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Teff: Nutritional Compounds and Effects on Human Health



Keywords: Teff; Functional Food; Nutrition For centuries, Teff (Eragrostis tef) has been planted and used in Ethiopia where it originated from. Teff is one of the major grains, mainly used a traditional bread in Ethiopia. In other countries such as South Africa, Australia and United States, it is principally used for animal feed. The global use of teff for human consumption has been restrained partly due to limited knowledge about its nutritional values and the processing challenges faced in making teff-based food products. Over the past decade, the discovery that teff does not contain gluten has raised interest across the world. As a result, number of researchers on the nutritional composition, and potential benefits of teff has increased considerably. The current literature suggests that teff contains complex carbohydrates with slowly digestible starch. Teff has a similar protein content to other cereals like wheat but is richer than other cereals in terms of lysine an essential amino acid. In addition, due to teff proteins contains a small amount of prolamin, they are presumed easily digestible. Teff is also a good source of essential fatty acids, fiber, minerals (especially calcium and iron), and phytochemicals such as polyphenols and phytates. Present studies about the nutrition and health benefits of teff are limited. Nevertheless, the studies undertaken so far suggest teff has considerable potential to be a functional food for health promotion and disease prevention. On the other hand, further research is needed to determine potential health impacts and alternative uses of teff.
Volume 2 Issue 9 December 2018
Teff: Nutritional Compounds and Effects on Human Health
    
  
 
        
  
 
    
     
  
       
       
    
  “Teff: Nutritional Compounds and Effects on Human Health    
        
  
  
    
 
          
    
         
  
patients 
    
 
    
 
        
       
       
     
    
         
       
  
dine compared to other cereals  
      
           
       
     
         
         
 
  
  
     
 
    
      
     
 
  
 
      
  
  “Teff: Nutritional Compounds and Effects on Human Health   
       
         
        
      
       
         
       
            
    
      
       
   
     
        
   
    
 
 
       
    
     
 
 
 
 
      
 
 
        
 
      
 -
         
    
        
 
    
  
       
  “Teff: Nutritional Compounds and Effects on Human Health   
         
   
 
        
 
    Nutrition in   
         
   
 -
   
   
        
   Jour-
 
 
 
