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Usuários e Produção da Existência: contribuições de Álvaro Vieira Pinto e Paulo Freire à Interação Humano- Computador

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RESUMO: Nesta tese buscamos traçar, caracterizar e tensionar compreensões sobre “usuários” nos estudos em Interação Humano-Computador (IHC). “Usuário” é um termo que denomina a pessoa que usa um artefato computacional, e um conceito que implica em uma caracterização de seres humanos e sua relação com as tecnologias. Propomos a produção da existência como potencial viés de debate teórico sobre “usuários” em IHC, a partir de estudos em Ciência, Tecnologia e Sociedade (CTS) de Álvaro Vieira Pinto e Paulo Freire. A abordagem dialético existencial destes autores nos exige considerar “usuários” como pessoas em construção, que produzem a si mesmos ao usarem e desenvolverem conhecimentos, técnicas e artefatos, por meio da práxis social em suas realidades. Entretanto, o desenvolvimento da existência, quando situado em condições opressivas, requer que os sujeitos se conscientizem e superem as opressões que alienam a produção das suas existências. Problematizamos algumas práticas e representações de “usuário” que constrangem, ocultam ou deslegitimam a autonomia de utentes na produção social de suas existências. Apontamos como “usuários” foram desespecializados de sua relação com tecnologias computacionais, e sua participação na produção destas tecnologias regulada e afastada dos espaços e tempos projetuais legitimados pelo modo de produção capitalista. Discutimos como “usuários” são reduzidos a uma figura genérica, representados como indivíduos desempoderados ou como receptores passivos de interfaces. Entretanto, a partir de Vieira Pinto e Freire, entendemos que estas caracterizações não constituem uma essência do “usuário”, mas uma condição construída historicamente – da qual a IHC faz parte, reforçando e questionando. Por fim, elencamos propostas à pesquisa e projeto em Interação Humano-Computador de matriz dialético-existencial, para evidenciar a produção da existência por meio do uso e produção de artefatos computacionais: 1) uma agenda inicial de pesquisa que posicione “usuários” como sujeitos de saberes e fazeres em IHC; 2) a categoria “para si” como direção projetual que visa a produção social da existência, pelo desenvolvimento de artefatos computacionais via empoderamento emancipatório; e 3) o conceito de “interface amanual” como modo de evidenciar a produção material e subjetiva de interações, realizada socialmente por “usuários”, a partir de suas condições amanuais. Concluímos recomendando que "usuários” sejam reconhecidos pela Interação Humano-Computador como partícipes e protagonistas do processo social de produção das interações humano-computador, e que, pela importância que artefatos computacionais possuem na produção de suas existências, contribua para lhes oferecer condições para, com autonomia, superar opressões e se desenvolverem para a liberdade. ABSTRACT: In this thesis we aim to trace, characterize and strain understandings about "users" in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) studies. "User" is a term that refers to the person who uses a computational artifact, and a concept that implies a characterization of humans and their relation to technology. We propose the existence production as a potential approach of theoretical debate about "users" in HCI, based on studies in Science, Technology and Society (STS) by Álvaro Vieira Pinto and Paulo Freire. The existential dialectic approach of these authors requires us to consider "users" as people in construction, who produce themselves by using and developing knowledge, techniques and artifacts, through social praxis in their realities. However, the existence development, when placed in oppressive conditions, requires that subjects become aware of and overcome the oppressions that alienate their existences production. We problematize some practices and representations of "user" that constrain, hide or delegitimize the “users” autonomy in their existences social production. We point out how "users" were de-specialized of their relation with computational technologies, and their participation in these technologies production regulated and distanced from the spaces and design times legitimized by the capitalist mode of production. We discuss how "users" are reduced to a generic figure, represented as disempowered individuals or as passive interfaces recipients. However, from Vieira Pinto and Freire, we understand that these characterizations do not constitute an essence of the "user", but a historically constructed condition – which HCI is part, reinforcing and questioning. Finally, we list proposals for research and project in Human-Computer Interaction, by a existential-dialectical matrix, to evidence the existence production through the use and computational artifacts production: 1) an initial research agenda that positions "users" as subjects of knowledge and you do in HCI; 2) the category "for itself" as a design direction that aims at the social existence production, by the development of computational artifacts via emancipatory empowerment; and 3) the concept of “handiness interface" as a way of evidencing the material and subjective interactions production, carried out socially by "users", from their handiness conditions. We conclude by recommending that "users" be recognized by the Human-Computer Interaction as participants and protagonists in the social process of human-computer interactions production, and that, because of the importance that computational artifacts have in the their existences production, contributes to offer them the conditions for, with autonomy, overcome oppressions and develop for freedom.
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... HCI uses this concept to define a dedicated object or a matter of concern within the larger informatics area (Cooper and Bowers, 1995), playing the role of a user science, user research, or interdisciplinary user studies. Several theories, approaches, methods and techniques lie around the so-called users (Cooper and Bowers, 1995;Grint and Woolgar, 1997;Gonzatto, 2018). HCI strives to represent users (Suchman, 2002(Suchman, , 2007, and by doing so faithfully and accurately, seeks to legitimize itself as an academic field. ...
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