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Persea Americana Mill. or Avocado is a tropical native American fruit. It belongs to the Lauraceae family. The name 'Avocado' has been derived from the Aztec word 'ahucatl'. 'Alligator pear' and 'butter fruit' are its' alternative names. It has been traditionally cultivated for food and medicinal purposes due to its high nutrition content as well as for its therapeutic properties. The predominant carotenoid in Avocado is Lutein. α-carotene, β-carotene, zeaxanthin, neoxanthin and violaxanthin are the other carotenoids present in small quantities in it. Avocado plant and their seed, fruit, pulp, avocado oil part use for various type of activity as cosmetic, refined cooking oil, weight management program, heart disease, stroke and cancer.
Gupta et al., J Adv Sci Res, 2018, 9 (2): 04-11 4
Journal of Advanced Scientific Research, 2018, 9 (2), Nov-2018
Journal of Advanced Scientific Research
Available online through
Shiv Kumar Gupta*, Prateek Singhal, Anuradha Singh, Ritu Chauhan, Babita Kumar
Sanskar College of Pharmacy & Research, NH-24, Opp. Jindal Pipes Ltd. Ghaziabad, (U.P.), India
*Corresponding author:
Persea Americana Mill. or Avocado is a tropical native American fruit. It belongs to the Lauraceae family. The name
‘Avocado’ has been derived from the Aztec word ‘ahucatl’. ‘Alligator pear’ and ‘butter fruit’ are its’ alternative names. It
has been traditionally cultivated for food and medicinal purposes due to its high nutrition content as well as for its
therapeutic properties. The predominant carotenoid in Avocado is Lutein. α-carotene, β-carotene, zeaxanthin,
neoxanthin and violaxanthin are the other carotenoids present in small quantities in it. Avocado plant and their seed,
fruit, pulp, avocado oil part use for various type of activity as cosmetic, refined cooking oil, weight management
program, heart disease, stroke and cancer.
Keywords: Perseaamericana, Avocado, amrican fruit, nutritional value
The earliest archaeological evidence of this fruit dates
back to 8th century BC, where its seeds were found
buried with a mummy, in Peru. Since then it has been
used for the treatment of scabies, dander and ergotism by
Mexican folk and Saint Antonius, respectively, in ethno
medicine. It was also used by women in the form of an
ointment and also for treating skin eruptions. During the
mid-1800’s, the cultivation of Persea Americana spread
across Asia. The genus Persea constitutes of 150 species,
out of which 70 are grown in the warmer regions of
North of Central and South America. Its other entire
species are cultivated in east and Southeast Asia [1-4].
The predominant carotenoid in Avocado is Lutein. α-
carotene, β-carotene, zeaxanthin, neoxanthin and
violaxanthin are the other carotenoids present in small
quantities in it. Tocopherols have also been identified in
its acetone extracts [5, 6]. It has been reported that these
lipophilic carotenoids may have potential anti-
carcinogenic effects [4]. A compound, persin, isolated
from Avocado leaves has been used to carry out the
induction of apoptosis in human breast cancer cells [7].
The hepatoprotective capacity of Avocado fruit due its
flavonoid and phenolic content has been reported [8].
The growth of prostrate cells lines in vitro, was inhibited
by Avocado extract which contained tocopherols and
carotenoids [9]. Addition of Avocado to salads and salsa
increases carotenoid absorption by the body [10].
The most common commercial variety is the Hass
Avocado [11]. The nutrients and phytochemicals present
in one-half of Avocado (68g), according to the NHANES
analysis is a given in Table 1 [12,13].
Persea Americana Mill. or Avocado is a tropical native
American fruit. It belongs to the Lauraceae family. The
name ‘Avocado’ has been derived from the Aztec word
‘ahucatl’. ‘Alligator pear’ and ‘butter fruit’ are its’
alternative names. It has been traditionally cultivated for
food and medicinal purposes due to its high nutrition
content as well as for its therapeutic properties.
The genus Persea avocado belongs to member of laurel
family (Lauraceae). It is related to cinnamon tree,
camphor & sassafras. Avocado cultivated in US consider
representing single species Persea Americana study show it
Review Article
Gupta et al., J Adv Sci Res, 2018, 9 (2): 04-11 5
Journal of Advanced Scientific Research, 2018, 9 (2), Nov-2018
derived from two species. P. americana Mill. & P.
Gratissima, Gaerth. All of varieties classified horticulturally
as belonging to West Indian & Guatenalan races are of
this species. It is common avocado of tropical American
lowlands. P. drymifolia, cham & chlecht.(P. Americana var.