 
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        
 
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     
  “Teff: Nutritional Compounds and Effects on Human Health   
... Teff seed, including white, red, and brown varieties, is of Ethiopian origin and is the smallest among agricultural grains (1,2). The polyphenols, and various minerals. ...
... The polyphenols, and various minerals. Teff seeds have a higher content of fiber, essential amino acids, and minerals (calcium, zinc, phosphate, copper, and iron) compared to cereals such as wheat, rice, sorghum, and corn (2). ...
... A similar result was not encountered in the group that consumed teff seeds. Given the daily consumption of cereals, they can be a good source of essential fatty acids (2). The predominant fatty acids in teff seed are oleic acid (32.41%) and linoleic acid (23.83%), respectively. ...
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BACKGROUND: The low incidence of diseases such as celiac, anemia, osteoporosis, and obesity in Ethiopia has aroused interest in the study of teff. The primary objective of this study was to determine the effect of regular consumption of teff seeds on hematological findings and anthropometric measurements in overweight and obese individuals. The secondary objective was to compare these effects of teff seeds with the Mediterranean diet. METHODS: In our study, planned as a cohort study, 28 participants followed the teff seed-containing diet (n=14) and the Mediterranean diet (n=14) for 3 months. To determine nutritional status, a 72-h recall was taken. Anthropometric measurements and hematological findings were recorded at the beginning and end of the study. RESULTS: There was a significant decrease in fasting blood glucose, cholesterol, LDL, and HDL levels in the teff group (p<0.05). The increase in total protein levels in the teff group was significantly higher than in the Mediterranean diet group (p=0.05). With increased intake of carbohydrates (g) in the teff group, fasting blood glucose levels decreased significantly. There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding anthropometric measurements. CONCLUSION: It has been found that the teff seed has no predominance over anthropometric measurements, as compared to the Mediterranean diet, and that it is more effective in improving hematological findings related to obesity. There is a need for more comprehensive studies that also address physical activity, the different types of teff seeds available, and include increased participant numbers. KEYWORDS: Teff seeds, Mediterranean diet, obesity, hematological findings, anthropometric measurements
... Carbohydrates are important food components afecting taste and nutrition and are the main source of energy in cereals [8,9]. Tef is a whole grain and superior to other cereals due to being naturally gluten free and is the dominant source of nutrients like carbohydrates, amino acids, minerals, dietary fbers, proteins, dietary polyphenols, starch, and vitamins [6,[10][11][12]. Volatiles like aldehydes, ketones, and alcohols [12] are rich in unsaturated fatty acids like linoleic, oleic, and linolenic acids [12,13]. ...
... Total carbohydrate is the total of monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides. Tough the total carbohydrate content of tef may vary in diferent ecology, studies have reported its content to be in the range of 57-86 %w/w [11]. Te atherogenicity and thrombogenicity indices used to determine the lipid quality of the white and brown tef grain samples have indicated excellent status of grains compared to other cereal grains, which are useful for human nutrition and health [14]. ...
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Tere is no ultraviolet visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometric method for the direct determination of total sugars in the aqueous extract of tef grain samples. Terefore, the objective of this study was to develop a green UV-Vis spectrophotometric method to determine total sugars in the aqueous extract of white tef, brown tef, white rice, and red wheat grain samples. Te calibration curve was established in the range of 20.11-7,907 mg/L using sucrose as a standard with R 2 � 0.9996. Te limit of detection and limit of quantifcation were 4.4 and 14.6 mg/L, respectively. Te relative standard deviation (6.9%) of the method for the sucrose standard was within the acceptable range indicating that the method is precise. Te amount of total sugars determined in the white tef (5.48-9.44% (w/w), brown tef (6.17-10.32% (w/w)), white rice (3.19% (w/w)), and red wheat (9.22% (w/w)) grain samples was comparable with other reported cereal grains. Furthermore, the accuracy of the developed analytical method was also evaluated by spiking the known amount of the sucrose standard solution to the white tef, brown tef, white rice, and red wheat sample extracts, and percentage recoveries found were in the acceptable range (85 ± 2 − 105 ± 4%) with an average recovery of 93%, confrming that the new green method is quantitatively reproducible. Hence, a fast, simple, inexpensive, widely used, selective, sensitive, precise, and accurate green UV-Vis method was developed and validated for the direct determination of total sugars in the aqueous extract of tef, white rice, and red wheat grain samples.
