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Abstract

This research provided new helpful insights for cosmetics marketers about their consumer preferences regarding visual elements of their hairstyle, skin care, and makeup products. A quantitative research approach was adopted using the survey research design and used a questionnaire tool to achieve the research objectives. Data were collected and analyzed from 130 female cosmetics respondents. Previous research studies from academic journals, articles, and books were also used as secondary resources. The findings showed that cosmetics consumer behaviour was, in fact, affected by the visual elements of the cosmetics package designs and thus affected the consumers' purchase intentions. Moreover, material and colours of the hairstyle, skin care, and makeup products packages were proved to be of high importance with respect to the level of attractiveness and affected consumers' preferences.
The effect of the Cosmetics Packaging Design on consumers’ purchase decisions
Nada Bahgat Abdelazim Mohamed, Irene García Medina and Zahaira González Romo
Nada Bahgat Abdelazim Mohamed
Researcher at Business Management Department
Glasgow Caledonian University, Cowcaddens Road, Glasgow G4 0BA, Scotland, UK
NMOHAM202@caledonian.ac.uk
Nada Bahgat Abdelazim Mohamed (M.Sc) researches and teaches advertising and
marketing at graduate level. Previously, she was appointed as Lecturer at MSA
University (Egypt). Her interests include consumer buying behaviour and packaging
design.
Irene García Medina
Lecturer at Business Management Department
Glasgow Caledonian University, Cowcaddens Road, Glasgow G4 0BA, Scotland, UK
Irene.Garcia2@gcu.ac.uk
Dr. Irene García Medina hols PhDs in Marketing (University of Sophia - Antipolis,
France) and International Relations (University of Vienna, Austria). Currently she is a
Lccturer in Marketing at the Caledonian University of Glasgow (UK). Her interests
include: mobile marketing and digital marketing. She has given lectures, seminars and
workshops in the field of marketing and advertising in several countries.
Zahaira González Romo
Lecturer at Communication Department
Universitat Internacional de Catalunya, Immaculada 22, 08017 Barcelona, Spain
zfgonzalez@uic.es
Dr. Zahaira González Romo holds a Ph.D in Advertising and Public Relations from the
Autonomous University of Barcelona, Spain. Currently she is a Lecturer of Advertising
and Public Relations at the Universitat Internacional de Catalunya. Her interests
include: digital communication, social media and e-branding. She has published
numerous articles and books in these areas.
The effect of the Cosmetics Packaging Design on consumers’ purchase decisions
This research provided new helpful insights for cosmetics marketers about
their consumer preferences regarding visual elements of their Hairstyle, Skincare
and Makeup products in particular. A quantitative research approach was adopted
using the survey research design and used a questionnaire tool to achieve the
research objectives. Data was collected and analysed from 130 female cosmetics
respondents. Previous researches such as academic journals, articles and books
were also used as secondary resources. The findings showed that cosmetics
consumer behaviour is in fact affected by the visual elements of the cosmetics
package designs and thus affects their purchase intentions. Moreover, material and
colours of the Hairstyle, Skincare and Makeup products packages were proven to
be of high importance regarding the level of attractiveness thus consumers’
preferences.
KEYWORDS
Visual elements, Cosmetics package design, Mode of purchase, Consumers’
purchase intentions.
1. INTRODUCTION
This research purpose was to provide an understanding of the impact of the
visual elements of Cosmetics package designs on consumers buying intentions, with an
emphasis on the influence of the mode of purchase (in store/online) on consumers’
perception of the product packaging design. The importance of the results of this study
lies in the opportunity it gives marketers to make strategic changes regarding their
products package design in relation to the mode of purchase. The research aimed to
provide clear understanding about the effect of in store and online shopping on the
influence of product packaging design towards consumers purchase processes.
Moreover, to create an attractive package design based on consumers’ preferences,
which is an effective marketing tool at the point of purchase that encourages consumers
to make the purchase decision.
