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Application of Butterfly Pea Flower Extract in Mask Development

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(1) Background: Clitoria ternatea (butterfly pea), a plant species belonging to the Leguminosae (Fabaceae) family, is useful for medical treatments and has been used in folk medicines and to cure different diseases. The antioxidation ability of the total phenolic compounds of butterfly pea is useful for preserving flavor, and colour and for preventing vitamin destruction in processed foods. In this study, a butterfly pea flower fermentation solution was added to cosmetics as a whiting ingredient. (2) Methods: After the phenolics, flavonoids and ascorbic acid content of the butterfly pea flower extraction had been determined, lactic acid bacteria fermented the extraction. The whitening and moisturizing effect was assayed by SSC3 and NF333 analyzers. (3) Results: This study demonstrated that the butterfly pea flower fermentation solution has free radical scavenging ability, a reducing power in high concentrations, a moisturizing effect, and a whiting effect. (4) Conclusions: The results showed that the butterfly pea flower fermentation solution not only inhibits redness, itching, allergies, and irritation to the skin, but also has antioxidation properties and promotes moisture retention and whitening effects, and the results increase as the concentration increases. Therefore, butterfly bean flowers may be suitable as a raw material for natural beauty care products.
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Scientia
Pharmaceutica
Article
Application of Butterfly Pea Flower Extract in
Mask Development
Li Hsien Chen, I Chia Chen, Pei Yen Chen and Ping Hsin Huang *
Cardinal Tien Junior College of Healthcare and Management, New Taipei 23143, Taiwan;
heinzchen@ctcn.edu.tw (L.H.C.); msjackie@ctcn.edu.tw (I.C.C.); pychen@ctcn.edu.tw (P.Y.C.)
*Correspondence: pshuang@ctcn.edu.tw; Tel.: +886-2-2219-1131 (ext. 5114)
Received: 13 November 2018; Accepted: 5 December 2018; Published: 5 December 2018


Abstract:
(1) Background: Clitoria ternatea (butterfly pea), a plant species belonging to the Leguminosae
(Fabaceae) family, is useful for medical treatments and has been used in folk medicines and to cure
different diseases. The antioxidation ability of the total phenolic compounds of butterfly pea is useful
for preserving flavor, and colour and for preventing vitamin destruction in processed foods. In this
study, a butterfly pea flower fermentation solution was added to cosmetics as a whiting ingredient.
(2) Methods: After the phenolics, flavonoids and ascorbic acid content of the butterfly pea flower
extraction had been determined, lactic acid bacteria fermented the extraction. The whitening and
moisturizing effect was assayed by SSC3 and NF333 analyzers. (3) Results: This study demonstrated
that the butterfly pea flower fermentation solution has free radical scavenging ability, a reducing
power in high concentrations, a moisturizing effect, and a whiting effect. (4) Conclusions: The results
showed that the butterfly pea flower fermentation solution not only inhibits redness, itching, allergies,
and irritation to the skin, but also has antioxidation properties and promotes moisture retention and
whitening effects, and the results increase as the concentration increases. Therefore, butterfly bean
flowers may be suitable as a raw material for natural beauty care products.
Keywords: butterfly pea flower fermentation solution; moisture retention; whitening
1. Introduction
The butterfly pea flower (Clitoria ternatea) originates from subtropical regions and is widely
distributed in Africa, Asia, Australia, North America, South America, and the Northwest, Central
South, and Southwest Pacific. Butterfly pea, like vine plants, is a perennial climbing plant or herbaceous
plant. It is self-pollinated and spreads by seeds. It prefers moist and neutral soil (pH 5.5 to 8.9). Butterfly
pea flower is an axillary, solitary, or twin flower. It is harvested in summer. The most apparent feature
of the butterfly pea flower is its dark blue petals with a yellow mark. According to Zakaria et al. [
1
],
the flavonoids found in the butterfly pea flowers can reduce infections in the upper respiratory tract.
They have been proven to be anti-inflammatory in animal tests and have antioxidative power. Butterfly
pea flowers contain about 0.9 mg ash, 8.94 mg soluble minerals, 41.27 mg crude protein, and 29.18 mg
soluble carbohydrate per 100 g of dry weight. Terahara et al. [
2
] used reversed-phase High Pressure
Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) to isolate five major structures of anthocyanins, which are delphinidin
derivatives that are highly acylated.
Tantituvanont et al. [
3
] pointed out that the anthocyanins in butterfly pea flowers are mainly
delphinidin-glucosides. Anthocyanins are water-soluble macromolecular substances that give orange,
red, or blue-violet colour to fruits, vegetables, flowers, leaves, or stems. Saptarini et al. [
4
] showed
that the anthocyanins in butterfly pea flowers appear blue at pH 4, green at pH 9, and yellow at pH
12, making it an acid-base titration indicator. Anthocyanins are susceptible to environmental and
chemical influences, including pH variation, ambient temperature, light, oxidation, and enzymes,
Sci. Pharm. 2018,86, 53; doi:10.3390/scipharm86040053 www.mdpi.com/journal/scipharm
Sci. Pharm. 2018,86, 53 2 of 9
making their application in the food industry difficult (Mohamed et al. [
5
]). Tantituvanont et al. [
3
]
and
Mohamed et al.