... One of the most important characteristics of cereal crops is the large variety of fatty acids they contain (Mehmood et al., 2008;Yilmaz and Arslan, 2018). Fatty acids are the main components of dietary fats generally derived from triglycerides and phospholipids (Chen and Liu, 2020). ...
... The most concerned fatty acids are linoleic acid (ω-6) and α-linolenic acid (ω-3) because both are vital for humans (Chughtai et al., 2015) and it is through dietary intake that human beings obtain essential fatty acids such as α-linolenic acid (ω-3) and linoleic acid (ω-6) (Jo et al., 2020). For example, the intake of omega-3 fatty acids (α-linolenic acid) has been found to reduce biological markers associated with cardiovascular disease, cancer, inflammatory and autoimmune diseases (Yilmaz and Arslan, 2018). But the low intake of essential fatty acids has a negative effect on human health. ...
The main objective of this study was to determine the fatty acid profiles and evaluate the nutritional properties of the white and brown teff grain samples using GC-MS method. The linoleic acid, oleic acid and palmitic acid, respectively, were the dominant compounds in the white and brown teff grain samples accounting for about 73% and 72.2% of the total fatty acid content, respectively. The ratio of ω-6/ω-3 found in the present study was 2.29–2.67% and 2.23–2.54% for the white and brown teff samples, respectively, and is comparable with the suggested 1–2:1 ratio for normal human growth and development. The atherogenicity and thrombogenicity indices used to determine the lipid quality of the teff grain samples has indicated excellent status of the grains compared to other cereal grains which are useful for the human nutrition and health,.
... [3] Teff [Eragrostis tef (Zuccagni) Trotter] is a self-pollinated, annual and tropical principal cereal belonging to the family of Poaceae, subfamily Eragrostoidae, tribe Eragrosteae, and genus Eragrostis, where believed to have grown and originated in Ethiopia. [4,5] Teff grain is one of the smallest cereals being oval-shaped and comprised of germ, pericarp and endosperm layers. [6] The color of teff can vary from white (ivory) to dark brown (black) depending on the variety. ...
... [2] Teff is leading all cereal grains by a wide margin having a high concentration of a variety of nutrients like minerals, amino acids, dietary fibers, proteins, dietary polyphenols, lipids, starch, carbohydrates and vitamins. [5,10,11] It contains all essential amino acids that make it comparable to egg. [2] Food with a balanced nutritional composition is easily absorbed by human body and all cells require these substances in appropriate amounts to maintain their homeostasis foods containing the so called chemo-preventive agents which do have the potential to increase life quality and expectancy. ...
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This study was aimed to investigate volatile compounds of white and brown teff grain samples using the hydro-distillation and its extract in dichloromethane and n-hexane by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The optimized time for the hydro-distillation of the white and brown teff grain samples was nine hours. The dominant volatile compounds identified in the white and brown teff grain samples of the dichloromethane extract corresponding to peak area proportion were furfural (29.9%, 38.1%) and 5-methyl-2-furancarboxaldehyde (15.1%, 23.8%), respectively. The relative amount of dominant volatile compounds determined in the white teff grain sample of the n-hexane extract were 10.2% and 7.27% for the 5-methyl-2-furancarboxaldehyde and 2-[(methylthio)methyl] furan, respectively, and 18.4%, 16.0%, 12.5% and 9.73%, for the furfural, 5-methyl-2-furancarboxaldehyde, 2-[(methylthio)methyl]furan and benzeneace-taldehyde, respectively, for the brown teff grain sample. This study revealed that dichloromethane was efficient to extract more volatile compounds in the white teff grain sample than in the brown teff grain sample, whereas n-hexane was efficient to extract almost equal number of volatiles in both white and brown teff samples. Besides, aldehydes were the major constituents of the white and brown teff grain samples in both dichloromethane and n-hexane extracts. ARTICLE HISTORY
... Teff is a warm-season annual cereal and the only cultivated species in the genus Eragrostis which has originated in Ethiopia [14][15][16][17]. It is a whole grain and superior than other cereals due to being naturally gluten free and is the dominant source of nutrients like carbohydrates, amino acids, minerals, dietary fibers, proteins, dietary polyphenols, starch, and vitamins [5,16,18,19], volatiles like aldehydes, ketones and alcohols [16], and is rich in unsaturated fatty acids like linoleic, oleic and linolenic acids [17,20]. The ratio of ω-6/ω-3 found in the white and brown teff flour was almost consistent with the suggested 1-2:1 ratio and is recommendable for the normal human growth and development. ...
