Conference PaperPDF Available

Improving alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) cultivar selection by GIS Mapping of fall dormancy and winter survival index classes and modeling seasonal and annual yield

Authors:

Abstract

There are hundreds of alfalfa cultivars within 11 fall dormancy (FD) and 6 winter survival index (WSI) classifications. Currently, cultivar selection is sub-optimal due to the inability to match cultivar characteristics with planting site conditions. This project is quantifying climatic and soil conditions, FD and WSI requirements, and using GIS tools to map parameterized functions and crop modeling to predict yield.
Improving alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) cultivar selection by GIS Mapping of fall
dormancy and winter survival index classes and modeling seasonal and annual yield
Hannaway1*, D., He2, F., Moot3, D., Yang3, X., Mills3, A., Smith4, R., Teixeira5, E., Shewmaker6, G.,
Islam7, A., Wang1, G.
1Crop & Soil Sci. Dep., Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR, USA, 2Chinese Academy of Agricultural
Sciences, China, 3Agriculture and Life Sciences Dep., Lincoln Univ., NZ; 4Tasmanian Institute of
Agriculture, Australia, 5Plant and Food Research Ltd., Sustainable Production-Systems Modelling
Team, Lincoln, NZ, 6Plant Sciences Dep., University of Idaho, 7Plant Sciences Dep., University of
Wyoming.
KEYWORDS: Lucerne, fall dormancy, winter survival index, GIS
INTRODUCTION: There are hundreds of alfalfa cultivars within 11 fall dormancy (FD) and 6 winter
survival index (WSI) classifications. Currently, cultivar selection is sub-optimal due to the inability to
match cultivar characteristics with planting site conditions. This project is quantifying climatic and soil
conditions, FD and WSI requirements, and using GIS tools to map parameterized functions and crop
modeling to predict yield.
OBJECTIVES: (1) To improve cultivar selection through matching location climatic and soil conditions
with cultivar FD and WSI classes. (2) To improve potential yield prediction through crop simulation
modeling.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Assemble existing agro-ecological/alfalfa zone maps from scientific literature and seed
companies.
Review yield data and expert recommendations from field trial data in each alfalfa production
zone.
Create logistic response functions for T-min and T-max parameterized for each cultivar class.
Develop suitability maps using GIS layers and response functions and validate in each growing
zone.
Develop seasonal and annual yield maps from APSIMX-Lucerne crop model and verify from yield
data.
Create extension and journal manuscripts and web-based materials for cultivar selection.
Conduct professional development workshops for outreach personnel. RESULTS
Collaborators identified for USA, PRC, New Zealand, and Australia.
Project planning sessions held at national and international forage meetings.
Quantitative tolerances developed and mapped for example FD/WSI class.
Logistic functions parameterized for 8 clover species demonstrated the improved approach to be
used.
Prototype selection process flowchart and web application developed.
APSIMX-Lucerne crop simulation model shows good agreement between predicted and
observed values.
CONCLUSIONS
This project will: (1) connect alfalfa scientists and seed industry specialists in several countries leading
to faster, more efficient research progress; (2) create a quantitative database of alfalfa cultivars that
will assist alfalfa research projects; (3) improve alfalfa cultivar selection leading to higher yielding, more
persistent stands and increased profitability; (4) demonstrate integration of research tools (crop
simulation modeling and GIS), and web- based information delivery.
REFERENCES:
Hannaway, D. et al., 2009. Development of Suitability Maps with Examples for the United States and
China.
Chapter 3, pp. 33-47. In: H. Fribourg, D. Hannaway & C. West (eds.). Tall Fescue for the Twenty-first
Century. Agronomy Monographs 53. ASA, CSSA, SSSA, Madison, WI.
Hannaway, D. et al., 2005a. GIS-based Forage Species Adaptation Mapping. pp. 319-342. In: S.
Reynolds & J. Frame (eds.). Grasslands: Developments, Opportunities and Perspectives. FAO and
Science Pub. Inc., Rome,
Italy.
Hannaway, D. et al.,. 2005b. Forage Species Suitability Mapping for China Using Topographic,
Climatic and Soils Spatial Data, and Quantitative Plant Tolerances. Agric. Sci. China J. 4(9):660-667.
National Alfalfa & Forage Alliance. 2018. Winter Survival, Fall Dormancy & Pest Resistance Ratings
for Alfalfa Varieties. https://www.alfalfa.org/pdf/2018_Variety_Leaflet.pdf.
Sharratt, B. et al., 1989. Base temperature for the application of the growing-degree-day model to field-
grown alfalfa. Field Crops Res. 21(2): 95-102.
Teixeira, E. et al., 2011. Growth and phenological development patterns differ between seedling and
regrowth lucerne crops (Medicago sativa L.). European J. Agron., 35(1): 47-55.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Chapter
Full-text available
Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.] is one of the most widely grown temperate, perennial grasses in the world. Its adaptation and suitability are limited by extremes of temperature, soil water availability, and physical and chemical aspects of soils. Adaptation refers to the ability of tall fescue to persist through the normal fluctuation of environmental conditions prevailing in an area, while suitability for tall fescue refers to its potential to contribute significant annual yield to plant communities managed for forage within an area of adaptation. Traditional approaches to plant species suitability mapping have been based on hand-drawn maps involving a graphic artist and a plant specialist to define qualitative, highly generalized zones using minimum temperature as the primary criterion. Advanced spatial analysis approaches involving Geographic Information System (GIS) software now allow creation of quantitative, highly detailed and increasingly accurate species suitability maps based on biophysical characteristics of the region and plant characteristics. Sophisticated climate modeling software (PRISM; http://prism.oregonstate.edu/, verified 17 Feb. 2009) was used to create climatic grids for the United States and China, and digital soils information for these areas was integrated into a mapping application. Thus, data for these countries provide a demonstration of a new approach to species suitability mapping. The approach is described in this chapter, demonstrating the process of developing landscape-level tall fescue suitability maps based on published and expert estimates of climatic and soil factor tolerances for tall fescue used as forage. Please view the pdf by using the Full Text (PDF) link under 'View' to the left. Copyright © 2009. American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, Soil Science Society of America, 5585 Guilford Road, Madison, WI 53711-5801, USA. Tall Fescue for the Twenty-first Century. H.A. Fribourg, D.B. Hannaway, and C.P. West (ed.)
Article
This study compared physiological responses of fully irrigated seedling and regrowth lucerne crops (Medicago sativa L.) grown under similar environmental field conditions. Measurements occurred for 2–4 years after sowing on 24 October, 15 November, 05 December and 27 December 2000 at Lincoln, Canterbury, New Zealand. Irrespective of the date of sowing, on average lucerne accumulated less shoot dry matter (DM) in the seedling year (11±0.44tha−1) than during the regrowth year (18±0.76tha−1). Slower shoot-growth rates in seedlings were explained by less intercepted light and reduced efficiency in conversion of light to biomass. Specifically, seedlings had a longer phyllochron (47±2.3°Cd leaf−1) and slower leaf area expansion rate (0.009m2m−2°Cd−1) than regrowth crops (35±1.8°Cd leaf−1 and 0.016m−2m−2°Cd, respectively). There were no differences in canopy architecture with a common extinction coefficient of 0.93. The radiation use efficiency (RUE) for shoot production (RUEshoot) was 1.2±0.16g DM MJ−1 of intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (PARi) in seedlings and 1.9±0.24g DM MJ−1 PARi in regrowth crops. Reproductive development was slower in seedling than regrowth crops due to an apparent juvenile period ranging from 240 to 530°Cd in seedlings. For both seedling and regrowth phases, the thermal time accumulation to reach 50% buds visible (Tt0-bv) and 50% open flowers (Tt0-fl) increased as photoperiod shortened in autumn. The minimum Tt0-bv, or the thermal-time duration of the basic vegetative period (TtBVP), was estimated at 270±48°Cd at photoperiods >14h for regrowth crops. The theoretical threshold below which reproductive development is projected to cease, or the base photoperiod (Ppbase), was estimated at a common 6.9h for seedling and regrowth crops. The transition from buds visible to open flowers (Ttbv-fl) was mainly controlled by air temperature and ranged from 161°Cd for seedlings to 274°Cd for regrowth crops. These results can be used as guidelines to develop differential management strategies for seedling and regrowth crops and improve the parameterization of lucerne simulation models.
Article
Base temperature (Tb) selection for the field application of the growing-degree-day (gdd) model for predicting alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) harvest under a three-cutting management system was investigated, because current usage is based upon extrapolation of growth-chamber data and employs a constant Tb despite microclimatic and physiological changes that take place during the growing season. Three methods of analysis and 11 station-years of climatic and alfalfa one-tenth-flower data from Rosemount and St. Paul, Minnesota, were used for successive growth periods to estimate Tb. The best estimate of Tb in the spring growth period, 3.5°C, was significantly less than the 5°C value currently used. For the succeeding summer periods, Tb estimates were 7.5° and 10.0°C, the latter being significantly higher than the current Tb. The gdd requirement, computed using the best estimates of Tb, were 585, 425 and 425 for alfalfa to reach one-tenth flower in each successive period. When a constant Tb was used, the gdd requirement to flower differed between growth periods, with the late summer period having a greater requirement.
Forage Species Suitability Mapping for China Using Topographic, Climatic and Soils Spatial Data, and Quantitative Plant Tolerances
  • D Hannaway
Hannaway, D. et al.,. 2005b. Forage Species Suitability Mapping for China Using Topographic, Climatic and Soils Spatial Data, and Quantitative Plant Tolerances. Agric. Sci. China J. 4(9):660-667. National Alfalfa & Forage Alliance. 2018. Winter Survival, Fall Dormancy & Pest Resistance Ratings for Alfalfa Varieties. https://www.alfalfa.org/pdf/2018_Variety_Leaflet.pdf.
Tall Fescue for the Twenty-first Century
  • Cssa Asa
  • Madison Sssa
Chapter 3, pp. 33-47. In: H. Fribourg, D. Hannaway & C. West (eds.). Tall Fescue for the Twenty-first Century. Agronomy Monographs 53. ASA, CSSA, SSSA, Madison, WI.