of de-re agrarianisation and de-repeasantisation.
Article
Sharing economies are being identified across diverse territories, including the food sector, as potential means to enact urban sustainability transitions. Within these developments ICT (information and communication technologies) are seen as a crucial enabler of sharing, stretching the spaces over which sharing can take place. However, there has been little explicit conceptual or empirical attention to these developments within the broad landscape of food sharing. In response, this paper provides the first macro-geographical analysis of urban food sharing mediated by ICT. Focusing on individual food-sharing initiatives drawn from a scoping database of 468 urban areas and ninety-one countries, this analysis reveals a variegated geography of food sharing in terms of location, what is being shared and the mode of food sharing adopted. Also documented is the extent to which these initiatives articulate sustainability claims and provide evidence to substantiate them. In conclusion, the paper reflects on the work that such a scoping database can do in relation to wider challenges of transforming urban food systems.
Article
The Circular Economy (CE) gained significant traction in business and academia. While in the building sector issues around energy efficiency are being widely explored, CE is still a relatively new topic. This article reports on three CE pilots in the Dutch building sector and develops a collaboration tool for developing and operating circular buildings and their supply chain collaborations. First, a conceptual framework is developed to study supply chain collaboration in circular buildings, which uses theoretical building blocks for visions, actor learning, network dynamics and business model innovation. Second, a case study is presented where the framework is applied to three cases using semi-structured interviews and document analysis. Third, an empirically-based tool is developed to enhance collaboration for CE in the building sector. The cases include a newly built project, a renovation project and a demolition project. It was found that developing circular buildings requires (i) a new process design where a variety of disciplines in the supply chain is integrated upfront, (ii) the co-creation of an ambitious vision, (iii) extension of responsibilities to actors along the entire building supply chain, and (iv) new business and ownership models.
Article
The disruptive rise of the sharing economy has inspired multiple social innovations embodying significant potential towards achieving urban sustainability in crucial areas like low-carbon mobility. Increasingly, consumers in such sharing systems participate in activities of value co-creation together with firms and peers, such as through enforcing rules that help maintain trust and reciprocity. Why do people choose to invest their time and energy in co-creating values that may benefit wider social and environmental sustainability in the sharing economy? This study addresses this question through an analysis of an emerging shared mobility community, the innovative socio-economic relationships it has spawned, and the cultural and cognitive forces that underpin these new forms of economic organization and value creation in relation to sustainability. Through a mixed method case study of a newly emerged free-floating bike sharing system in China, called Mobike, the paper explores the main enabling factors which is transforming people from passive product/service receivers to active value co-creators in the sharing economy, such as self-efficacy, cognition of duty, anticipated awards and learning processes. The paper argues that business, social and government organizations may leverage these enabling factors to achieve a more sustainable sharing business and society. Finally, based on quantitative and qualitative data analysis, the article proposes a value co-creation framework between users and firms that involves a clear social learning process on the one hand, and has strong links with social innovations towards sustainability, on the other.
Article
This paper describes the creation of a database providing estimated greenhouse gas (GHG) footprints for 6 million US households over the period 2008-2012. The database allows analysis of footprints for 52 types of consumption (e.g. electricity, gasoline, apparel, beef, air travel, etc.) within and across geographic regions as small as individual census tracts. Potential research applications with respect to carbon pricing and tax policy are discussed. Preliminary analysis reveals:- The top 10% of US polluters are responsible for 25% of the country’s GHG footprint. The least-polluting 40% of the population accounts for only 20% of the total. The average GHG footprint of individuals in the top 2% of the income distribution is more than four times that of those in the bottom quintile.- The highest GHG footprints are found in America’s suburbs, where relatively inefficient housing and transport converge with higher incomes. Rural areas exhibit moderate GHG footprints. High-density urban areas generally exhibit the lowest GHG footprints, but location-specific results are highly dependent on income.- Residents of Republican-held congressional districts have slightly higher average GHG footprints than those in Democratic districts – but the difference is small (21.8 tCO2e/person/year in Republican districts; 20.6 in Democratic). There is little relationship between the strength of a district’s party affiliation and average GHG footprint.
Article
This research aims to quantify the effects of car sharing on car ownership, car use and CO2 emissions. The results are based on a survey amongst 363 car sharing respondents in the Netherlands. We found over 30% less car ownership amongst car sharers and they drove 15% to 20% fewer car kilometres than prior to car sharing. The shared cars mostly replace a second or third car. Due to reduced car ownership and car use, car sharers emit between 240 and 390 fewer kilograms of CO2 per person, per year. This is between 13% and 18% of the CO2 emissions related to car ownership and car use.
Article
The built environment puts major pressure on the natural environment; its role in transitioning to a circular economy (CE) is therefore fundamental. However, current CE research tends to focus either on the macro-scale, such as eco-parks, or the micro-scale, such as manufactured products, with the risk of ignoring the additional impacts and potentials at the meso-scale of individual buildings. This article sets out to unpack the fundamental defining dimensions of a CE and frame them for CE studies for the built environment. A critical literature review forms the basis for identifying and framing such fundamental dimensions. Our contribution highlights the key roles of interdisciplinary research and of both bottom-up and top-down initiatives in facilitating the transition to ‘circular buildings’. The frame for reference has been used to capture current discourse on the sustainability of the built environment and has proved to be a valuable tool to cluster existing initiatives and highlight missing links for interdisciplinary endeavours. The article represents a contribution to the theoretical foundations of CE research in the built environment and a stepping stone to shape future research initiatives.
Article
Households’ carbon footprints are unequally distributed among the rich and poor due to differences in the scale and patterns of consumption. We present distributional focused carbon footprints for Chinese households and use a carbon-footprint-Gini coeffcient to quantify inequalities. We find that in 2012 the urban very rich, comprising 5% of population, induced 19% of the total carbon footprint from household onsumption in China, with 6.4 tCO2/cap. The average Chinese household footprint remains comparatively low (1.7 tCO2/cap), while those of the rural population and urban poor, comprising 58% of population, are 0.5–1.6 tCO2/cap. Between 2007 and 2012 the total footprint from households increased by 19%, with 75% of the increase due to growing consumption of the urban middle class and the rich. This suggests that a transformation of Chinese lifestyles away from the current trajectory of carbon-intensive consumption patterns requires policy interventions to improve living standards and encourage sustainable consumption.