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Teff [Eragrostis tef (Zuccagni) Trotter] is cereal grain native to Ethiopia as staple food to millions of people. However, no research work has been reported for characterization with respect to water-soluble total sugars and total free amino acids in white and brown teff grains. The main objective of this study was to determine water-soluble total sugars and total free amino acids (TFAA) in the white and brown teff grain varieties. The determined water-soluble total sugar contents of white and brown teff grain sample extract was ranged between 2.69±0.12-4.56±0.08 g GE/100 g and 2.22±0.04-4.74±0.19 g GE/100 g, respectively. The mean TFAA contents for white and brown teff samples was found in the range between 181.4±30.0-638.9±42.6 mg AE/100 g and 471.7±37.0-927.1±32.4 mg AE/100 g, respectively. The mean value of the TFAA in brown teff samples was found higher than that of white teff samples. Pearson correlation was in the opposite direction, indicating that the biosynthetic pathways for the water-soluble total sugars and TFAA in both white and brown teff varieties might be opposite. Therefore, the present study indicated that teff is rich in the water-soluble total sugars and TFAA.
... Teff contains nutritional compositions of protein (8-11.1 g/100 g), fat (2.4-3.7 g/100 g), fiber (3-5.12 g/100 g), ash (2.5-3.52 g/100 g), calcium (1543-1800 mg/kg), iron (76.3-589 mg/kg), zinc (36.3-41.5 mg/kg), moisture (10.3-11.1 g/100 g), carbohydrate (57-86 g/100 g), and starch (74-75.5 g/100 g) (do Nascimento et al. 2018;Abebe and Ronda 2014;Yilmaz and Arslan 2018). In this thesis, chemical composition of teff has been investigated as protein (9.5-13.3 ...
The recent consumers’ demand have moved from the primary role of food to the healthier action of biologically active food components. For this purpose, production of probiotic functional foods through a fermentation process is the current particular interest. Dairy-based products have been used for probiotics delivery since a very long time; however, due to the drawbacks associated with them such as milk lactose indigestibility, the prevalence of cholesterol related to dairy products, and allergy to milk protein are limited their further utilization for probiotics delivery. Alternatively, cereals are becoming the favorite choices to using as fermentable substrates for the growth and delivery of probiotics. Also, vegetarianisms are increasing through time because of medical reasons. Whole grain cereals are readily available with important nutrient sources of phytochemicals, and other bioactive compounds. Cereals have functioned as an encapsulation materials to improve probiotic stability and their bioactive prebiotics selectively stimulate the growth of probiotics present in the gastrointestinal tract. Particularly, teff is a gluten free and its nutritional value is attractive with high dietary fiber. Amino acids find in teff are well balanced and contains high lysine content. Teff is a good source of essential fatty acids, fiber, minerals, and phytochemicals such as polyphenols and phytates. Consequently, the first primary objective of this research was to compare the quality attributes of whole grain teff flours grown in Ethiopia and South Africa for their proximate composition (moisture, protein, ash, fat, fiber, and carbohydrate), mineral contents (calcium, zinc, and iron), profiles of eighteen amino acids, pasting and thermal properties, and functional properties (water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity, and swelling power), falling number and color. The proximate composition was examined using the methods of the European Commission Regulation (152/2009). Atomic spectrometer, ion-exchange chromatography, Rapid Visco-Analyzer, and Differential Scanning Calorimetry were used respectively to measure minerals, amino acids, pasting, and thermal properties. Correlation of the measured attributes were analyzed by Pearson correlation and principal component analysis. Significant (p < 0.05) differences were observed in most of the measured attributes between the two teff varieties; however, several significant (p < 0.01) correlations were obtained among the measured attributes by Pearson correlation and principal component analysis. The measured contents of moisture, protein, and zinc in South African teff variety were observed higher than the one grown in Ethiopia. However, much higher calcium and iron contents were found in Ethiopian teff variety. Ethiopian teff variety had showed higher values of foam stability, water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity, and swelling power as compared to South African teff variety. Results from thermal and pasting properties showed that onset, peak and end temperatures, trough, final, and setback viscosities, as well as peak time, pasting temperature were observed higher in case of South African teff variety. The second primary objective was to examine the suitability of teff made substrates for their potential for the growing and delivering of selected probiotic strains of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum A6 (LPA6) and Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus GG (LCGG). Single and co-culture fermentations were performed without pH adjustment. In 24 h fermentation with single strain of LPA6, cell count was increased to 8.35 log cfu/mL. Titratable acidity (TA) and pH were measured between 0.33 and 1.4 g/L, and 6.3 and 3.9, respectively. For the investigation of optimum fermentation process variables, Nelder-Mead simplex method was applied and found the optimum values for time and inoculum respectively as 15 h and 6 log cfu/mL. Afterwards, co-culture fermentation was performed by using the optimized process variables. As a result of co-culture