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Transformation of Project Management in Industry 4.0

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Abstract

While Industry 4.0 concept is implementing, most of the working environment are automatized and interoperated as a smart factory with Cyber Physical Systems, Internet of Things and Big Data being processed real time using cloud computing. Industry 4.0 has brought many careers to transform and businesses to change as well. One of those careers is industry 4.0 project manager that gets another dimension with coming of Industry 4.0. Traditional project management strategies need to be transformed in fourth industrialization because it is a challenging job with a lot of variations. After analyzing necessary skills and responsibilities of traditional software development project managers and industry 4.0 project managers, there are many changes and challenges in industry 4.0 project manager. Transformations include digitization and automation of manufacturing operations, connecting various machines with multiple software platforms and interconnecting departments within production environment, collecting and analyzing big data stream, providing data to partners such as suppliers and machine builders, monitoring IoT predictive maintenance and cloud platforms, and virtual and augmented reality. This paper is one of the initial attempts to highlight the importance of industry 4.0 project management in implementing the fourth industrial revolution successfully although most of the recent studies are talking about technological aspect.
Transformation of Project Management in Industry 4.0
Thee Zin Win Nang Saing Moon Kham
University of Computer Studies Yangon
While Industry 4.0 concept is implementing, most of the working environment are automatized and interoperated as a smart factory
with Cyber Physical Systems, Internet of Things and Big Data being processed real time using cloud computing. Industry 4.0 has
brought many careers to transform and businesses to change as well. One of those careers is industry 4.0 project manager that gets
another dimension with coming of Industry 4.0. Traditional project management strategies need to be transformed in fourth
industrialization because it is a challenging job with a lot of variations. After analyzing necessary skills and responsibilities of
traditional software development project managers and industry 4.0 project managers, there are many changes and challenges in
industry 4.0 project manager. Transformations include digitization and automation of manufacturing operations, connecting various
machines with multiple software platforms and interconnecting departments within production environment, collecting and analyzing
big data stream, providing data to partners such as suppliers and machine builders, monitoring IoT predictive maintenance and cloud
platforms, and virtual and augmented reality. This paper is one of the initial attempts to highlight the importance of industry 4.0 project
management in implementing the fourth industrial revolution successfully although most of the recent studies are talking about
technological aspect.
Keywords and Phrases: Project Management, Industry 4.0, Transformation of Project Management, Elements of Industry 4.0
1. Introduction
In Cheng,et al. (2016), it is stated that the first
industrial revolution began within the half of 18th
century to transform the steam engine to
manufacturing facility mechanization. The second
industrial revolution began in the half of the
nineteenth century, to use the electricity into large-
scale mass manufacturing. The third industrial
revolution brought both the electrical and information
technology to achieve automated manufacturing in the
half of the 20th century also in Cheng,et al. (2016).
Now, the Fourth Industrial Revolution is the Digital
Revolution which is well known as Industry 4.0. This
digital technology is emerging breakthroughs in a
number of fields such as robotics, artificial
intelligence, Nano-technology, quantum computing,
biotechnology, the Internet of Things (IoT), 3D
printing, Augmented Reality and autonomous vehicles,
systems, manufacturing. Many industrial leaders
predict that the Industry 4.0 will deliver extraordinary
levels of growth and productivity over the coming
decades as described in De Pace F,et al. (2018).
Business leaders, governments, academics, and
technology vendors are enthusiastically working
together in order to apply this huge potential. Industry
4.0 described that the future of manufacturing will be
established on the Internet and information technology
based interactive platform, factors of production will
be integrated increasingly scientifically and they will
be more automated, networking, intellectuality.
Moreover personalized, customized manufacturing
will become to fulfill market demands and customer
requirements personally. Industry 4.0 offers cyber
physical systems to cooperate profitably, aiming to
build smart factories by redefining the role of humans.
Dilberoglu (2017) predicted that the role of designers,
factories, and customers will be redefined remarkably
since the manufacturing business will be distributed to
many separate locations like small workplaces or
homes. Especially, project management in
implementing Industry 4.0 is becoming more and
more challenging because of different elements of that
and emerging new technologies. Project Management
has been one of the most important disciplines in
determining the success of any project.
2. The traditional project management
The project management responsibilities are usually
planning, managing the projects, organizing, preparing
estimates and schedules, monitoring, and report on
activities and progress through the projects. The basic
essential skills for a project manager are shown in
table (1). The viewpoints of project management can
be adopted and implemented by a single group of
people for a single project. A department or division
can also and the entire company as well. In fact, as the
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Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Project Management (ProMAC2018)
2018 The Society of Project Management
Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Project Management (ProMAC2018)
2018 The Society of Project Management
scope grows and communications improves, the
methodology should be more consistently applied. The
scope of project management affects many people and
aspects.
The typical project managers may have to plan
and direct the use of resources on projects, and prepare
risk management since planning step. Department
managers will administer resources and control
projects within an area. Executive management should
establish project priorities and monitor project
progress. Obviously, project management should not
be restricted to a handful of people or projects. Dozens
of projects may be active at any one time, involving
hundreds of workers across departmental boundaries.
Synchronization of the work effort is required to
maximize effect and minimize confusion. According
to Tim Bryce (2013), only when a standard and
consistent approach to Project Management is adopted
by a company will it become an integral part of the
corporate culture.