Drymifolia Mez). This include small avocado of Mexican
highland, now grown in California chile& in southern
france, Italy &Algeria .
Kindom : Plantae
Unranked : Angiosperm
Unranked : Magnoliids
Order : Laurales
Family : Lauraceae
Genus : Persea
Species : P. americana
Synonym : Lauruspersea L.
Leaf : leaf blade are multiform shape, lanceolate, elliptic,
lanccolate elliptic, oblong elliptic, oval, ovate & obovate.
Base acute or truncate. Length of blade range between 3-
4 inches. Botanically a large berry that contain a single
seed. On shallow soil they may not reach more than 30
feet in height while on deep moist clay loams they reach
60 feet.
The two species from which cultivated avocado derived
closely alike in many respect:
1. By smell of crushed leaf
2. P. Drymifolia posses aromatic odor that of anise or
sassafras which P. Americana lack
3. Flower of P. drymifolia typically more pubescent &
under leave surface more glaucous than P. americana
4. Fruit also distinct having a thin almost membranous
skin in former species & thick leathery or brittle skin
in latter
5. P. drymifolia smaller leaves than P. Americana [14, 15].
There are three known varieties or horticultural races of
avocado and these are the Mexican, Guatemalan and the
West Indian Types. The Mexican types thrive in
Mediterranean climate and are native to dry subtropical
plateaus. The Guatemalan types are native to cool, high
altitude tropics while the West Indian variety thrives in
humid, tropical climates [16]. There are now many
hybrids resulting from cross-breeding of these three
varieties and also from the selection of certain favorable
attributes. The three varieties can be differentiated from
each other using various attributes as provided in Table
Table 1: Different Varieties of Avacado with their properties
Main Attribute
Specific Attribute
Properties by Varieties
Oil content
Maturity ( Month)
The avocado has various uses as a natural cosmetic, with
advantages in rapid skin penetration, and as a superior
natural sunscreen. Avocado oil has several culinary and
health benefits. The greater use of whole fruit has
important advantages: usefulness in human weight
control, high nutritional density, source of major
antioxidants, stroke prevention, fruit protein source,
fiber source; as baby food, and other dietary benefits.
Increasing recognition of unhealthful consequences from
additives, preservatives, processing, and artificial
products generally gives the avocado a major advantage as
a food and also as a cosmetic. With increasing concern
for the environment, an added plus for avocado
cosmetics is that they are biodegradable. Consumers are
beginning to favor basic, natural ingredients. Swisher
(1988) discusses use of the avocado as a skin moisturizer,
cleansing cream, makeup base, sunscreen, lipstick, bath
oil, and hair conditioner. Toxicological tests of avocado
oil products have provided an official health/safety
assessment. In skin care, the two major advantages of the
avocado are its marked softening and soothing nature and
its notable absorption.
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3.1. Avocado Oil
Avocado oil is predominantly monounsaturated, a
property which is thought to confer distinct health
benefits. The avocado as a refined cooking oil has
additional advantages [17].
1. It is unusually light, so it mixes well with other foods.
2. It has a mild, delicate flavor, which enhances and
brings out the flavor of other foods, instead of
dominating them such as olive oil and other oils.
3. Avocado oil withstands a high cooking temperature
before breaking down, i.e., its "smoke point" is about
255C (490F), which is much higher.
Fried foods presently have an undesirable health
reputation, but use of avocado oil could change that.
3.2. Whole fruit pulp
This is by far the most important human use of the
avocado and will constitute the remainder of this article.
We will look at several nutritional qualities which
sometimes overlap. Avocado can be a helpful part of a
successful weight-management program. It brings several
1. Its monounsaturated fat speeds up the basal metabolic
rate, as compared with saturated fat.
2. Its high fat content gives a quicker feeling of satiation
("fullness"), thus helping to reduce overeating.
3. Its high fat content makes an overall sound diet more
palatable, reducing the temptation to binge on foods
high in sugars or saturated fats.
Its rich supply of vitamins and minerals also makes the
diet more wholesome and satisfying and thus more
conducive to overall health and to moderation in
3.3. Avocado plant as Nutraceuticals
Avocado’s role in weight control is its "rich supply of
minerals and vitamins". More important than a food's
calorie content is its total nutritional contribution to
human needs. A good measure is nutrients per calorie.
Different avocado analyses have given somewhat variable
results. The most detailed publication is that of Slater et
al. (1973) [18]. Their data indicate that one half of a
'Hass' avocado, about 80 g edible fruit, provides a
substantial percentage of the daily nutritional needs of a
child aged 7 to 10 (adult percentages are generally a little
lower, especially iron for females) (Table 2).