fermentation, glucose was progressively consumed while lactic acid and acetic acid were produced. Cell counts of LPA6 and LCGG were able to grow to 8.42 and 8.25 log cfu/mL, respectively, which are a good counts as compared to the minimum required probiotics level of 6 log cfu/mL at consumption time. Findings showed that similar pH and TA values were attained in short time during co-culture fermentation compared to single culture fermentation. Also, without any addition teff substrate was found to be suitable for the growing and delivering of the tested probiotic strains of LPA6 and LCGG. Another focus of this research was to apply two-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy for the on-line supervision of the fermentation process of teff-based substrate inoculated with LPA6 and LCGG. The fluorescence spectra were measured by using BioView sensor. Analysis of the fermentation process by using the conventional methods such as high performance liquid chromatography for determination of glucose and lactic acid, and using agar plate count for determination of cell counts are time consuming, labor intensive and costly methods. As an alternative the application of fluorescence spectroscopy coupled with partial least square regression and artificial neural network was applied for the on-line quantitative analysis of cell counts of LPA6 and LCGG, glucose, and lactic acid. For the prediction of cell counts of LPA6 and LCGG, the percentage errors of prediction were determined in the range of 2.5-4.5 %. Also, for lactic acid prediction, the percentage error was 7.7 %; however, percentage error for glucose prediction showed a rather high error value. This part of study verified that a two-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy combined with partial least square regression and artificial neural network can be applied during fermentation process to predict cell counts of LPA6 and LCGG, and content of lactic acid with low uncertainty. Finally, this study was focused on the effect of refrigerator storage on the physicochemical characteristics and viability of LPA6 and LCGG in a teff-based probiotic beverage. As well as a 9-point hedonic scale was applied for sensory test of the beverage. For these determinations, a teff-based probiotic beverage was produced through the fermentation of whole grain teff flour inoculated with co-culture strains of LPA6 and LCGG. Then, the beverage was stored in refrigerator (4-6 ℃) for 25 days. Samples were taking every five days including the first day of storage to quantify cell counts of LPA6 and LCGG, pH, TA, glucose, acetic acid, lactic acid, and maltose. Over the storage time, cell counts of LPA6 and LCGG were decreased from 8.45 and 8.15 log cfu/mL to 8.28 and 7.86 log cfu/mL, respectively. While cell counts were decreased during storage, their cell counts are still observed above the minimum suggested level of 6-7 log cfu/mL at the time of consumption. Lactic acid, acetic acid, glucose, and maltose as well as TA were increased with reduction of pH over the storage time. Metabolic activities observed over the storage time indicated presence of active enzymes that were produced during fermentation process. As examined the beverage, E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, coagulase-positive Staphylococci, presumptive Bacillus cereus, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes weren’t detected. Sensory test attributes of color, appearance, aroma, and taste of the beverage were observed between 6.2 and 6.9, which are in the accepted range. Six and above average score values of the sensory test attributes are considered to be accepted by the panelists. Overall, it could be possible to say the proposed aim for the production of a teff-based probiotic functional beverage was accomplished successfully.
... It has the potential of growing in every part of the world [6]. It is a predominant source of nutrients like minerals, amino acids, dietary fibers, proteins, dietary polyphenols, starch, carbohydrates and vitamins [7], volatiles like aldehydes, ketones and alcohols [8], and fatty acids [9]. ...
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This study was aimed to determine the total phenolics contents and antioxidant capacity of white and brown teff grain samples. The free total polyphenolic content (TPPC), bound TPPC and total flavonoids content ranged from 62.1-129.9, 84.6-189.6 mg GAE/100 g and 84.4-195.1 mg QE/100 g, respectively, in white teff samples, and, 118.6-196.7, 141.1-195.1 mg GAE/100 g and 97.8-202.5 mg QE/100 g, respectively, in brown teff samples. Besides, the free 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and bound DPPH ranged from 74.8-98.3, 77.1-99.9 mg AAE/100 g, respectively, for white teff samples, and, 68.7-93.1 and 71.2-99.4 mg AAE/100 g, respectively, for brown teff samples. This study revealed that total phenolics content was higher in brown teff samples than white teff samples and is in agreement with other reports. However, their DPPH scavenging activities were nearly equal, indicating that both varieties of teff are relevant for human nutrition and health. Furthermore, the dendrogram has shown sharp separation of the samples based on their origin and variety related to the total phenolics parameters. Hence, findings of this study can help consumers appreciate the nutritional value of white and brown teff grains; provide them guidance for teff purchase and production.