[
5
] found that the anthocyanins in butterfly pea flower are more stable at low
temperatures, and the flowers are purplish red in acidic environments and blue in an alkaline
environment. Compared with alkaline environments, the stability and antioxidative activity of the
anthocyanins are higher in weakly acidic environments. Rabeta et al. [
6
] pointed out that the blue
flowers of butterfly peas have good free radical scavenging activity and have potential as antioxidants.
Rajamanickam et al. [
7
] suggested that the antioxidative power of the methanol extract of butterfly pea
flowers is equivalent to that of L-ascorbic acid.
The butterfly pea flower contains anthocyanins and thus, is a natural antioxidant that can delay
the aging of the skin and is good for the skin. Therefore, in this study, butterfly pea flowers extracted
by cold water extraction and hot water extraction were analyzed for their total phenolics, flavonoids,
and ascorbic acid content as well as their antioxidative power. Fermentation solution from lactic acid
bacteria contains lactic acid, peptides, and polysaccharides, which are excellent for skin whitening
effects. In this study, butterfly pea flowers were fermented by the lactic acid bacteria in a safe and
pollution-free environment. The performance of the fermentation solution was evaluated for its
whitening and moisture retention effects in order to determine the value of using a butterfly pea flower
fermentation solution in cosmetic applications.
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Preparation of the Butterfly Pea Flower Fermentation Solution
The Butterfly Pea Flower was kindly provided by bluetopurple Corp. agency (Wujie Township,
Yilan County, Taiwan). Take 1 L of the culture medium listed in Table 1and sterilizer for 1 h at 121
C
at a concentration of 1.2 kg/cm
2
. Wait until room temperature is reached and then mix 50.0 g of
butterfly bean flowers, 50.0 g of sugar-free soy milk, 5.0 g of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus,
also called strain A, ATCC 4357) and 1 L of deionized water in a UV disinfection chamber before moving
it to a shaking incubator for fermentation for 48 h at 30
C and 125 rpm. After centrifugation at a
high speed, take the supernatant and then sterilize it at 121
C at a concentration of 1.2 kg/cm
2
)
in the sterilizer for 1 h. Wait until room temperature is reached, and then filter it into the UV
disinfection chamber.
Table 1. Butterfly pea flower fermentation solution formula.
Approximate Per Liter
Proteose Peptone No.3 10.0 g
Yeast Extract 5.0 g
Dextrose 20.0 g
Polysorbate 80 1.0 g
Ammonium Citrate 2.0 g
Sodium Acetate 5.0 g
Magnesium Sulfate 0.1 g
Dipotassium Phosphate 2.0 g
2.2. Determination of the Total Phenolic Content
The total phenolics content measurement was done in accordance with Taga et al. [
8
]. The method
was as follows: Add 0.5 mL of 0.3% HCl to standard caffeic acid (0.001 mg/mL to 1.0 mg/mL) solutions
and mix it well. Take 100
µ
L of the mixture, add 2.0 mL of 2% Na
2
CO
3
to the mixture, mix it well,
and let it stand for 2 min. Add 0.1 mL of Folin–Ciocalteu agent, and let it stand for 30 min. Repeat
the same procedure for each concentration. Measure the OD765 value of each concentration with a
spectrophotometer and draw a calibration curve. Replace the caffeic acid with the butterfly pea extract
and follow the same procedure to determine the total phenolics of the sample [8].
Sci. Pharm. 2018,86, 53 3 of 9
2.3. Determination of Total Flavonoid Content
The method reported by Jia et al. [
9
] was revised. Different concentrations of quercetin
(
6.25–200 mL
) were prepared as standard solutions. The OD values of different concentrations were
measured to draw a calibration curve and the regression equation was obtained. The method used
was as follows: Take 0.5 mL of the sample, add 1.5 mL of pure water, 0.1 mL of 10% aluminum nitrate,
9-hydrate, and 0.1 M of potassium acetate. Then, add 2.8 mL of pure water, mix it well, and let it stand
for 40 min. Measure the OD415 value with the spectrophotometer, and then calculate the flavonoid
content according to the regression equation of the calibration curve.
2.4. Determination of the Ascorbic Acid Ccontent
Extract 1 mL of the extract with 10 mL of 1% metaphosphoric acid, and then add 9 mL of
2,6-dichloroindo-phenol (DPI) to react. Measure the OD515 value with the spectrophotometer,
and draw a calibration curve with different concentrations of ascorbic acid to calculate the ascorbic
acid content in the sample [10].