The avocado contains little vitamin B 12 and calcium,
limited zinc and modest phosphorus. Its half-a-fruit quota
of riboflavin and thiamine for children is about 9.5 and
8%, respectively, hence about equal to its relative calorie
contribution. But the striking thing is that no less than
eight essential nutrients are apparently present in about a
2:1 calorie ratio. All three additional nutrients,
potassium, copper and pantothenic acid, are also
estimated to be present in avocado at about twice the
calorie content. Per calorie, the avocado is indeed
remarkably nutritious.
Table 2: Percentage of daily nutritional need of a
7-10 year child supplied by half an avocado
% supplied
Vitamin A
Vitamin C
Vitamin E
Vitamin B6
Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) is important for the nervous
system, red blood cells, teeth and gums. Most of the
Americans consume too little of vitamin B6, among good
sources they list watermelon and banana (overlooking
avocado). Polansky and Murphy (1966) [19] compared
the 86 content per unit weight of 26 vegetables and
fruits. For total chromatographed 86' banana and avocado
had the highest amounts, the remaining 24 vegetables had
from 1/5 to 1/25 of the amount of the avocado, with
watermelon 1/6. A more recent report by William
Sears, M.D., privately printed Nature's Guide to First
Foods"(1988) [20] reports that avocado has three times as
much B6 per g as banana.
Cultivars vary somewhat but the dominant 'Hass' is about
2.4% protein on a fresh weight basis [18]. This is
unusually high for a fruit. The avocado is a "complete
food" in terms of protein, containing all 9 essential amino
acids, although not in the ideal proportions.
Literature reveals that "fiber has emerged as a leading
dietary component in chronic disease prevention [21].
High fiber intake lowers the risk for cardiovascular
disease, some cancers, hypertension (high blood
pressure), diabetes, and obesity. For some disorders, a
mixture of both soluble and insoluble fiber appears to be
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most beneficial. Another compared the fiber content the
avocado had large amounts of both soluble and insoluble
fiber (it had, respectively, 2.1 % and 2.7% by fresh
The avocado is a mild-bland, oil-rich, nutrient-rich
deliciously-flavored food. This combination gives it an
exceptionally diverse range of dietary advantages. Just in
terms of usage alone, the avocado can be served as an
hors d'oeuvre, soup, salad, dip, sandwich spread, garnish,
half-shell spoon-out, entree, dessert, or beverage with
various kinds of use in each category. Such eating
versatility makes it easy to increase consumption in order
to gain greater benefit from its numerous advantages to
the human diet. Our analyses (unpublished) indicate that
the linolenic oil content of the 'Hass' avocado averages
just over 21 %, only the content of the mono unsaturated
fat oleic acid was higher.
3.4. Avocado plant as Anti-Ageing agent
The University of California at Berkeley Wellness Letter for
October, 1991 [22], discusses the basic role of oxygen
for human cellular energy and for life, but notes that an
inevitable by-product of this activity is the formation of
highly reactive "free radicals." These unstable
troublemakers can affect various cell constituents:
perhaps artery walls or LDL cholesterol advancing
coronary heart disease; eye lens tissue causing cataracts; a
critical gene leading to cancer; perhaps arthritis; or DNA
(the genetic material) causing gradual deterioration and
aging. The human body has two main defences against
these free radicals: enzymes and other blood compounds
that depend on trace minerals and good general nutrition
and three potent antioxidants vitamins C, E, and beta
carotene (vitamin A precursor). An article in the June,
1991, issue of the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
indicates that only about 57% of non-smokers may be
getting enough vitamin C daily (for smokers the deficit is
much greater). All above concluded that most of us are
not getting enough vitamin E. A number of nutritionists
have called for greater consumption of beta carotene
As we have discussed, the avocado provides about twice
as high a proportion of our daily needs for the above
three antioxidant vitamins as its calorie proportion.
Recall also that the avocado is rich in copper and iron,
two mineral constituents of antioxidant enzymes.
Nutritionists usually recommend that we get our needs
met from basic food rather than from supplements. And
while the risk of colon cancer, for example, has been
associated with fat consumption, the Harvard Health Letter
for March, 1991, reported that while meat indeed
increased that risk sharply, there was no association with
plant fat. Thus, eating avocados could be an enjoyable
way to help protect ourselves against cancer, heart
disease, arthritis, and eye cataracts; it may even delay the
processes of aging.