... Sorghum and teff are also generally characterized by good technological properties [83]. Apart from fiber, teff is also an excellent source of iron and contains far more calcium, potassium and other essential minerals than other grains [34,[84][85][86][87][88][89]. Except for rice flour (0.59% fat), the other three studied flours contained relatively high amounts of crude fat (3.09-4.54%). ...
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Production of gluten-free bread (GFB) with good quality characteristics represents a technological challenge. Our study aimed to obtain nongluten bread from cereals and pseudocereals with ap-plying single cultures of Pediococcus acidilactici, Pediococcus pentosaceus and Enteroccocus durans as sourdoughs. The effect of sourdoughs on the quality traits of gluten-free (GF) dough and GFB was explored. The structural and baking properties of GF dough composed of teff, rice, corn, and sor-ghum flours were improved by adding xanthan gum (0.6%), guar gum (1.0%) and carboxymethyl cellulose (1.0%). The tested strains reached 108 cfu/g in teff flour and produced sourdoughs with a pleasant lactic aroma. The sourdough-fermented doughs were softer and more elastic compared to control dough and yielded reduced baking loss. Strain Enterococcus durans ensured the best baking characteristics of GF dough and the highest softness of the GFB during storage. Strain Pediococcus pentosaceus had the most pronounced positive effect on aroma, taste and aftertaste. Pan baking was found to be more appropriate to obtain stable shape and good-looking products. A careful starter culture selection is necessary for GFB development since a significant effect of strain specificity on dough rheology and baking characteristics was observed.
... Teff (Eragrostis tef ) is the most common staple food in Ethiopia and is an important part of the cultural heritage and national identity (14). Although teff is considered to be highly nutritious (15,16), the 2019 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) report found that about 37% of children younger than 5 years of age were stunted (of whom 12% were severely stunted), 7% were wasted (of whom 1% were severely wasted), and 21% of the children were underweight (of whom 6% were severely underweight). The EDHS nutritional survey also found that undernutrition differed between regional location, sex, and age groups of children (17). ...
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Updated information on child feeding practices, nutritional status, and trends related to parental sociodemographic variables is required in developing countries. The objective of this study was to describe infant feeding practices and associated sociodemographic factors among Ethiopian children with an emphasis on complementary feeding (CF). Information on infant feeding and anthropometric measures was obtained from 1,054 mother-child pairs participating in a birth cohort study of children born between 2017 and 2020 prospectively followed in the city of Adama located in the Oromia region of central Ethiopia. Logistic regression models were used to identify sociodemographic and food groups associated with the initiation of CF. The introduction of complementary foods at 6 months of age was 84.7% (95% CI, 82.5, 86.8). Vegetables, cereals (teff, wheat, barley), and fruits were most often the earliest types of foods introduced. Wasting, stunting, underweight, and low body mass index (BMI) by age were found in 6.0, 16.9, 2.5, and 6.3%, respectively. Maternal age and occupation were the factors associated with timely initiation of CF [OR = 2.25, (95% CI, 1.14, 4.41)] and [OR = 0.68, (95% CI, 0.48, 0.97)], respectively. This study demonstrates that the majority of Ethiopian children in the Oromia region follow the recommendations of WHO on CF.
C4 grasses dominate natural and agricultural settings, and the widespread success of wild grasses is mostly attributable to their resilience to environmental extremes. Much of this natural stress tolerance has been lost in major cereals as a byproduct of domestication and intensive selection. Millets are an exception, and they were domesticated in semi-arid regions of Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia where selection favored tolerance and stability over yield. Here, we review the evolutionary and domestication histories of millets and the traits that enable their stress tolerance, broad adaptability, and superior nutritional qualities compared to other cereals. We discuss genome editing and advanced breeding approaches that can be used to develop nutritious, climate resilient cereals of the future. Finally, we propose that millets can play a central role in the global food system to combat food insecurity, with researchers and germplasm from the Global South at the center of these efforts.