2.5. DPPH Free Radical Scavenging Ability
The method was performed as described by Yamaguchi et al. [
11
] as follows: Mix 100
µ
L of
the butterfly pea flower extract well with 400
µ
L of 100 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.4) and 500
µ
L
of 250
µ
M DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radical ethanol solution in a microcentrifuge
tube before placing the tube in a 25
C thermostatic reactor for 20 min. Transfer the tube to a UV-Vis
spectrophotometer to measure the OD517 of the solution. Repeat the procedure three times. Calculate
the DPPH free radical scavenging rate with the following formula:
DPPH free radical scavenging rate (%) = [1 (OD517 of sample/OD517 of blank solution] ×100% (1)
2.6. Determination of the Reducing Power
Take 2.5 mL of extract, add 2.5 mL of 0.2 M phosphate buffer (pH 6.6) and 2.5 mL of 1% potassium
ferricyanide. Place the solution in a 50
C water bath for 20 min. Add 2.5 mL of 10% TCA to the
solution after cooling, mix it well, and centrifuge at 3000 rpm for 10 min. Take 5 mL of supernatant,
add distilled water and 1 mL of 0.1% ferric chloride, and mix it well. Measure the OD700 value with
the spectrophotometer—the higher the OD value is, the better the reducing power is [12].
2.7. Whitening Effect and Moisture Retention Assay
Instrument: three-in-one skin analyzer (SSC3) and NF333 spectrophotometer (Figure 1);
(1)
Brand: SSC3, Courage-Khazaka Electronic Gmbh (CK), Köln, Germany;
(2)
NF333: NIPPON DENSHOKU, Tokyo, Japan.
(3)
Testing methods
This research protocol was approved by Human Research Ethics Committee of Research
Ethics Office of National Taiwan University, protocol number: 201705ES002 (4 October 2018).
Sampling: The butterfly pea flower fermentation solutions were diluted with distilled water
in the following concentrations. Two milliliters of 1.0%, 2.5%, 5.0%, 7.5%, and 10.0% diluted
solutions were used.
Testing spots: forehead and cheek.
Testing age/skin condition: 18- to 20-year-old females. They are all obtained and indicated
this issue for publication.
Testing environment: thermostatic indoor temperature at 22 °C.
Testing area: divided into an experimental area and a control area. The right site was the
experimental area (for the cleansing mousse with the butterfly pea flower fermentation
Sci. Pharm. 2018,86, 53 4 of 9
solution), and the left side was the control area (for the cleansing mousse without the
butterfly pea flower fermentation solution).
Retention time: the entire face was cleaned and then we waited for 30 min until testing.
Figure 1. Three-in-one skin analyzer and NF333 spectrophotometer.
3. Results
The total phenolics were 185.3 mg/100 g and 239.6 mg/100 g in butterfly pea flower extract for
the cold water extraction and hot water extraction, respectively. The flavonoid concentration was
106.9 mg/100 g and 128.3 mg/100 g in butterfly pea flower extract in the cold water extraction and
hot water extraction, respectively. The ascorbic acid content was 10.36 mg/100 g in the butterfly pea
flower cold water extraction. Because hot water destroys ascorbic acid, the ascorbic acid content was
not measured for the hot water extraction, and thus was indicated as “not detected” (N.D., see Table 2).
The results showed that hot water can extract more total phenolics and flavonoids. However, ascorbic
acid is susceptible to high temperatures, so it cannot be extracted by hot water.
Table 2. Contents of total phenolics, flavonoids, and ascorbic acid in the butterfly pea flower sample.