2. RESEARCH BACKGROUND
First impressions and physical appearances also matters in the product
choices of consumers as well, people normally feel the urge to obtain objects that
have appealing appearances (Adofo, 2014). For Cholewa-Wójcik and Świda
(2015) “[…] the visual aspect of the packaging is a certain form of language that
should lead to attracting the consumer’s attention to the product, then decode the
message, generate interest, trigger purchase decision and leave a long-lasting
positive connotation”. The aim of this study was to analyze the consumer
perception of the visual aspects of selected chocolate collectible wrappers with the
use of eye-tracking method. The subsidiary aim was to examine the reactions and
acceptance of modern consumers to visual aspect of the chocolate wrappers
offered on the market in the 70ties and the 80ties of the 20th century, in which the
graphic design was not directly connected with the product. When Consumers
observe a package design of a product, they do not only form an impression about
the packaging design but also about the product and the brand as well (Grundey,
2010). In many cases consumers’ value judgements of products are based on
attractive packaging designs, hence a link is formed between an attractive package
and satisfied/well-thought purchase decisions (Lo, Tung, and Huang, 2013).
Packaging acts as a brand identifier to consumers it also serves as a powerful
marketing tool that requires the same focus, attention and techniques used in other
forms of marketing to get the maximum benefit of combining all tools together
(Simmonds and Spence, 2016).
2.1. Packaging powerful role as a marketing tool
The marketing role of product packaging in recent literature was intensively
mentioned, and the usage of product packaging within the marketing communications
strategies of brands. For instance, Altmann (2014) suggested that the delivery of the
product “packaging”, Is just as vital as the house it comes from “brand”. From a
marketing perspective a number of studies discussed the indicators of success of a brand
through the strength of its marketing strategy, and in particular packaging designs
strategies (Gelici-Zeko, 2012; Ahmed, Parmar and Amin, 2014; Mohebbi, 2013;
Magnier, Schoormans and Mugge, 2016). As it is considered an effective form of in-
store advertising, which was proven to be even of higher efficiency than regular
advertising forms due to enhancing the product at point of purchase, which triggers the
consumer buying intentions in addition to promoting the product every time the
consumer uses it (Altmann, 2014).
Moreover, packaging has an influential role as a sales assistant within stores
(Grant, Barichello and Fitzpatrick, 2015), regarded as an “important component of our
modern lifestyle, and a significant element of the branding process” (Shekhar &
Raveendran, 2013), Grant et al (2015) also has identified the package design to be the
“silent sales-man” who attracts consumers more than other communication tools. The
previous studies have a clear correlation with Rundh (2013) study that indicated the
importance of the usage of package designs as a sales person on shelves that identifies
brand. Gelici-Zeko (2012) suggested the use of product packaging to exploit its
influence in generating intended consumers’ expectations towards the product and the
brand overall.
These intended expectations arouse with colour, material shape, words and
images of the product packaging that gives the product semiotic significance. Rundh
(2013) added to Gelici-zeko’sstudy that expectations of consumers do not end by the
purchase decision, however it even extends to later experiences of consumers that
arouse later during the usage of the product package for other purposes after the
purchase is done and the product is used.
The personality of a product is shaped by its package design which is correlative
with the brand’s overall identity, as the package design displays the uniqueness of a
product and a brand, once the consumer is attracted by a certain package design and
thus the brand, an interpretation of the brand identity is shaped hence the product
packaging could be the shortest route to forming the brand equity (Wardy, Chonpracha,
Chokumnoyporn, Sriwattana, Prinyawiwatkul, and Jirangrat, 2017).
Packaging plays a huge role in forming brand preferences, Baruk and Iwanicka
(2017) latest study agreed with the previous studies and added that due to our constant
consumption era consumers expectations is becoming more and more of high
importance as it is never fully met. This provided marketers with a great benefit, which
is creating rapid market offers that could benefit consumers by meeting their rapidly
changing needs and benefit their brands as well.
Product packaging design was declared as the most important factor that
interacts with consumers face-to-face and increases brand’s positive image thus
increases the retail performance (Aday & Yener, 2014). Therefore, marketers have to
declare the correct packaging elements that target their consumers emotionally and
mentally. According to Lee and Hoffman (2016) Packaging elements could be
categorized in two main categories visual and informational elements. The visual
elements consist of graphics, colours, fonts, size and shape of the package. The
informational elements which are the facts labelled on products regarding its usage and
about technologies/ingredients used in the package or the product (Lo, Tung and Huang,
2013).