Table 1 Basic skills of project management
1. Communication 4. Team Building
Listening Empathy
Persuading Motivation
2. Organizational 5. Surviving Skills
Planning Flexibilit
y
Goal-setting Creativity
3. Leadership Skills Patience
Responsibility Persistence
Energetic Risk management
Vision 6. Technological Skills
Delegates Experience
Positive Project Knowledge
3. Industry 4.0 project management
Industry 4.0’s core is the dynamic configuration mode
of productions. It is significantly different from
traditional production methods. Dynamic
configurations in production and in the manufacturing
process are able to change the original design at any
time. In order to ensure the best competitiveness, the
integrated management of the projects will become
increasingly important and, as a result, the project
teams will become more and more focused on specific
objectives related with diverse elements of Industry
4.0. Most of business tasks and processes that do not
require analytical and design skills such as back-office
tasks will be progressively automated. This process
leads the corporate structures which were based on
hierarchical functions to be gradually changed by
more streamlined structures.
Massive amount of data will be produced in
every millisecond in the automated manufacturing
industry. This streaming huge data will be analyzed to
enable adapts the business process to fulfill demand
for products and services. The time needed to market
of mass production will definitely short. To get along
with that, more fast adaptable and flexible production
processes will be compulsory to get adaptable quickly
to the demands of the market. The consolidation of
Industry 4.0 will be characterized by the i mplemen tation of
pervasive change project management processes that
will deal with inevitable resistance from people who
will have to revolutionize their ways of working. It is
sure that project managers and teams will require
higher variant soft skills and hard skills than those
needed in the past and a greater degree of autonomy in
order to handle industry 4.0 projects. The project
teams will be increasingly delocalized, with people
that will interact from different places of the world
and they all have their own cultural and professional
identity that needs to be integrated.
3.1 New emerging high-technology has changed
project management
The future of project management will be
heavily influenced by technological breakthroughs,
and there is no doubt that AI will change the course of
how project management tasks are delivered and
controlled in the future. Practitioners are convinced
that AI will evolve from simple task automation to
predictive project analytics, advice and actions as
described in M Lahmann, et al. (2018). New high-
technology has made a lot of things in life easier, but it
has affected management of organizations. To put it
simply, it has changed project management in every
possible way. While new technology’s capabilities
often lead to heightened expectations of customers and
senior management, the net result is that project teams
should be able to achieve more during less time than
ever before. Consequently, the project managers get
uncountable benefits starting from easier collaboration
to more accurate reporting via emerging technologies.
Some of them are as follow.
3.1.1 Team based structure
A team based structure can be useful for
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Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Project Management (ProMAC2018)
2018 The Society of Project Management
Industry 4.0 settings, because it put multiple functions
and processes in a single group heading towards
common objectives in Griffin, A.; Hauser, J.R.(1996).
It enables organizational learning which leads to
enhanced general skills, and a speedy decision making
process by breaking the interdepartmental barriers.
Project based teams can especially be a really good
facilitator of learning and innovation capabilities of
organizations and individual employees in Aubry and
Lièvre(2010), which are required in the uncertain and
unstable environment of Industry 4.0. Team members
come up with ideas, evaluation options and provide
specialized knowledge. This balance ensures that the
project manager can consider all angles to complex
problems and solves them efficiently.
3.1.2 The integrated project teams
Despite Agile development offers the more
collaborative approach in projects, IT still goes off to
code and test most new applications on its own and IT
technicians have to provide services by themselves
even after the application is delivered at customer’s
production site. This typical work procedure will not
work with IoT projects, because IoT is so integrally
linked into company operations that the software and
hardware cannot be separated from its actual operating
environment according to Shacklett. M (2017). For the
entire duration of the project, IT projects and
industries’ operations have to work hand in hand on
IoT all of the time.
3.1.3 Longer project timelines
Unlike traditional IT projects, an Industry 4.0
project is not terminated once it is implemented. There
should have a plan for how the IoT will be supported,
and for what the failover mechanics are going to be
fixed if a failure occurs in production for some reason
as stated in Mary Shacklett (2017). As a team's project
manager, he or she might also prepare failover and
recovery actions for ongoing project. Until Internet
industries mature in autonomous manufacturing
industry, IIoT projects will have a longer tail that
extends into support and failover of IoT even after it is
cutover to production. As described in Mary
Shacklett(2017), the project timeline will be longer for
that the project team will need ongoing support from
automated systems, network, database, storage and IT
operations functions because IIoT will impact all of
them.
3.1.4 Improved communication
Communication is one of the most important
uses in project management to ensure proper
communication between managers, team members and
stakeholders. A few decades ago, project managers
replaced email instead of interoffice memos, faxes,
voice messages and other less-reliable forms of
communication. Now, as social collaboration tools and
other innovations have begun to replace email,
successful project managers continue to use the latest
technology to share updates, documents and other
critical information with their project teams stated in
Angela(2016). Advances in communication
technology can build project teams with stakeholders
located in various places over the world.
3.1.5 Various tools for varied stakeholders
Some of the tech trends increasingly responding
to a dynamic and changing world are collaboration,
mobility and social networking, not just within teams
but also among stakeholders. Collaboration tools
support groups working together to accomplish a
specific task. But project managers nowadays should
be careful when identifying the proper channel to
reach stakeholders. The project manager should use a
variety of tools such as instant messages, phone calls,
webinars, and document collaboration tools. The
project manager should always try to get approved
formally by stakeholders’ organizations before
choosing one to support a project. The project
manager’s ability to choose the appropriate
communication tools to communicate stakeholders
and teams has a great impact on the project outcome.
3.2 Soft skills for Industry 4.0 project manager
In Industry 4.0, the soft skills of project
managers will undertake a significant transformation
mainly related to the new ways of interacting with
project stakeholders:
3.2.1 Communication skills
In order to react in real time and consequently
speed up the processes of problem solving and
decision making, the management and sharing of
knowledge will play in a main role. While time is
passing, information is going to decrease value.