Sample Extraction Method Total Phenolics
(mg/100 g)
Flavonoids
(mg/100 g)
Ascorbic Acid
(mg/100 g)
Butterfly pea flower
(Clitoria ternatea)
Cold water extraction 185.3 ±0.096 106.9 ±0.23 10.36 ±0.028
Hot water extraction 239.6 ±0.081 128.3 ±0.054 Not Detected
3.1. DPPH Free Radical Scavenging Ability of the Butterfly Pea Flower Extract
DPPH free radicals are stable free radicals containing an odd number of electrons. When they
are combined with other free radicals or reduced by antioxidants, DPPH free radicals are scavenged
(DPPH +AH
DPPH-H + A), and their color changes from purple to light yellow, which, in turn,
reduces their absorbance. The lower the absorbance is, the stronger a sample’s DPPH scavenging ability
is and the stronger its antioxidation ability is. DPPH ethanol solution has very strong absorbance at
517 nm visible light. Figure 2shows the DPPH free radical scavenging ability of the butterfly pea flower
cold water extraction and hot water extraction. In terms of antioxidative power, the DPPH free radical
scavenging ability of the 1 mg/mL butterfly pea flower hot water extraction was about 6.79% and that
of the 10 mg/mL extract was about 65.23%. When the concentration of the butterfly pea flower hot
water extraction increased to 100 mg/mL, the DPPH free radical scavenging ability increased to 75.69%,
which is equivalent to 76% of 1 mg/mL BHT. As for the butterfly pea flower cold water extraction,
the DPPH free radical scavenging ability was about 5.39% and 58.23% for 1 mg/mL and 10 mg/mL of
extract, respectively. When the concentration of the cold butterfly pea flower extract was increased
to 100 mg/mL, the DPPH free radical scavenging ability increased to 63.25%, which is equivalent to
64% of 1 mg/mL BHT. The results showed that the butterfly pea flower hot water extraction had a
better DPPH free radical scavenging ability than the cold water extraction. When the concentration
of the butterfly pea flower extracts increased from 1 mg/mL to 10 mg/mL, the DPPH free radical
Sci. Pharm. 2018,86, 53 5 of 9
scavenging ability increased. This was true for the butterfly pea flower cold water extraction and hot
water extraction. However, when the concentration was higher than 10 mg/mL, the DPPH free radical
scavenging ability did not increase linearly, indicating that the DPPH free radical scavenging abilities
of the butterfly pea flower extracts were about 60% to 70% of 1 mg/mL BHT (Figure 2).
Figure 2. DPPH free radical scavenging ability of the butterfly pea flower extracts.
3.2. Reducing Power of the Butterfly Pea Flower Extracts
The higher the OD
700
absorbance is, the better the reducing power is. In this study, 1 mg/mL,
10 mg/mL, 25 mg/mL, 50 mg/mL, and 100 mg/mL butterfly pea flower cold water and hot water
extractions were used to determine the reducing power of butterfly pea flower extract, and this was
compared with the standard BHT. The results showed that the OD700 values of the butterfly pea flower
hot water extraction were about 0.5–2.3, and those of the butterfly pea flower cold water extraction
were about 0.4–2.0, indicating that the butterfly pea flower hot water extraction had a higher reducing
power. At the concentration of 100 mg/mL, the reducing power of the butterfly pea flower hot water
extraction was about 96% of the standard BHT. However, that of the butterfly pea flower cold water
extraction was only about 83% of the standard BHT (Figure 3).
Figure 3. Reducing power of the butterfly pea flower extract.
3.3. Moisturizing Effect of the Butterfly Pea Flower Fermentation Solution
The butterfly pea flowers were fermented by lactic acid bacteria. The fermentation solution
was diluted with distilled water to 1.0%, 2.5%, 5.0%, 7.5% and 10.0% diluents. The diluents were
Sci. Pharm. 2018,86, 53 6 of 9
the experimental group, whereas distilled water was the control group. After the assessment by the
moisture instrument, the moisture improvement rates after 14 days were 7.87% for the 1.0% diluent,
11.20% for the 2.5% diluent, 15.15% for the 5.0% diluent, 17.91% for the 7.5% diluent, and 18.11% for
the 10.0% diluent. The moisture improvement rates after 28 days were 10.20% for the 1.0% diluent,
14.28% for the 2.5% diluent, 15.91% for the 5.0% diluent, 19.63% for the 7.5% diluent, and 20.32% for
the10.0% diluent (see Table 3and Figure 4).
Table 3.
Moisture values of the fermentation solutions at different concentrations after 14 days and 28
days of use.
Concentration of Butterfly Pea
Flower Fermentation Solution
Day 14 Day 28
Control (%) Experimental (%) Control (%) Experimental (%)
1.0% 12.7 13.7 12.2 13.5
2.5% 12.5 13.9 12.25 14
5.0% 13.2 15.2 12.25 14.2
7.5% 13.4 15.8 12.12 14.5
10.0% 13.8 16.3 12.3 14.8
Figure 4.
Moisture improvement rates (%) of the fermentation solutions at different concentrations
after 14 days and 28 days of use.
3.4. Whitening Effect of the Butterfly Pea Flower Fermentation Solution
The whitening improvement rate after 28 days was 7.99% for the 1.0% diluent; 10.53% for the 2.5%
diluent; 18.50% for the 5.0% diluent; 22.21% for the 7.5% diluent; and 29.97% for the 10.0% diluent
(see Table 4and Figure 5).
Table 4.
Whitening values of the fermentation solution at different concentrations after 28 days of use.
Concentration of Butterfly Pea
Flower Fermentation Solution
Day 28
Control (%) Experimental (%)
1.0% 64.63 69.79
2.5% 63.87 70.60
5.0% 62.84 74.47
7.5% 65.02 79.46
10.0% 64.21 83.45
3.5. Formula Design and Product Development
With the rise in environmental awareness, many people have started to pay attention to the
safety of skincare products. We have all heard about the serious pollution and damage imposed
upon the environment by skincare products made of chemical raw materials, such as environmental
hormones. Such skincare products also harm the human body to various degrees. Therefore, natural
and environmentally-friendly products have become preferred by consumers.