The studies of Baruk and Iwanicka (2017) consistently found that the attraction
caused by the likeness of particular colours of a package design was usually a strong
determination of the purchase decision whether positive or negative. It was concluded
that a colour of a brand is directly related to the brand name and brand equity (Aday &
Yener, 2014).
The creation of new innovative package designs helps in shaping a
differentiation from the competitors of the brand. Gelici-zeko (2013) added that within
the competitive environment nowadays marketer’s face, the most important marketing
tool to overcome this challenge is the usage of the product package design to persuade
people at the point of purchase in stores where products were presented on the shelves.
Consumers became more involved with the packaging of the product as they
interact with it to view information or to read instructions regarding the product (Gelici-
zeko, 2013). Marketers benefit from the role of packaging in maintaining the
positioning of the product due to the minimal costs of this role, as advertising expenses
costs more.
Another important role packaging performs through its positioning role is the
impact packaging has on branding (Mohebbi, 2014). Branding is a company’s most
important assets, the value added to a name of a brand is what all companies aspire to
achieve. Recent studies agreed upon the several roles of packaging in marketing
ranging from creating awareness using attractive innovative designs, identifying brand
and creating its competitive edge (Rundh, 2013).
2.2. Cosmetics packaging designs and its influence
Given the nature of this study, which focused on the effect of the cosmetics
products on consumer behaviour and the effect of the mode of purchase, relevant
studies of cosmetics packaging were reviewed. However, the marketing literature lacks
in-depth studies regarding this topic. The focus was on the packaging views in general
and on the consumer rather than the unique nature of packaging (Simms & Trott, 2010).
However, the effect of beauty packaging design particularly is very powerful as it acts
as an advertisement of the product inside the pack, the beauty products packages links
the design to the brand image and the consumer lifestyle. For instance, packages of
certain makeup colours and hair products usually set brands apart and was a major
factor of differentiation among the millions of beauty products (Penning, 2012).
In the cosmetics market whether hair products or Skin care, products compete in
similar package forms and the differentiation is harder for marketers than other
packages. This is because some shampoos for instance are already different in their
components and that a package design would not add a great distinction. However later
a study by Penning (2012) argued that due to the fact that the cosmetics products
particularly hair and skin were usually different, and this was why a unique package
design that stands out is crucial to communicate its distinction to consumers.
Few Studies revealed the effects of Cosmetics package design on consumer
behaviour. For instance, Khan (2015) findings stated that consumers were affected by
the attractiveness of the packaging and were influenced by the package design due to
the colours of the packaging of nail polish products influenced the consumers buying
intentions and perception of the brand which was later supported by other studies (Javed
& Javed, 2015; Rundh, 2016; Yang and Lee, 2016). For Azeema, Jayaraman, and
Kiumarsi, (2016) the packaging of perfumes plays a “vital role” in the
consumers'preference and attraction but curiously they find there are no discrimination
between branded and non-branded perfumes as long as the quality is maintained.
However other studies argued that the importance of informational elements on
the package design of cosmetics products were as important as the visual elements
(Mohebbi, 2014; Silayoi and Speece, 2007) For instance packaging information on
Skincare products that provide consumers with essential information regarding the
usage, ingredients and others.
3. METHODOLOGY
This research aims to deepen the understanding of the effect of the visual
elements of Cosmetics packaging designs and the mode of purchase on consumers
purchase decisions
Research objectives are:
a) Identify visual aesthetic elements of Cosmetics packaging design that
influence Consumers’ buying behaviours.
b) Identify whether Consumers perceptions of the aesthetic elements of
Cosmetics packaging design are influenced by the mode of purchase (in store /
online)
c) To consider the implications and differences of the mode of purchase whether
in store or online on consumers’ perceptions towards the aesthetic elements of
cosmetics packaging design
d) To provide insights to cosmetics manufacturers and marketers about the
elements of Cosmetics packing design that attracts consumers in store and
online.