Information should be shared with all stakeholders in
order to enhance the management of critical issues and
encourage the creation of integrated collaboration.
Customers and suppliers from the network cannot be
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Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Project Management (ProMAC2018)
2018 The Society of Project Management
Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Project Management (ProMAC2018)
2018 The Society of Project Management
longer excluded from knowledge management; they
can all make an important contribution to problem
solving. To achieve this goal, the project managers
should promptly prepare a well-prepared
communication plan.
3.2.2 Authority
In Industry 4.0, project managers are among the
main actors of this industrialization change process.
Their leadership will be expressed as more
authoritative and less as a simple position in the
organizational chart. An authoritative PM should have
rights to create project agreements, resource
management, his or her team position in the processes,
be available to get involved and demonstrate skills in
valuing resources.
3.2.3 Team management
The PM’s fundamental task should be to
encourage the team's spirit of initiative without losing
sight of the strategic objectives of the project. From
both technical or cognitive view and relational point of
view, the project manager should be able to choose the
right people for the composition of the team with the
delocalization of the different project teams. Moreover,
the Industry 4.0 PM should have the efficient
interaction among projects such as IoT, Big Data
Analytic, System integration, Simulation, cloud
computing and cyber security projects.
3.2.4 Management of unforeseen event
Speed will be a key word in Industry 4.0. An
integrated flow of data and communications which
allows stakeholders to have a picture of the situation
in real time will be essential the high speed of decision
making and the diligence in reacting to unexpected
events in a system governed. Project managers should
have consistent problem-solving capacity and act
quickly, maintaining the right balance at the same time.
3.2.5 Negotiation skills
Traditional hierarchical relationships will
gradually change into flat structure in Industry 4.0.
Project team members will become independent
professional figures, able to develop their creativity
with greater freedom than in the past. The PM should
build her authority on the 360-degree knowledge of
the project and of its related domain. In order to
manage effectively, the project manager should
communicate the team members with transparency
and on the other hand manage the relations among
other stakeholders with a sense of responsibility.
3.3 Hard skills for Industry 4.0 project manager
Although a project manager is the general
manager of a project, Industry 4.0 projects require a
full comprehension of Cyber-physical Spaces from the
project managers along with deep domain knowledge
while the implementation is mainly delegated to
project team experts or virtual assistants. The most
important hard skill for PMs is experience with
innovative technologies and projects, predictive
algorithms and big data analysis that will help them
manage projects correctly and stay focused on the
objectives to be achieved. The authoritativeness of
project managers will be based on their ability to see
the flow of the processes that will regulate the projects
of the future not only in its entirety, but in all its
components. Humans are always at the center of
Industry 4.0, dominating through their know-how and
skills to use the tools that will guide success. In this
sense, project managers could adopt the principles of
lean management. When integrated with the tools of
Industry 4.0, this will allow them to overcome the
operational criticalities of the management of projects
that usually cross all company areas. For example,
with pull techniques, lean management will allow us
to enhance the potential of digital tools to perform
rapid analysis that will provide operators with
instructions to intervene effectively in critical areas.
At the same time, this will enable to adapt production
processes to requirements changes and stay aligned
with customer requests.
3.4 Challenges of Industry 4.0 elements for project
management
At the company level, the impact of the fourth
industry revolution on production processes will not
only be limited to technological but also
infrastructural aspects. This revolution will endorse
the development of new professions, new structures of
organizations and the growth of a new management
style. Project managers will be the main leaders of
those developments, facing a new situation with
different elements of Industry 4.0. Some significant
elements are Internet of Things, Addictive
Manufacturing, System Integration, Autonomous
Systems, Augmented Reality, Simulation, Big Data,
Cyber Security and Cloud Computing.
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3.4.1 Internet of things
The Internet of Things is the ever-growing
infrastructure of internet-connected devices which can
transfer data and commands between points. The basic
idea of this concept is the pervasive presence around
us of a variety of things or objects such as Radio-
Frequency IDentification (RFID) tags, sensors,
actuators, mobile phones, through unique addressing
schemes such as IP address, which are able to interact
with each other and cooperate with their neighbors to
reach common goals described in Giusto, D. et al.
(2010). While the system becomes a crucial tool for
understanding complexity and elaborate quick
responses, the objects can sense and interconnect
within themselves and the environment in this system.
Increasing the complexity of the projects’ processes
and management style is bringing shifting elements
inside the environment. The number of stakeholders in
the project is also increasing significantly. The
project’s success mostly depends on sharing
information and communication and high uncertainty
of the situation is making challenges and they are
usually more tricky and complicated to manage. It is
the sure that project management within diverse
groups which are often located in remote locations,
will face many deviations in the original project plan
according to Luigi Atzori, et al. (2010).
3.4.2 Additive manufacturing
Additive Manufacturing is advances in 3D
printing and can make product components lighter and
less cost. The 3D printing is a central part of a more
broad computerized transformation procedure in the
smart factories of manufacturing industry. The smart
factory will make manufacturing leaner and faster, and
provide data on components and products in real time.
Because businesses involved in additive
manufacturing will add complexity and bring new
legal challenges, an increased awareness and coherent
strategy will be required for industry 4.0 project
manager, especially additive manufacturing project
manager to adequately address issues like the
protection of intellectual property rights, trade secrets
and data, as well as increasing liability risks.
3.4.3 Systems integration
System integration in this connected industry
4.0 comes with its challenges, so industries need to
keep up to speed and get creative with technology
because a business can have many different pieces of
hardware of software which need to be utilized in
harmony so that maximum value can be derived.