Sci. Pharm. 2018,86, 53 7 of 9
Figure 5.
Whitening improvement rates of the fermentation solutions at different concentrations after
28 days of use.
The above experiments confirmed that the butterfly pea flower fermentation solution has
whitening, moisture retention, and anti-aging effects. It is suitable for use as a raw material in skin care
products. Therefore, we have preliminarily designed a mask formula containing sodium bicarbonate,
hot spring water, and butterfly pea fermentation solution, and have looked for a manufacturer to
develop the product through industry–academia collaboration.
Good essence is the soul of a skin care product. Exquisite ingredients produce remarkable effects.
From design to material selection, we failed more than 10 times before coming up with the mask
formula presented in Table 5. After 30 days of use, the hot spring mask containing 6% butterfly pea
flower fermentation solution can improve moisture retention by 20.35% (Table 6) and enhance the
whitening effect by 18.34% (Table 7). With respect to skin irritation, there was no irritation after 24 h of
patch testing. In an accelerated aging test, there was no deterioration after the sample was tested in a
thermostat chamber at 40 ±2C with a relative humidity of 75 ±5%.
Table 5. Butterfly pea flower brightening mask containing hyaluronic acid and hot spring water.
No. Chinese Name %
1 Pure water To 100.00
2 Hot spring water 6.00
3 Fermented butterfly pea flowers 6.00
4 Glycerin 2.00
5 Propylene glycol 0.80
6 Cucumis sativus (Cucumber) fruit extract 0.60
7 Saccharomyces lysate extract 0.45
8 Acrylates/ C10-30 alkyl acrylate crosspolymer 0.12
9 Phenoxyethanol 0.17
10 Xanthan gum 0.06
11 Chlorphenesin 0.20
12 Arginine 0.03
13 Sodium hyaluronate 0.30
14 Hydrolyzed hyaluronic acid 0.15
15 Allantoin 0.10
16
Ammonium acryloyldimethyltaurate/VP copolymer
0.10
17 Aloe barbadensis leaf juice 0.10
18 Panthenol 0.05
19 Glycyrrhiza glabra (Licorice) root extract 0.05
20 Fragrance 0.01
21 Capryl glycol 0.10
Sci. Pharm. 2018,86, 53 8 of 9
Table 6.
Average moisture retention effect of 20 subjects using the butterfly pea flower hot spring
water mask.
Moisture Retention
Day 30
Control (%) Experimental (%)
51.6 62.1
Table 7.
Average whitening effect of 20 subjects using the butterfly pea flower hot spring water mask.
Whitening Effect
Day 30
Control (%) Experimental (%)
58.38 69.09
4. Discussion
The experimental data show that the organic butterfly pea flower extract or fermentation solution
not only did not cause redness, itching, allergy, or irritation to the skin but also improved moisture
retention and had whitening effects, and these effects increased as its concentration increased. As a
result, the butterfly pea flower fermentation solution can be added to cosmetic formulas as a natural
raw material of skin care products. The outcome of the industry–academia collaboration can be added
to teaching materials of various courses, such as cosmetics preparation, projects, and on-campus
internships, and can enhance the students
0
interests and skills in cosmetics preparation and achieve
the effects of diverse learning. The teachers and students will also fulfill their local social responsibility,
assist in the innovation and development of the local industry, and be pioneers of the University Social
Responsibility (USR) Project. The university can also reuse the resources and make green living a
reality in order to develop a green economy, implement ecological concepts, and make life full of joy
and blessing.
Author Contributions:
Conceptualization, P.H.H.; determination of total phenolics, total flavonoids, ascorbic
acid, DPPH free radical scavenging ability, and reducing power, L.H.C.; whitening effect and moisture retention
assay, P.H.H.; methodology, P.Y.C.; validation: I.C.C.; writing—original draft preparation, L.H.C. and P.H.H.;
writing—review and editing, L.H.C. and P.H.H.; supervision, P.H.H. and P.Y.C.
Funding:
This research was funded by Cardinal Tien College of Healthcare and Management, grant number
CTCN-108-Research-10.
Conflicts of Interest:
The authors declare no conflict of interest, and the funder had no role in the design of the
study; in the collection, analyses, or interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript, or in the decision to
publish the results.
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2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access
article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution
(CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
... Clitoria ternatea is an ornamental perennial climber in other plants or in-wall of home gardens, which lives in various types of soil and with pH of 5.5-8.9 (Sutedi 2013;Chen et al. 2018). It can adapt to heavy cracking clay soil areas (Hall 1985). ...