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Elderly and patients affected by chronic diseases face a high risk of muscle loss and impaired physical function. Omega 3 fatty acids (FA) attenuate inflammation and age-associated muscle loss, prevent systemic insulin resistance and improve plasma lipids, potentially impacting on sarcopenia. This paper aims to review recent randomized clinical studies assessing the effects a chronic omega 3 FA supplementation on inflammatory and metabolic profile during conditions characterized by sarcopenia (aging, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, chronic renal failure). A comprehensive search of three online databases was performed to identify eligible trials published between 2012 and 2017. A total of 36 studies met inclusion criteria. Omega 3 FA yielded mixed results on plasma triglycerides in the elderly and no effects in renal patients. No changes in systemic insulin resistance were observed. Inflammation markers did not benefit from omega 3 FA in insulin resistant and in renal subjects while decreasing in obese and elderly. Muscle related parameters improved in elderly and in renal patients. In conclusion, in aging-and in chronic disease-associated sarcopenia omega 3 FA are promising independently of associated anabolic stimuli or of anti-inflammatory effects. The evidence for improved glucose metabolism in insulin resistant and in chronic inflammatory states is less solid.
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Specialty lowland and upland rices (n = 229) collected from Filipino farmers in 2009–2012 had long-, medium- and short-sized grains. Of these, 108 had intermediate apparent amylose content (AC), 80 had low AC, 26 had high AC and 15 were waxy (mean AC 17.7%). They had mainly intermediate–high gelatinization temperature (GT) by alkali spreading value. High GT was predominant among low-AC specialty rices, instead of low GT. However, the cultivars did not exhibit high milled rice translucency (only 10 had 0–2% chalky grains) and crack (fissure) resistance needed for high head rice recovery required of export quality rice. Only 50 of 225 rices had the 8-base pair deletion at exon 7 of the fragrance gene although many of the rices were aromatic. Alleles of the Waxy (Wx) gene were determined in selected samples which included the: (1) number of cytosine-thymine repeats [(CT)n] in its untranslated region; (2) G/T single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at intron 1; (3) A/C SNP at exon 6; and (4) C/T SNP at exon 10. Combination of the Wx alleles [e.g., 17TAC where: (CT)n is 17, intron 1 SNP is T, exon 6 SNP is A, and exon 10 SNP is C] differentiated the cultivars based on ammonium buffer colorimetric AC. Waxy and low-AC rices were mainly 17TAC. Intermediate-AC rices showed 17GCC, 19GCC and 20GCC Wx alleles combinations while 10GAT and 11GAT were mainly found among high-AC rices. A revision for lowering the AC ranges of apparent amylose types for classification of Philippine rice is proposed based on ammonium buffer AC values verified by differential scanning calorimetry and combination of the Wx alleles: waxy 0.0–2.0%, low AC 10.1– 17.0%, intermediate AC 17.1–22.0% and high AC > 22.0%.
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Tef [Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter] is a cereal crop resilient to adverse climatic and soil conditions, and possessing desirable storage properties. Although tef provides high quality food and grows under marginal conditions unsuitable for other cereals, it is considered to be an orphan crop because it has benefited little from genetic improvement. Hence, unlike other cereals such as maize and wheat, the productivity of tef is extremely low. In spite of the low productivity, tef is widely cultivated by over six million small-scale farmers in Ethiopia where it is annually grown on more than three million hectares of land, accounting for over 30% of the total cereal acreage. Tef, a tetraploid with 40 chromosomes (2n = 4x = 40), belongs to the family Poaceae and, together with finger millet (Eleusine coracana Gaerth.), to the subfamily Chloridoideae. It was originated and domesticated in Ethiopia. There are about 350 Eragrostis species of which E. tef is the only species cultivated for human consumption. At the present time, the gene bank in Ethiopia holds over five thousand tef accessions collected from geographical regions diverse in terms of climate and elevation. These germplasm accessions appear to have huge variability with regard to key agronomic and nutritional traits. In order to properly utilize the variability in developing new tef cultivars, various techniques have been implemented to catalog the extent and unravel the patterns of genetic diversity. In this review, we show some recent initiatives investigating the diversity of tef using genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics and discuss the prospect of these efforts in providing molecular resources that can aid modern tef breeding.
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Tef, Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter, is the most important cereal in Ethiopia. Tef is cultivated by more than five million small-scale farmers annually and constitutes the staple food for more than half of the population of 80 million. The crop is preferred by both farmers and consumers due to its beneficial traits associated with its agronomy and utilization. The genetic and phenotypic diversity of tef in Ethiopia is a national treasure of potentially global importance. In order for this diversity to be effectively conserved and utilized, a better understanding at the genomic level is necessary. In the recent years, tef has become the subject of genomic research in Ethiopia and abroad. Genomic-assisted tef improvement holds tremendous potential for improving productivity, thereby benefiting the smallholder farmers who have cultivated and relied on the crop for thousands of years. It is hoped that such research endeavours will provide solutions to some of the age-old problems of tef's husbandry. In this review, we provide a brief description of the genesis and progress of tef genomic research to date, suggest ways to utilize the genomic tools developed so far, discuss the potential of genomics to enable sustainable conservation and use of tef genetic diversity and suggest opportunities for the future research.