Keeping existing systems up to date and working
properly is one of the main challenges of the fourth
industrialization. Projects to integrate new and old
systems will be essential the skillful project manager
who have enough awareness to accomplish the system
integration projects. Connecting a system, equipment
and component to a network is not such an easy job.
Moreover, it also brings vulnerabilities that weren’t
there before. Nick (2015) indicated that Ensuring that
the system is secure from cyber threats and attacks
while interconnecting systems is a new challenge fit
for Industry 4.0. Flexibility with new modern
automated systems and smart factories is essential for
good systems integrators and industry 4.0 project
managers. While also keeping up to date with the
latest technologies, the best way to maximize industry
knowledge and expertise is being familiar with a wide
range of systems and working with different
manufactures.
3.4.4 Autonomous systems
In this 4th iteration, not only objects and
machines can communicate with each other, they can
also act autonomously. Robotics and artificial
intelligence have evolved mostly in the autonomous
systems where high standards on various tasks can be
operated without constant human intervention. In the
future of Industry 4.0, autonomous systems will
perform complex tasks without requirements of
specific programming or human input. Their ability to
learn will enable them to decide between alternative
actions, make the best use of their skills, interact with
the real world, perceive their surroundings, and adapt
to changes as stated in Siemens Corp. (2017). While
settling those autonomous systems, there is a demand
to manage these complex technical projects efficiently
to support the technical development. To enable that,
project manager is needed to manage the projects
towards set goals, project organization and framework
for ways of working within the project. The project
manager of autonomous system should make to ensure
that all project activities are undertaken in a systematic
manner with a Systems Engineering approach at the
core of the technical solution to project objectives.
3.4.5 Augmented reality
Augmented reality (AR) refers to the
integration of additional computer generated
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Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Project Management (ProMAC2018)
2018 The Society of Project Management
Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Project Management (ProMAC2018)
2018 The Society of Project Management
information into a real-world environment. In an
Industry 4.0 context, AR can add into internet industry
network to enable generate the highest value, enable
avoid risks, issues and downtime the most, optimize
the end-to-end manufacturing process and workflows
with the best possible way, and finally to make
productivity, satisfaction and experiences of field
engineers, factory workers, customers and
stakeholders the most satisfactory. Virtually
Augmenting (VR) what people can see with their own
eyes with data and hidden systems can be immensely
powerful when it comes to process and product
improvement. The AR application is relevant to
industries for its prominently improvement of the
product design and production, distribution processes
because it can reduce the number of physical
prototypes, it saves time and cost. AR systems use
digital visualization to show users exactly where to put
parts, what parts may be broken and also give
information on the part while process manufacturing
training, assembly and safety are the main use of VR
and AR. According to De Pace F,et al. (2018), AR is
considered as a valuable tool for improving and
accelerating product and process development in many
industrial applications. It sounds greatly that AR
project is filled with high technology. Therefore, AR
project manger’s one of the most important skill to
achieve the project goal is familiarity with AR
technology additionally to project management skills.
3.4.6 Simulation
In the engineering world, we have been using
simulations that are computer programs that mimic or
model the behavior of physical systems for years to
predict and explore system capabilities and limitations
according to Arora, A. (2007). It can often be more
cost-effective to trial something in the virtual world
than to make a physical prototype for each variable
being tested. The simulations save expenses for
physical prototypes and even lives in many cases.
Applying them in industry 4.0 projects can have
similar impact to project owners and stakeholders.
Because of projects are both varied and numerous,
however, many projects experience schedules late and
cost overruns. Computer simulation provides a
modeling and evaluation tool for complex systems that
are analytically intractable. The simultaneous
emergence of of ubiquitous sensing and unprecedented
interconnection between sensing and control devices
constitutes a new paradigm of industrial systems of the
fourth industrialization according to Jie Xu, et al.
(2016).
3.4.7 Big data
Businesses can create huge volumes of data
without realizing it and this data can be a source of
untapped value for business improvement and growth.
On the other hand, a lot of data sources of different
aspects of industries will generate big data in disparate
formats. Big data analytics is an important challenge
for Industry 4.0 project managers because its data
variety may be hinder of Industry 4.0 big data
analytics. Although there are a large number of tools
for processing big data, people who have expertise and
deep knowledge in a specific domain only may not be
able to use these tools according to Gökalp, et al.
(2016). Therefore, Industry 4.0 project manager needs
to deep understanding of big data analytics too in
order to able manage project team effectively.
3.4.8 Cyber security
Connected systems especially diverse systems
within industry 4.0 require being optimized and secure
so that personal to organization assets and information
are safe from intrusion. It does not need to say that the
array of tasks that fall to the project manager is
seemingly endless. Time management, resource
management, risk management, budgeting,
motivational and diplomacy skills and leadership skills
are some of what a project manager needs to tackle in
order to successfully manage a project. But,
increasingly cyber security is another area within
project management. It is an area that a project
manager cannot afford to overlook even while
ensuring systems are secure. Serious security breaches
make cost very much to fix. It can also cause long-
term damage and numerous negative consequences to
an organization’s brand and reputation. Therefore,
Project managers should be alert of their project data
value, especially if data is cutting edge technology or
confidential information. They should ensure that
access to data is under-controlled. Moreover, they
should also consider the unauthorized access to the
data as part of their risk management. The cost of
protecting data needs to be discussed upfront and
included in project budget.