... It can adapt to heavy cracking clay soil areas (Hall 1985). C. ternatea is a self-pollination plant and it spreads through seed (Chen et al. 2018). C. ternatea occurs in plentiful sunlight, but it also occurs in partially shaded (Jamil et al. 2018). ...
Article
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Clitoria ternatea L., known as "bunga telang" in Indonesia, is an important medicinal plant belongs Fabaceae, which is an ornamental perennial climber. It has widely distributed throughout Africa, Asia, Australia, North and South America, Pacific (Northwestern, South-Central, and Southwestern). This review aims to study the relation between ethnobotany and bioprospecting of C. ternatea. The literature study revealed that Indonesian communities use flowers part of C. ternatea as an eye medicine, boils disease, an ornamental plant, and a symbol in traditional ceremonies. Leaf, flower, seed, and root of this species have bioprospecting for medicine, agriculture, as well as food and beverage. Ethnobiology exploration of C. ternatea in Indonesia is an initial step to observe the bioprospecting potential. Then, it can be continued to further research to produce commercial products where these products will provide an economic impact and motivate communities to take a part of conservation actions. The present study assesses the limited works that have been carried out on bioecology, ethnobotany, bioprospecting, and market potential. We hope that the study's output can spur further research and industry approach.
... The flower is commonly used as a source of natural coloring agent for food and cosmetics and as a natural pH indicator in pharmaceutical industry 8 . It has been reported that the butterfly pea flower fermentation solution can be added to cosmetic formula as a natural raw material of skin care products to improve moisture retention and had whitening effects 9 . The application of crushed fresh butterfly pea flower (also known as Aunchan) directly on the eyebrows and scalp for the benefits of coloring and promoting hair growth is traditionally and commonly found in Thailand 10 . ...
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Clitoria ternatea (butterfly pea) flower and Eugenia caryophyllus (clove) oil have been traditionally used as hair growth stimulating herbal and exhibited hair growth effects in vitro. This work prepared liposome loading with butterfly pea flower extract and clove oil and studied the hair growth promoting effects on eyebrows in volunteers. The liposome of butterfly pea flower extract and clove oil was prepared by loading the extract and oil into a pro-liposome. The formation of liposome was examined using the microscopy and its physical stability was studied at 4°C, 45°C and ambient temperature (30-35°C) for 1 month. The liposome of butterfly pea flower extract and clove oil was macroscopically stable but microscopic examination showed that the liposome vesicles were larger overtime. The loaded liposome was used for eyebrow growth efficacy test in 15 volunteers. The product was applied on both sides of eyebrows twice daily for 60 days. The evaluation was based on the taken photos and the satisfaction assessment scoring from 1 to 5 (very poor-excellent). The eyebrows appeared darker and thicker after 30 day and progressively more obvious at 2 month use. Participants felt that the enhancement of eyebrow thickness and darkness was good (33.3%) to excellent (66.7%). In addition, there was no irritation present which ensure the product safety. Conclusively, this work reported a stable liposome loaded with butterfly pea flower extract and clove oil. The product was subjectively proven to intensify the thickness and darkness of eyebrows.
... (Butterfly pea) flower extract increased whitening effect of the mask preparation. [26] Ruksounjik and Khunkitti studied the tyrosinase inhibition of C. ternatea flower ethanolic extract. It appeared that 0.2 mg/mL of the extract and glutathione could inhibit 22.04 ± 2.42% and 95.72 ± 2.00% of tyrosinase activity, respectively. ...