3.1. Data collection and data analysis
A total of 130 qualified Questionnaires were collected and analysed using the
online survey over a period of two weeks in March 2017, due to the fact that the
questionnaire was designed only for Female Cosmetics consumers which demanded
more time than a usual online survey takes. This gave a total sample size for this study
of 130 questionnaires which is an applicable sample size for this particular topic which
aimed to deepen the understanding of existing theories (effect of packaging designs) in
relation to specific situations (mode of purchase).
The survey was the only quantitative method used, as mentioned above that this
study applied the mono-quantitative method. The questionnaire consisted of 28
questions and the results of the questionnaires helped to reach the main aim and
objectives of the study shown and provided suggestions for cosmetics marketers to help
improve consumers’ positive perceptions of their brands in the future.
4. FINDINGS
The findings of the survey are presented in a thematic structures method;
findings were divided into three main themes. Findings were also analysed and
compared to previous research outcomes and finally analysed to form possible rational
speculations that the findings suggested.
4.1. Cosmetics consumer behaviour
The questionnaire was designed to discuss a very important and vital issue,
which is the consumer behaviour of cosmetics shoppers in particular. This issue was
implemented through the design of questions (4, 5, 8,9,10 and 18). In question four
respondents were asked about the time they usually spend during shopping in a makeup
store, 46.88% said that they spend from 15-20 minutes shopping, and 37.50% said that
they spend more than 20 minutes in the store.
In addition, when consumers were asked whether they are capable of
differentiating cosmetics brands just from their packaging designs in question 18; the
majority of respondents with a percentage of 88.37% said that they could differentiate
products depending only on their packaging designs. While the majority of the
respondents confirmed their ability to identify the brand, using only the packaging
design they also said that they spend more than 15-20 minutes when making their
purchase decisions during their cosmetics shopping.
These also echo the findings of Adofo (2014) which stated the importance of
packaging regarding the moment of purchase behaviour of the consumer. As consumers
tend to generate evaluations of the products while viewing them on shelves next to
competitors, the packaging design is the most powerful tool to persuade consumers with
a certain product given its brand identifier and differentiator roles (Karimi, Mahdieh,
and Rahmani, 2013).
Question 5 of the questionnaire asked respondents of the possibility in which
they enter the store to buy a certain product however ends up buying other products as
well; results showed that 54.26% of respondents stated that it occurs quite often while
shopping. In addition to a percentage of 43.41% stated that the occurrence of such act
happens always while shopping in a cosmetics store.
Moreover, questions 8, 9 and 10 asked consumers about the aspect they view as
the most attractive regarding a Hairstyle, Skin care and Makeup product respectively, all
results are presented below in Table 1.
Categories
Results
Hairstyle
44.96% chose Quality aspect as the most attractive, while
38.76% chose the Packaging,13.18%chose Convenience and
only 3.10% chose Price as the most attractive aspect
Skincare
44.96% of the respondents said they value the Quality of the
product as the most attractive aspect, and 38.76% of the
respondents chose Product packaging design, followed by a
percentage of 10.85% who preferred Convenience and finally
5% chose Price as the most attractive aspect.
Makeup
41.86% chose Quality and 39.53 % of the respondents chose
Product Packaging, in addition to a percentage of 10.85 %
which chose Convenience and finally 7% of respondents
chose Price as the most attractive aspect
Table 1: Most attractive aspect of products (Questions 8, 9 and 10)
These results associated together supported the idea of the powerful effect of
packaging that could be used by marketers to generate more impulse purchases from
consumers. Considering the results from questions 8,9 and 10 respectively product
packaging design was chosen with high percentages ranging between 38.76%, 32% and
39.53% of respondents, regarding their opinion of the most attractive aspect of a Hair
style, Skin care and Makeup product respectively. These percentages suggest that
product packaging design is a very attractive aspect that could trigger consumers to
purchase the product; the packaging is one of the most vital factors in forming the brand
identity as it tells the story and defines the brand.
These findings were in line with previous studies that identified packaging as
one of the powerful triggers of impulse shopping, for instance Yang and Lee (2016)
stated that above 50% of consumers switch between brands due to in-store marketing.
In addition to Rundh (2005) findings that stated the possibility of product packaging
design to trigger the four types of impulse buying such as reminder impulse buying or
suggestion impulse buying when consumers thought they have already determined what
to purchase however after entering the store they are triggered to purchase other
products as well.