3.4.9 Cloud computing
IT services are increasingly being provided by
the ‘cloud’ to generate cost and space savings as well
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Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Project Management (ProMAC2018)
2018 The Society of Project Management
as to offer innovative use models. When applications
are deployed in the cloud, the project manager's role
does not change much. The project manager typically
keeps the project on track and provides status reports,
and is not required to be an expert in the particular
technologies. However, the project manager needs to
make sure cloud providers take steps to address
performance, security and disaster recovery
management problems. The project manager needs to
understand each area of risk and identify who is
responsible for tasks associated with problems.
4. Analysis of typical and Industry 4.0 project
manager responsibilities
Much of the daily work of a project manager has not
dramatically changed over the last 30 years according
to Treb Gatte(2016). Different management
methodologies may be used, but collecting and
disseminating manually information between the
various roles on a project is spent a great deal of time.
The information gaps caused by diverse systems that
cannot capture what is truly happening within the
organization cause this expenditure. The combination
of artificial intelligence in the form of bots, cloud
computing could radically change this situation into
autonomous system. Project management efficiency
would be enhanced in some projects and diminished in
some projects in the fourth industrialization. Analysis
of typical software development and industry 4.0
project manager can be seen in the following table (2).
Table 2 Analysis of typical and Industry 4.0 project manager’s responsibilities
Roles and Responsibilities Typical PM Industry 4.0
PM
Provide to ensure adherence to budget, schedule, and scope v v
Work with the Project Sponsor to develop the agreed Project Management Plan
through interactions with stakeholders. v v
Execute and maintain project document management for the project cycle in
compliance with the Authorities Quality Assurance requirements. v v
Provide a timely and accurate report to the management team and team members. v v
Assist business development team with negotiating and definitive agreements
with external suppliers, vendors, and customers. v v
Develop best practices and tools for project execution in an agile development
environment. v v
Ensure all project activities are undertaken in a systematic manner with a
Systems Engineering approach at the core of the technical solution to project
objectives.
x v
Identify and execute strategic initiatives to enable growth strategy. x v
Motivate cross-functional, multi-location team members and manage deliverables
to meet project milestones. x v
Provide deep dive analysis, proposal, and help implement improvements to a
wide variety of cross organizational challenges. x v
Manage project execution, risks; identify, resolve issues in a real time. x v
Ability to manage highly complex, technical projects x v
Support the tracking and managing of a complex autonomous fleet. x v
Ensure prototype development and vehicle conversion and replication is executed
flawlessly. x v
Drive the testing and technical assessment of next generation hardware and
software technology with partners x v
Familiar with technical process improvement and development in start-up and
complex settings. x v
Complex systems execution strategy formation and delivery x v
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Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Project Management (ProMAC2018)
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Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Project Management (ProMAC2018)
2018 The Society of Project Management
5. Conclusion
Complexity and uncertainty, two main theoretical
traditions in project management play a big part in
Industry 4.0 projects, shaping and defining necessary
features to handle the workload and they are related
with the increasing complexity of the projects.
Traditional project management styles have to be
changed in order to adaptable with the fourth
industrialization with a lot of variations. After
analyzing necessary skills and responsibilities of
traditional software development project managers
and industry 4.0 project managers, we found that
there are many challenges in industry 4.0 project
manager, especially ways of management and
technical skills. Although there are specialized
project manager related with each element of Industry
4.0, it is sure that project manager must have
enhanced soft skills and hard skills to accomplish the
complex and autonomous Industry 4.0 projects.
Acknowledgement
This study was supported by University of Computer
Studies, Yangon (UCSY), Myanmar.
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Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Project Management (ProMAC2018)
2018 The Society of Project Management
... It also forces project teams to develop new competencies necessary for activities within the 4th Industrial Revolution. Similarly, ref. [22] points out that project managers and teams will require higher soft and hard skills than needed in the past, and more autonomy in handling Sustainable Industry 4.0 projects. Ref. [23] adds that Sustainable Industry 4.0 challenges the project managers in different ways. ...
... In Sustainable Industry 4.0, the soft skills of project managers will undergo a significant transformation mainly related to new ways of interacting with project stakeholders. There will be important soft skills such as [22]: communication skills, power, team management, management of unforeseen events and negotiating skills. Therefore, the project manager should build their authority on the basis of 360-degree knowledge of the project and the related field. ...
... This is also associated with a change in the approach to 4.0 project management itself, which, in this case, is more complex, innovative, burdened with a higher level of risk and requires the cooperation of highly specialized employees from various disciplines, often supported by employees from their economic-social environment. This is consistent with previous analyses in this area [22,109] that emphasize that Sustainable Industry 4.0 will bring radical changes in relation to project management. For example, refs. ...
Article
Full-text available
Contemporary project teams are increasingly used to solve problems that are at the crossroads of many disciplines and areas dedicated to Industry 4.0, which is a watershed in the implementation of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Industry 4.0 can serve as a platform for the alignment of SDGs with the ongoing digital transformation. This involves specific challenges for teams, but also allows perspectives that may create innovative and high-quality results. In order to meet these challenges while taking advantage of the opportunities offered by interdisciplinary cooperation, project teams, including the team leader, should have specific competencies. With this in mind, the aim of this article is to identify the challenges and perspectives related to working in interdisciplinary Sustainable Industry 4.0 project teams and to define the competencies necessary to act as a member and leader of these teams. Implementation of this aim will be possible by answering two research questions: (1) What requirements and opportunities are involved with interdisciplinary work amongst members of Sustainable Industry 4.0 project teams; and (2) What are the competencies necessary of members and leaders of such teams to meet these requirements and take advantage of the opportunities for such cooperation? An exploratory case study was conducted among members of interdisciplinary project teams at one of the leading technical universities in Poland. Qualitative data were obtained from many sources: interviews, internal documentation of analyzed projects and managerial notes. The obtained results allow us to state that the most important challenges and perspectives related to the work of interdisciplinary Sustainable Industry 4.0 teams include coordination of individual parts of the project, integrative leadership, establishing a common language, broad views on the issues raised and building a team consisting of specialists with the required competencies. The competencies of the project team that are important for working in the analyzed environment include strategic perspective, communication skills and persuasion, while for leaders, competencies must include the ability to coordinate work, resource management, empowering and motivation.