Dietary fiber, consisting of soluble dietary fiber and insoluble dietary fiber, has beneficial functional effects on the human body that are receiving increasingly attention. Refined flour lacks dietary fiber and poses potential risks to human health. Therefore, improving the nutritional value and processing performance of flour in the preparation and modification of high dietary fiber flour is of great importance. Whole-wheat flour, a high dietary fiber flour obtained by crushing whole-wheat grains, is rich in nutritional value. High dietary fiber flour obtained by adding bran back into the flour makes full use of the bran, which increases the utilization of wheat-milling byproducts. The addition of dietary fiber to flour is a direct method for obtaining high dietary fiber flour, and which has evolved with the development of the dietary fiber extraction industry. Further modifications of whole-wheat flour, bran, and dietary fiber, such as milling, extrusion, heat treatment, and biological treatment, can diminish the effect that bran materials on the quality of flour and flour products. This review summarizes methods used for the preparation and modification of three kinds of high dietary fiber flour and the effects of these different methods on the quality of flour and flour products, with the aim to provide guidance for the industrial preparation of high dietary fiber flour.
Polyphenols are secondary metabolites of plants. They comprise several antioxidant compounds and they are generally considered to be involved in the defense against human chronic diseases. During the last years, there has been growing scientific interest in their potential health benefits. In this comprehensive review, we focus on the current evidence defining the position of their dietary intake in the prevention/treatment of human chronic diseases, including prostate cancer and other types of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease; we also discuss their ability to modulate multiple signalling transduction pathways involved in the pathophysiology of these diseases. Despite the fact that data regarding the biological functions of polyphenols can be considered exhaustive, evidence is still inadequate to support clear beneficial effects on human chronic diseases. Currently, most data suggest that a combination of phytochemicals rather than any single polyphenol is responsible for health benefit. More studies investigating the role of polyphenols in the prevention of chronic human diseases are needed, especially for evaluating factors such as gender, age, genotype, metabolism and bioavailability.
Gluten-free bakery products usually exhibit weak aroma. Their main constituents are flours and starches, which contain aroma precursors but can also contribute additional volatiles in low concentrations. Static headspace (SHS), solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and solvent-assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE) coupled to GC/QTOF were compared for their efficacy in the analysis of volatiles in corn starch. SPME-GC/QTOF was selected as the most suitable methodology based on the number of detected compounds, LODs, repeatability as well as simplicity. It was successfully applied for the quantification of volatiles in corn starch and qualitative comparison of different gluten-free flours. Hexanal, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 1-pentanol, 1-octen-3-ol, acetic acid, furfural, benzaldehyde, (E)-2-nonenal, phenylethyl alcohol and short-medium chain acids were found in all the flours and corn starch. Quinoa flour and corn starch showed the highest contents of pyrazines, terpenes and esters, while teff, buckwheat and rice flours presented the highest contents of 3/2-methyl-1-butanol, acetoin and organic acids.
Possible changes in mineral bioavailability during processing of different types of injera sampled in Ethio-pian households were assessed using different methods: phytic acid/mineral molar ratio, absorption pre-diction algorithm and in vitro availability measurements. Most foods analysed were rich in iron, but most of the iron likely resulted from soil contamination. The highest iron, zinc and calcium contents were found in teff–white sorghum (TwS) injera and flour. The lowest phytic acid/Fe and phytic acid/Zn molar ratios were found in barley–wheat (BW) and wheat–red sorghum (WrS) injeras. Although ideal phytic acid/Fe molar ratios (<0.4) were found in BW and WrS injeras, no significant difference between in vitro iron bioaccessibility and algorithm predicted absorption was observed. In injera, phytic acid degradation alone is unlikely to improve iron bioavailability, suggesting interactions with other absorption inhibitors. The use of phytic acid/Fe molar ratios to predict bioavailability may thus be less appropriate for iron-con-taminated foods.