4.2. The effect of Visual elements
The questions were designed to provide an understanding of the value of the
visual elements such as the package colour and material. Questions 6 and 7 in the
questionnaire were designed to ask participants about their own opinion regarding the
importance of the visual elements of the cosmetics package design. For instance,
Question 6 asked consumers about the most attractive factor in a cosmetics product
design. 40.31% said that the package material is the most attractive factor while 36.43%
said that the colour of the package attracts them the most, 12.40% said that the size and
shape of the package attracts them most and only 10.58% said that the image placed on
the package attracts them most.
These findings were in line with those of previous studies which stated the
importance of the material and colour of the package design in the formation of a
positive image of the product and brand in consumers’ minds (Karimi, Mahdieh, and
Rahmani, 2013;. Aday & Yener, 2014). However, these findings contradict with those
of Penning (2014) that stated the importance of consumers to view the image of the
product placed on the package as it gives them a sense of assurance about the product.
On contrary, this was the least factor chosen by the respondents.
In question 7 respondents were asked to rate the cosmetics packaging attributes
according to their importance in making their purchase decisions. Package
attractiveness came in number one, and then Package aesthetics followed by package
functionality in third place. Package originality and elegance were rated forth by equal
percentages. Respondents stated that the package attractiveness is the most important
factor that influences their purchase intention when they are shopping in a cosmetics
store.
Question 17 of the survey asked respondents to rate 4 lipsticks without knowing
the brands and depending just on the package design of the lipsticks. The four lipsticks
shown in Figure 1 presented were (A) Urban Decay lipstick with an average price of
£16, (B) Dior lipstick with an average price of £25, (C) L’Oréal lipstick with an average
price of £5 and finally (D) Clinique lipstick with an average price of £12. Surprisingly
figure (A) and (B) were ranked similarly last. However, figure (B) the Dior lipstick is
the most expensive lipstick shown.
Figure 1: Lipsticks brands (Question 17)
However, a possible explanation for this could be that this particular lipstick was
not very popular among the young age group that was the highest range of respondents
in this questionnaire. Respondents rated figure (C) the L’Oreal lipstick as the highest
quality although it was the least expensive lipstick, it seems possible that this particular
finding is due to the clever usage of the Colour element and visual attractiveness by the
brand L’Oreal as the gold colour usually transmits a high quality thorough the
assumption that it looks more expensive than others. This issue is in line with
Altmann’s (2014) findings regarding the powerful effects of colours of the package
design through the messages it could be sent through the correct colour.
Based on questions 6, 7 and 17 in which their findings revealed that the most
attractive factor of a product package is the material then the colour of the package and
the most important aspect in product package that would trigger consumers purchase is
the packaging attractiveness. In addition to question 17 findings where consumers chose
the least expensive lipstick as the highest quality lipstick due to their dependency on the
package design alone, it can therefore be assumed the importance of visual elements of
the cosmetics package design and its effect on consumer’s purchase intentions.
Due to the importance of the material and colour of the Cosmetics package
design the questionnaire had certain questions designed particularly to deepen the
understanding of the effects both elements. As mentioned before in question 6 those
were the two most attractive elements based on the respondent’s answers.
First, the cosmetics packaging material of Hairstyle, Skincare and Makeup
products was discussed in questions 14, 15 and 16 respectively. Plastic was the common
preferred material by respondents throughout the three categories by a percentage of
61.72% in Hairstyle products, 59.69% in Skincare products and 58.91% in the Makeup
category. The second most preferred material in the three categories was Glass with a
percentage of 16.4% in Hairstyle and 22.48% in both of Skincare and Makeup
categories.
These Findings seem to consistent with those of Aday and Yener’s (2014) that
stated the fact that consumers usually tend to prefer user friendly material that is super
practical in addition to its resistance to any sort of damage such as breakage. Moreover,
there is a relation between questions 14, 15 and 16 and questions 8,9 and 10,
convenience was chosen as the third most attractive aspect of a Hairstyle, Skincare and
Makeup Products by 13.18% in hairstyle products, and 10.85% in both Skincare and
makeup product. These findings show the reason why plastic was chosen with a high
percentage due to its convenient yet attractive look that transmits an image of a good
quality product.