... All of these factors will trigger significant changes in the form of management and, consequently, in the project manager (PM). These changes could be highlighted in PMs soft and hard skills: 1) Soft skills for Industry 4.0 project manager -In Industry 4.0, the soft skills of project managers will undertake a significant transformation mainly related to the new ways of interacting with project stakeholders [23]: ...
... Therefore, the project manager should build her authority on the 360-degree knowledge of the project and of its related domain. To manage effectively, the project manager should communicate the team members with transparency and with responsibility [23] 2) Hard skills for Industry 4.0 project manager -In industry 4.0 projects, the project manager plays a crucial part of a project: However, these projects require a full comprehension of Cyber-physical systems from the project manager along with deep domain knowledge while the implementation is mainly delegated to project team experts or virtual assistants. The most important hard skill for project managers is experience with innovative technologies and projects, big data analysis and predictive algorithms that will help them to manage projects correctly and focused on the objectives to be achieved. ...
... The most important hard skill for project managers is experience with innovative technologies and projects, big data analysis and predictive algorithms that will help them to manage projects correctly and focused on the objectives to be achieved. The authoritativeness of project managers will be based on their ability to see the flow of processes that will regulate the projects of the future not only in its entirety but in all its components [23]. Pessl (2017) in his study, clustered the identified competencies into four main categories. ...
Article
Full-text available
Nowadays, Project Management is facing a more complex and dynamic environment, mostly because of the recent fourth industrial revolution, called Industry 4.0. The digitisation and the characterisation of all of the assumptions, methodologies, and processes of the Industry 4.0 can cause disruptive effects for the traditional project management and the role of the project manager. This new paradigm requires a more active role from the project manager, accompanied by new technical, contextual and behavioural competencies. In line with this, this work aims to identify the skills or competencies that the project manager must present to follow the fourth technological revolution. To accomplish this task, the most relevant concepts that are associated with industry 4.0 and with the project manager competencies are presented. From the literature review, it is possible to conclude the existence of more behavioural or soft skills associated with the 4.0 project manager profile, compared to the traditional project manager profile.
... Research has investigated smart manufacturing project management and application [46][47][48][49]. Win and Kham [46] developed a framework for project management, manager roles in Industry 4.0, and algorithms to trace project data through a CPS [47]. ...
... Research has investigated smart manufacturing project management and application [46][47][48][49]. Win and Kham [46] developed a framework for project management, manager roles in Industry 4.0, and algorithms to trace project data through a CPS [47]. Dreyer et al. [48] advanced a project portfolio selection decision model to evaluate investment in infrastructure projects and production entity projects in Industry 4.0. ...
Article
Full-text available
As smart technology proliferates, enterprises must engage not only in the transformation of intelligence but contend with pressure do so as soon as possible. Smart transformation is critical for manufacturing enterprises in the development of smart manufacturing. This study addressed the gap between maturity models and project management by designing an effective assessment framework for smart transformation. It adopts the Smart Industry Readiness Index, created by the Singapore Economic Development Board, as a maturity assessment model to analyze enterprises’ smart transformation and formulate project management strategies. Enterprises can use this model to examine the maturity level of their transformation and assess scope for improvement in their project strategies and implementation barriers. This study focuses on Taiwanese enterprises using data collected from 165 valid questionnaires and subjected to a cluster analysis. Enterprises were divided into three categories. The results reveal that, first, most enterprises’ smart transformation is at an immature or medium-maturity level, and is therefore amenable to further improvement. Second, inconsistent with research findings, many enterprises invest in transformation projects but fail to advance these projects to maturity. Third, most enterprises’ project management plans fail to meet actual transformation needs. Using the thematically oriented maturity model proposed in this study, Taiwanese enterprises can effectively evaluate the maturity of their transformation projects. In conclusion, the study highlights that Taiwanese enterprises must identify more effective external resources to strengthen their competitiveness.
... As such, the initiation and planning stages will have more importance due to the human factor involved. This was supported by another study which emphasized changes in PM's duties to more interaction with stakeholders (Win, Thee, Kham, & Saing, 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
There are very few studies done pertaining to the skills required in Industry 4.0 for Project Management (PM) employees, and no studies explicitly focused on entry-level skills requirement for PM graduates in the advent of Industry 4.0 especially from the industry perspective. The aim of the study is to investigate the required skills of project management graduates for entry-level project management positions in various Industries. It also highlights the current skills and competencies that are of high value to organisations in Industry 4.0. This research employed a qualitative research method, gathering information from 13 experienced respondents in the Sultanate of Oman in various positions and sectors. The study found that there is indeed a significant skill gap between what the graduates have and the requirements of the organisation. The researchers have emphasised that there must be an endeavour to pour more resources into fixing these skill gaps. The findings of this study have shown linkages with past research. The study has proposed strategies for the stakeholders to ensure that fresh graduates meet the demands of Industry 4.0 and might help the universities/colleges develop a curriculum that suits the industry's needs and requirements. The study had practical applicability and contributed to the body of research.