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Clitoria macrophylla Wall. (Leguminosae), locally known as Non‑tai‑yak or An‑chan‑pa, commonly distributed in tropical nations and Southeast Asia. Regarding traditional Thai medical system, C. macrophylla roots carry out a potential in dermatology. Its roots are also used as insecticide in agriculture and animal farming. Moreover, clitoriacetal is the major component that can be detected in C. macrophylla root. This research aimed to assess the efficacy of C. macrophylla root extract and clitoriacetal for its anticancer and antityrosinase activities as well as to assess in vitro safety potential for its cytotoxic and genotoxic effects. C. macrophylla root and clitoriacetal were tested by brine shrimp lethality, 3‑(4,5‑dimethylthiazol‑2‑yl)‑2,5‑diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, comet assay, and antityrosinase activity. C. macrophylla root, clitoriacetal, and rotenone demonstrated the toxicity against brine shrimp nauplii with LC50 of 332.15, 136.54, and 0.15 μg/mL, respectively. C. macrophylla root and clitoriacetal showed cytotoxic potential against breast ductal carcinoma (BT‑474), liver hepatoblastoma (Hep‑G2), and colon adenocarcinoma (SW‑620). At 100 μg/mL, the percent DNA damage of C. macrophylla root and clitoriacetal was 37.84% and 36.01%, respectively. C. macrophylla root and clitoriacetal were able to inhibit the tyrosinase enzyme with IC50 of 12.27 and 7.30 mg/mL, respectively, which less effective than glutathione (positive control). The present study revealed the in vitro biological activities of C. macrophylla root and its clitoriacetal constituent which proposed the scientific evidences in efficacy and safety evaluation including in vitro cytotoxicity, DNA damage as well as antityrosinase activities. Key words: Antityrosinase activity, brine shrimp toxicity, Clitoria macrophylla Wall, clitoriacetal, comet assay, MTT assay
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Experiments are an important part of the chemistry curriculum. An indicator in the form of a synthesis indicator is commonly used in acid-base materials experiments. The usage of synthetic indicators can result in waste that is both environmentally harmful and costly. The butterfly pea flower is one of the plants that contains anthocyanins, which have the potential to be used as an alternative indication of natural acids and bases. The study aims to determine the acid and base material curriculum and competency indicators, as well as the potential of butterfly pea flower extract as a substitute for synthesis indicators and the practicality of butterfly pea flower extract as a chemical experimental design in SMA/MA. This study employs a descriptive qualitative research method that includes literature review, observation, experimentation, and interviewing. The results showed that the relationship between acid-base materials and experiments was the determination of natural materials as acid-base indicators, the pH of the solution, the identification of acid-base properties, and acid-base titration. The butterfly pea flower indicator was produced from maceration extraction using 96% ethanol as the solvent. The butterfly pea flower indicator gives pink color at pH 1-2, reddish purple at pH 3, light purple at pH 4-5, turquoise at pH 6, bluish green at pH 7, light blue at pH 8-9, green at pH 10, yellowish green at pH 11, greenish yellow at pH 12-13, and yellow at pH 14. The titration step showed that butterfly pea flower indicators could replace synthetic indicators, namely phenolphthalein and methyl orange. Based on the analysis, the butterfly pea flower indicator can be used as an alternative indicator in acid base titration and an alternative experimental design in schools.
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Clitoria ternatea is a herbaceous perennial climbing herb and grows as an aggressive colonizer in several habitats with poor to moderate soil nutrient environment. It has blue-and white-flowered varieties with similar floral structural and functional characters. The flowers are chasmogamous, nectariferous, resupinate and hermaphroditic. They are typically papilionaceous with brush pollination mechanism, weak protandry and resort to autonomous autogamy and facultative xenogamy to maximize fruit and seed set rates in open-pollinations. Seed dispersal modes include autochory and hydrochory. This plant is widely valued in Indian Medicine System for treating various human diseases and ailments, as forage and fodder crop, natural food colorant, antioxidant, ornamental plant and as a re-vegetation species in the coal mine sites. Therefore, C. ternatea can be commercially and ecologically exploited.
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The traditional practice of eating the flowers of Clitoria ternatea L. or drinking their infusion as herbal tea in some of the Asian countries is believed to promote a younger skin complexion and defend against skin aging. This study was conducted to investigate the protective effect of C. ternatea flower water extract (CTW) against hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity and ultraviolet (UV)-induced mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage in human keratinocytes. The protective effect against hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity was determined by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium assay, and mtDNA damage induced by UV was determined by polymerase chain reaction. Preincubation of HaCaT with 100, 250, and 500 μg/ml CTW reduced cytotoxicity effects of H2O2compared with control (H2O2alone). CTW also significantly reduced mtDNA damage in UV-exposed HaCaT (p < .05). CTW was chemically-characterized using high resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main compounds detected were assigned as anthocyanins derived from delphinidin, including polyacylated ternatins, and flavonol glycosides derived from quercetin and kaempferol. These results demonstrated the protective effects of C. ternatea flower extracts that contain polyacylated anthocyanins and flavonol glycosides as major constituents, against H2O2and UV-induced oxidative stress on skin cells, and may provide some explanation for the putative traditional and cosmetic uses of C. ternatea flower against skin aging.
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Flowers of butterfly pea (Clitoria ternatea Linn) contain anthocyanins. The color of anthocyanins change according to the pH solution.The aim of this study is to determine the application of butterfly pea extract as an indicator of acid-base titration. The results showed that the butterfly pea extract has the refraction index from 1.382+ 0.25 to 1.390+ 0.30, specific gravity from 0.975 + 0.20 to 0.993+ 0.25, maximum wavelength at 572 and 614 nm, and discoloration from violet to blue at pH 4, blue to green at pH 9, and green to yellow at pH 12. We concluded that the butterfly peaextract can be applied as an indicator of acid-base titration.
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Tissue culture studies of medicinal plant Clitoria ternatea (butterfly pea) was carried out to investigate the regeneration potential of this species in vitro. Leaf explants from aseptic seedling were cultured on Driver and Kuniyuki (DKW) medium together with different concentrations and combinations of hormones napthalene acetic acid (NAA) and benzyl aminopurine (BAP) to achieve regeneration. The economic importance of this species includes use as anticonvulsant, antidepressant, indigestion, constipation, arthritis and eye ailments, as a cover crop and as an ornamental plant in Malaysia. The results obtained showed that BAP induced shoots while NAA induced roots.