Consumers were asked to choose the most attractive Colour for a Hairstyle,
Skincare and Makeup product respectively. In the Hairstyle category, respondents chose
the Brown Colour as the most attractive colour by a 61.24%, the White colour was
chosen by respondents by a percentage of 58.91% in the Skincare category and finally
in the Makeup category 60.47% chose the black Colour.
These findings might partly be explained through the psychology of colours
demonstrated by Roberge (2016) in his study that clarifies the usage of colours in
packaging. In his study, he suggested that the brown colour, which was chosen for the
Hairstyle products,is usually used by companies that indented to show its products as
organic, safe and comforting products to use which is applicable for hairstyle products
as consumers prefer to use organic ingredients when styling their hair.
These finding might possibly be directly related to the meaningful messages of
colours, which was discussed, by Javed & Javed (2015), their study stated the
importance of Colours that have the capability to boost a products sale while the usage
of wrong colours could lead to the product’s failure. In addition, the influence of
Colours arouses the interest to purchase and motivate consumers to try other products as
well.
4.3. The Mode of purchase (Online/In-store)
Finally, yet importantly the questionnaire was designed to tackle the mode of
purchase issue to reach the objectives. Questions aimed to reveal the relationship
between the mode of purchase and consumers’ perception of package design of
cosmetics product and the reason behind their purchase behaviours.
Interestingly it was found that a majority of 78.91% preferred buying cosmetics
in-store and 21.09% preferred buying online.
Moreover, when asking respondents to agree or disagree with several statements
the results were as follows: In question 20 a majority of 79.07% strongly agreed with
the statement that said that they feel assured when doing cosmetics shopping In-store
more than Online. In question 21 a percentage of 51.56% and 27.34% strongly agreed
and agreed respectively with the statement that said that they get more attracted by price
offers when shopping online more than in-store.
In question 22 respondents with a percentage of 53.91% and 27.34% agreed and
strongly agreed respectively with the statement that mentioned how consumers do not
like taking risks when shopping online and prefer to buy their trusted brands.
However, surprisingly in question 23 which stated that consumers usually get
influenced by product packaging design online, and make the purchase decisions just
because of the package design. This found an agreement with a majority of 52.34%.
Finally, in question 24 a majority of 51.16% and 35.66% strongly agreed and agreed
respectively with the statement that said that they prefer buying makeup products in
particular in-store to try samples on first.
Before getting into in-depth analysis of the above results, it would be more clear
if the other remaining questions discussing the main theme are presented. For instance,
in question 25 respondents were asked about the most attractive visual design that could
trigger them to purchase online, and question 26 asked the exact same however this time
for when shopping in-store.
In the results of question 25 (Online shopping) a majority of 67.19% chose the
“Visualisation of product usage” element and for question 26 (In-store shopping) a
majority of 55.81% chose an appealing appearance. Moreover, in question 28 when
respondents were asked what was the most common reason they would like to buy
different brands online and In-store, 42.06% of the respondents said that it was due to
the variety of products available while 34.58% said that the most common reason was
time saving.
These findings showed how the vision sense of consumers is the most dominate
sense and as a result, this should be used by manufacturers in their product packages
designs.
Hence, the findings of question 25 that the majority of consumers chose the
most important factor as a visualisation of product usage is supported also by Silayoi
and Speece (2007) in their study that stated the importance of presenting the packaging
design visually as one of the most vital communication elements. However, when
consumers were asked about the most attractive factor of a cosmetics design in-store the
majority said the appealing appearance.
5. DISCUSION
This article aimed to deepen the understanding of the effect of the visual
elements of cosmetics package design and the mode of purchase on consumers buying
decisions. The findings of the study were analysed and discussed in relevance to
previous research findings and regarding the related objectives intended to achieve the
main aim.
5.1. Cosmetics Consumer behaviour regarding Packaging attributes
The first objective of this study was to identify the visual elements of cosmetics
packaging design that influence consumers’ buying decisions. Based on the findings of
this study, cosmetics consumers chose the material of the packaging to be the most
attractive factor in a cosmetics product and the second most attractive was the colour of
the package design.