... Digital transformation in Greece The digital era, in which organizations of any nature, are trying to enter, is also characterized as the Fourth Industrial Revolution or Industry 4.0 or Digital Revolution (Digital Revolution) and is the period characterized by the rapid transition from traditional industry to an economy based on Information and Communication Technology (Zin et al., 2018). The ongoing digital age requires the extensive use of digital media and, against consequence, the changes in the business regarding the business relations, the customer processes, the value chain etc. ...
Article
Full-text available
The Digital Transformation has restructured entire sectors in recent years. Τhe Covid-19 pandemic acted as an accelerator in the transition to the new digital era. Yet, SMEs struggle to successfully implement such profound organizational transformation and thus jeopardize their sustainability and their competitiveness. Greece still has a slow pace of digital transformation compared to other countries of the European Union. This paper applies the PEST-framework to investigate the factors of external macro-environment, such as political, economic, social and technological, that are related to the digital transformation of Greek SMEs. The analysis showed that Greek SMEs are facing multiples challenges, yet several environmental factors could be proved extremely beneficial and helpful for them. Keywords: Digital Transformation, SMEs, external environment, Pest analysis, Greece.
... Transformation includes digitization and automation, connecting different machines with multiple software platforms and connecting departments in a production environment, virtual support, changing communication methods, collecting, and analyzing analyze big data streams and make data available to partners such as suppliers and machine builders., IoT predictive maintenance monitoring and cloud platforms, as well as virtual and augmented reality [9]. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
In this article, project management in Industry 4.0 is analyzed from the perspective of improving the health sector of Bangladesh. There is a potential scope of Industry 4.0 in the growth of the healthcare industry, which we have identified using Project Management 4.0 in this article. This proposal is defined as Improving Bangladesh`s health sector through Industry 4.0. We analyzed the necessary qualities of a project manager to tailor it. The features of Project Management 4.0 revealed in improving the health system are closely connected with the key components of project management: time management, cost management, quality management, project team management, communication management, project risk management, procurement, and resource management. Industry 4.0 is a necessary strategy to deliver new and evolving technologies in the medical field through a combination of technology, sensitive machines, and software. With the help of industrial revolution 4.0, it is creating a new virtual healthcare world.
... In the role of coordinating the entire progress of the project, the project manager must also adapt to this new management, especially in relation to information technologies. This improvement in their intellectual capacity is due to the fact that Industry 4.0 projects are more complex and autonomous due to the use of autonomous systems that make decisions for themselves, such as autonomous robots, which make them complex to manage [2]. This paper aimed to propose a conceptual design of the project manager's competencies in the digital era, contemplating the pillars of knowledge, skills, and attitudes. ...
Chapter
The advent of digital technologies has led to the emergence of a new industrial scenario, where machines and processes are connected and communicate through the exchange of information in real-time. Project management is inserted in this scenario of changes linked to the Fourth Industrial Revolution and is considered a strategic area in organizations, directly linked to the company’s competitiveness. In this context, project management will be impacted by significant changes in the digital age, bringing reflections on traditional management and the project manager’s role. This paper aimed to propose a conceptual design of the project manager’s competencies in the digital era. To this end, an exploratory and descriptive study was developed, with a qualitative approach and a bibliographic strategy. The study pointed out that the project leader inserted in the context 4.0 will need to develop skills related to flexibility and adaptation to changes, knowledge linked to the application of technologies 4.0, and attitudes that promote problem-solving through teamwork and cooperation. This study’s results can mainly benefit organizations and managers in order to direct the formation of new skills for professionals in the project area
... According to Preuveneers and Ilie-Zudor (2017), the 4th industrial revolution based on Cyber-Physical Systems can monitor, analyze, and automate business processes, transforming production, and logistic processes into smart factory environments where big data capabilities, cloud services, and smart predictive decision support tools are used to increase productivity and efficiency. Win and Kham (2018) drew basic concept of I4.0 and its implementation in project management, and they also highlighted challenges for project management in I4.0, project managers roles, role of cloud computing, IoT and other basic aspects, however their research could not explain architecture for implementation and were not able to define the working procedure of I4.0 for project management monitoring and control. Kolberg and Zuhlke (2015) presented basic architecture for lean manufacturing in I4.0 concept, and they established a concept how I4.0 should be integrated into already available lean systems. ...
Article
Full-text available
This research study elaborates and conceptualizes the architectural framework of Industry 4.0 to be applied to project management. Research is based on the literature in digital transformation in project management and extends the literature in adding the feasibility of Industry 4.0 applied to project management. The exploring paradigm of Industry 4.0 is 5-layer architecture. Mixed research approach, a blend of qualitative and quantitative approach is adopted with the objective of acquisition of knowledge, examination of the concepts, and analysis of the theories in order to understand feasibility of Industry 4.0 in a constructive research methodology. Findings of the research suggest the feasibility of implementation of Industry 4.0 concepts for project management, especially for project monitoring and control. It is explored that there can be an automation of project management process with a certain degree of capability in decision making. Keywords: project management, project management 4.0, CPS architecture, project automation, digital EVA
Chapter
Digital transformation in the manufacturing industry, termed Industry 4.0, has become of strategic importance under exponential technological development. Industry 4.0 is redefining production by aiming to build smart factories through cyber-physical collaboration systems. While Industry 4.0 focuses on the technical aspects, the 4th industrial revolution has a focus on the impact that Industry 4.0 has on manufacturing, but also society as a whole. In a highly competitive world, manufacturing organizations need to be agile when implementing projects to respond quickly to ever-changing market demands. Projects will continue to change in terms of scope and growing complexity. In contrast, project management will continue to involve an irreplaceable combination of skills, leadership, and ethical behavior. What changes and adapts are the skills needed to run a project successfully. Project management is still too focused on “hard” technical skills, which are essential, but people are the ones who manage and implement projects, and that must not be forgotten. Technology alone cannot guarantee the success of projects undertaken, and the human factor should not be overlooked because Industry 4.0 is not only based on technology but also on the creativity of people applying technology. With the growth of complex projects and the increasing pace of change, organizations need project managers and teams to deal with digital transformation, disruptions, frequent changes, and ambiguities. This article focuses on project manager skill set challenges in the context of Industry 4.0, highlighting the importance of people for project success.KeywordsProject risksMarket conditionsRegression analysisProject management
Chapter
Organizations have been witnessing several transformations due to the integration of new technologies and concepts in the Industry 4.0 era. With these transformations come several challenges such as financial investments for organizations desiring to adopt Industry 4.0 related methods and tools and most importantly finding engineering and project managers who are well equipped with the right competencies to be able to pilot industry transformation projects. The current paper studies learning requirements in the field of project and engineering management within Industry 4.0 Era. A combined literature analysis and interview method is adopted in order to overcome the lack of state of the art. The results underline the key role of project and engineering manager as integrators.