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Clitoria ternatea flowers (Butterfly pea) and Vitex negundo Linn. leaves are used in several Malaysian local dishes and as traditional medicine. Total phenolic compounds of the leaves and flowers of both plants were evaluated using Folin-Ciocalteau method. For both plants, methanol extract possess higher phenolic compounds compared with water extract. Total phenolic for methanol and water extract ranged from 61.7 – 93.7 mg gallic acid equivalent / g sample and 18.6 - 25.3 mg gallic acid equivalent / g samples, respectively. Antiradical capacity was proven for the capacity to scavenge 2, 2 – diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH) radical of each extract at 517 nm. As another point of view, methanol extract of DPPH scavenging activity in Vitex negundo Linn. was higher (399 – 491%) compared with antioxidant activity contained in Clitoria ternatea (33 – 472%). In contrast, amount of DPPH scavenging activity for water extracted sample, Clitoria ternatea shown higher amounts of scavenging activity (3 - 507%) compare with the scavenging activity exhibited by Vitex negundo Linn. (145 - 411%). We also concluded that methanol is more efficient in extracting phenolic compounds compared with water as solvent in measuring total phenolic compounds. Vitex negundo Linn. contains higher amount of total phenolic compounds compared to Clitoria ternatea. Besides that, leaves part for both plants shows higher amount of phenolic compounds compared to the flower part. As for the scavenging activity, type of solvent used to extract the plant material and concentration of extracts used does exhibit significance difference (P < 0.05) on the amount of DPPH scavenged by the plant extract.
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Clitoria ternatea belonging to the family Fabaceae, commonly known as Butterfly pea. A wide range of secondary metabolites including triterpenoids, flavonol glycosides, anthocyanins and steroids were isolated from Clitoria ternatea Linn. GC-MS analyses of CHCl3 and EtOAc fractions were performed on Gas Chromatography with mass spectrometer. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the radical scavenging ability, using the stable radical DPPH and anti-diabetic activity in alloxan induced diabetes in albino rats was evaluated from the flowers extract of Clitoria ternatea. The blood glucose level in the different groups was assayed and biochemical parameters were assessed to support the proposed hypothesis. During the experimental period, body weight of all the rats was determined at regular intervals of time. The serum glucose lowering activity was compared with glibenclamide, a standard hypoglycemic drug.
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Butterfly pea is one of the most interesting sources of natural color used in food and cosmetics. Anthocyanins are the main coloring compounds in its petals and could be extracted easily with water. The pH of medium, temperature, and light were found to affect stability of the color aqueous extract from butterfly pea petals. Acidity and alkalinity of the solvent did not only change shade of the color but also affected the color stability. The color presented the most stable in pH 4 solution under darkness and the least stable in pH 7 solution under UV light. The higher the temperature the more the color loss. In an attempt to improve the color stability, microparticulated system prepared by spray drying technique was employed in this study. Hydroxylpropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) and gelatin were used as carrier polymers. The operating condition providing optimum production yield was determined using 2 3 factorial design. The factors were % solid in the feed solution, inlet temperature, and solution feed rate. The optimized condition was 5% w/w of solid in the feed solution, 130 Ì C of inlet temperature, and 10 ml/min of solution feed rate for both HPMC and gelatin. Color stability of the microparticulated particles was studied under heat and UV light. Gelatin microparticulated system presented better protection against UV light than HPMC microparticulated system and aqueous color solution. Therefore, polymer type should be carefully selected for preparing the microparticulated particles. However, no protection against thermal degradation was observed in both gelatin and HPMC microparticulated systems.
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Chia (Salvia sp) seeds were investigated as a source of natural lipid antioxidants. Methanolic and aqueous extracts of defatted chia seeds possessed potent antioxidant activity. Analysis of 2 batches of chia-seed oils demonstrated marked difference in the fatty acid composition of the oils. In both batches, the oils had high concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The major antioxidant activity in the nonhydrolyzed extract was caused by flavonol glycosides, chlorogenic acid (7.1 × 10−4 mol/kg of seed) and caffeic acid (6.6 × 10−3 m/kg). Major antioxidants of the hydrolyzed extracts were flavonol aglycones/kaempferol (1.1 × 10−3 m/kg), quercetin (2.0 × 10−4 m/kg) and myricetin (3.1 × 10−3 m/kg); and caffeic acid (1.35 × 10−2 m/kg). Two methods were used to measure antioxidant activities. Both were based on measuring bleaching ofβ-carotene in the coupled oxidation ofβ-carotene and linoleic acid in the presence of added antioxidants.
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