Moreover, consumers rated the package attractiveness as the most important
attribute of a cosmetics packaging that could affect their purchase decisions. Finally,
when cosmetics consumers ranked a group of four lipsticks without knowing their
brands and depending only on the packaging design, they ranked the least expensive as
the highest quality because its golden packaging looked sophisticated. Thus, this finding
suggests that packaging designs forms an image of the brand and its quality.
Despite its exploratory nature, this study offers some insight into a new model
which suggests that, the usage of the correct and preferred material based on the target
consumers’ preference, this will lead to the product’s attractiveness which as mentioned
above is the most attractive attribute according to consumers’ opinions. Thus this will
lead to the formation of a positive brand image based on a perception of a high quality
product, hence this will lead to an increase in the purchase intentions of consumers and
finally this will lead to the increase of sales and profits which according to Neubauer
(1973) is what business and marketing is all about.
5.2. Mode of purchase effect on consumers’ perceptions of the packaging
aesthetic elements
The second and third objectives of this study were to identify whether
consumers’ perception of aesthetics elements are influenced by the mode of purchase.
Moreover, to consider the implications of these different effects on consumers’
perceptions towards the aesthetics elements of the cosmetics package design. This study
has shown that in fact consumers’ perceptions of the visual elements of the cosmetics
package design are different when they shop online and in-store.
Based on the previous analysis, consumers stated that the most attractive visual
design that influences their purchase decisions is the presence of the visualisation of the
product usage on the package. On the other hand, their most preferred visual design
attribute when shopping in-store was the appealing appearance of the product that will
attract them.
Hence, this study extended our knowledge of the influence of the visual designs
based on the different implications of the mode of purchase. According to the findings,
as well consumers stated that they felt more assured when shopping in-store this could
be explained as a reason why they preferred a visualisation of the product usage online
to feel more assured about their purchase decision.
6. MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS
The fourth and last objective of this study was to provide insights to cosmetics
manufacturers and marketers about the elements of cosmetics packaging design that
attracts consumers in-store and online. As this study showed how the mode of purchase
could affect consumers’ perception of the attractiveness and thus importance of the
visual elements of cosmetics designs.
Moreover, this study has provided other insights such as the preferred colour and
material of the package design of Hairstyle, Makeup and Skincare products due to
cosmetics consumers. In addition, these findings of this study showed that cosmetics
consumers prefer to shop so that they can see the products and try samples of them.
Based on the findings of this study, it can be concluded that the visual elements
of cosmetics packaging have proven to be of great importance to consumers while they
are shopping either in-store or online. From this, visual packaging attributes such as
material, colour, appealing appearance and visualisation were identified as the most
influential attributes that affects consumers purchase intentions.
7. LIMITATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
A possible weakness of this study is that only 130 respondents were consulted.
However, due to the time restraints this sample frame was the most applicable to form a
generalisation for the purpose of writing this article. Although the objectives and main
aim of this study were achieved, possibly another limitation was the mono-method
research strategy used in this study, which depended only on the survey strategy using
the questionnaire tool. Other research directions might be used in the future to provide a
diverse analysis that depends on the variation of cosmetics consumers’ opinions based
on a qualitative method or a mix of both quantitative and qualitative methods.
Due to the nature of qualitative research, it usually provides a more in-depth
analysis and demonstrates the reasons behind the answers provided in the questionnaire.
However, given the time and budget of this study it could be argued that the sample size
and the mono-method research strategy could be used to form adequate generalised
findings.
Suggestions for future research include: 1.) the use of a mixed methodology of
both quantitative and qualitative research strategies; 2.) The use of a cross-cultural
study that would determine if these findings differ from one country/ culture to another;
3.) The use the longitudinal time horizon instead of Instead of a cross-sectional design.
This would provide a long period for them to observe the relationship between the
visual elements of cosmetics design, the mode of purchase and cosmetics consumers
purchase intentions.
Continued efforts from cosmetics marketers and manufacturers are needed to
ensure the effectiveness of their packaging designs and the extent to which these
package designs influence consumers’ perceptions. In addition, the importance of visual
elements and how they relate to the mode of purchase could be taken into consideration
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