Article
Full-text available
Since the origins of Augmented Reality (AR), industry has always been one of its prominent application domains. The recent advances in both portable and wearable AR devices and the new challenges introduced by the fourth industrial revolution (renowned as industry 4.0) further enlarge the applicability of AR to improve the productiveness and to enhance the user experience. This paper provides an overview on the most important applications of AR regarding the industry domain. Key among the issues raised in this paper are the various applications of AR that enhance the user's ability to understand the movement of mobile robot, the movements of a robot arm and the forces applied by a robot. It is recommended that, in view of the rising need for both users and data privacy, technologies which compose basis for Industry 4.0 will need to change their own way of working to embrace data privacy
Article
Full-text available
The latest industrial revolution, Industry 4.0, is encouraging the integration of intelligent production systems and advanced information technologies. Additive manufacturing (AM) is considered to be an essential ingredient in this new movement. In this paper, a comprehensive review on AM technologies is presented together with both its contributions to Industry 4.0. The review focusses on three important aspects of AM: recent advances on material science, process development, and enhancements on design consideration. The main objective of the paper is to classify the current knowledge (and technological trends) on AM and to highlight its potential uses.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Exponential growth in data volume originating from Internet of Things sources and information services drives the industry to develop new models and distributed tools to handle big data. In order to achieve strategic advantages, effective use of these tools and integrating results to their business processes are critical for enterprises. While there is an abundance of tools available in the market, they are underutilized by organizations due to their complexities. Deployment and usage of big data analysis tools require technical expertise which most of the organizations don't yet possess. Recently, the trend in the IT industry is towards developing prebuilt libraries and dataflow based programming models to abstract users from low-level complexities of these tools. After briefly analyzing trends in the literature and industry, this paper presents a conceptual framework which offers a higher level of abstraction to increase adoption of big data techniques as part of Industry 4.0 vision in future enterprises.
Article
Full-text available
Simulation is an established tool for predicting and evaluating the performance of complex stochastic systems that are analytically intractable. Recent research in simulation optimization and explosive growth in computing power have made it feasible to use simulations to optimize the design and operations of systems directly. Concurrently, ubiquitous sensing, pervasive computing, and unprecedented systems interconnectivity have ushered in a new era of industrialization (the so-called Industrial 4.0/Industrial Internet). In this article, we argue that simulation optimization is a decision-making tool that can be applied to many scenarios to tremendous effect. By capitalizing on an unprecedented integration of sensing, computing, and control, simulation optimization provides the “smart brain” required to drastically improve the efficiency of industrial systems. We explore the potential of simulation optimization and discuss how simulation optimization can be applied, with an emphasis on the recent development of multi-fidelity/multi-scale simulation optimization.
Book
This book presents a selection of papers submitted to the 20th Tyrrhenian Workshop, which took place in September 2009 in Sardinia, Italy. The workshop focused on the "Internet of Things." This subject is quickly emerging in the wireless technology arena. It describes the pervasive presence of a variety of devices—such as sensors, actuators, and mobile phones—which, through unique addressing schemes, are able to interact and cooperate with each other to reach common goals. This novel paradigm, which originated from the idea of "smart" environments, will be sure to impact the future of logistics, Intelligent Transportation Systems, business and process management, assisted living, E-health, and other applications. The Internet of Things covers a wide array of essential topics related to this emerging paradigm, including infrastructures and applications, communication systems and network architectures, embedded systems, and location and tracking through navigation sensors. It also addresses the technological and social implications of this technology, as well as challenges that may arise.
Article
This article explores the tensions between different modes of action that a project leader uses throughout the course of a project. The study examines whether these different modes can be identified and, if so, whether there is a possibility for the project leader to change modes. This is referred to as ambidexterity. Ambidexterity is explored within two polar expeditions. Results are surprising. No conclusion can be reached about the advantage of one mode over the other. But what does stand out as a discriminating factor is the possibility of using all modes throughout the project.
Article
Cover title. Revision of: Integrating mechanisms for marketing R&D. 1994. "October 1994."
Dynamic project management using simulations. Paper presented at PMI® Global Congress 2007-Latin America
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Arora, A. (2007). Dynamic project management using simulations. Paper presented at PMI® Global Congress 2007-Latin America, Cancún, Mexico. Newtown Square, PA: Project Management Institute.
5 ways technology has changed project management
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Bunner, A. (2016), 5 ways technology has changed project management. https://www.clarizen. com/5-ways-technology-has-changed-project -management/, (Accessed 2018.9.10).