3.5. Avocado plant in Stroke prevention
Heart disease, cancer and stroke are the three leading
causes of death in the United States. Dr. Tobi is quoted
as suggesting that bachelors may die earlier than married
men because they have fewer balanced diets, specifically
insufficient in potassium. Prevention magazine for August,
1987, reported the results of a 12 year study of stroke
entitled "Potassium was the key.", conducted jointly by the
Schools of Medicine of the University of California San
Diego and Cambridge University in England. A 40%
reduction in stroke risk was associated with an average
daily increase in potassium consumption of about 400
mg, the amount supplied by less than half an avocado!
Moreover, blood pressure, a stroke factor, was linked in
the same article to potassium-sodium imbalance, namely
to a sodium excess. The avocado has about 52 times as
much potassium as sodium.
Finally, avocado chief foods that are very high in
monounsaturated fats, while being comparatively low in
both polyunsaturated and saturated fats. An Italian
epidemiological survey of 4,903 people found that while
both monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat were
associated with lower blood cholesterol as compared
with saturated, only monounsaturated fat was also
associated with lower blood pressure [23].
3.6. Diabetes
A report shows a 4-week comparison of individuals on
the traditional type II diabetic's diet of low fat-high
carbohydrate with those on a diet lower in carbohydrates
and higher in monounsaturated fat (the dominant kind in
avocados). The monounsaturated diet offered better
control of blood sugar levels, accompanied by lower
triglycerides and higher HDL ("good" cholesterol).
However, this needs confirmation, including more
careful monitoring. Moreover, there is a report that
avocado has an odd sugar type that depresses insulin
production. Diabetics probably should consume avocados
cautiously [24, 25].
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3.7. Avocado plant as Baby food
Dr. William Sears notes that avocado is "one of the first
fresh fruits a baby can enjoy." It is a time-saver, served
raw. "Low in sodium and cholesterol-free, avocados
contain [many] valuable nutrients". For example, "Ounce
for ounce, avocados contain more potassium than 45
other fruits, juices or vegetables... and they are one of
the only fruits or vegetables which contain
monounsaturated fats, essential for baby's development.”
In an interview with the California Grower, Dr. Sears
stated, "When you think about it ...avocados are an ideal
first food for infants. Avocados have a delicate flavor and
a smooth, creamy consistency which makes them a
perfect food for babies. Avocados provide infants with
more vitamin B1, B2, niacin, folacin, potassium and
magnesium per 1 5 gram serving than any of the other
frequently recommended fruits and vegetables [and are
second to the highest in several other vitamins and
minerals.]" [20].
Seventy years earlier, long before these dietary details
were understood, Pasadena nurseryman D. W. Coolidge
addressed the annual meeting of what was then the
California Avocado Association: "The fruit of the avocado
is about the most tasteful and nourishing that grows out
of the ground The strongest people physically and
mentally, the happiest and most beautiful children, will
be those who make the avocado, instead of meat, their
daily diet. I have often marvelled how babies and very
young children take [26, 27].
Use of Avocado in traditional herbal medicine can be
attributed to its pharmacological activity [28]. The
summary of the Pharmacological activities is described in
Table no. 3.
4.1. Analgesic effect
It has been reported that administration of 1600 mg/kg
an aqueous leaf extract of Avocado was able to reduce the
writhing in mice induced by administration of acetic acid,
by 57%. It could also increase the threshold of pain by
87.2% upon administration of 800mg/kg as noted by the
hot plate test and inhibit both phases of formalin induced
pain in a dose-dependent manner. These results were
similar to those obtained after administration of drugs
like acetylsalicylic acid and morphine for the mouse
writhing assay and hot plate test respectively. The results
along with the inhibition of formalin induced pain
indicated the analgesic effect of the extract on mice.
Table 3: Pharmacological Activities of Avocado plant and its parts
Plant Part
Anti Inflammatory
Aqueous Extract
Aqueous Extract
Anti convulsant
Aqueous Extract
Anti Diabetic
Hydroalcoholic extract
Aqueous Extract
Vaso relaxant
Aqueous Extract
Anti-ulcer activity
Aqueous Extract
reduces the very-low density
chloroform-methanolic extracts
Avocado oils with unsaponified
(E,Z,Z )-1-Acetoxy-2-hydroxy-4-oxo-
Wound Healing
Fruit Extract
Inhibit Platelet Aggregation and
Prevents Thrombus Formation
Bioactive Compounds
Type 1 Diabetes
Oral Administration
Liver Regenerant
As dietary supplement
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4.2. Anti-inflammatory activity
Anti-inflammatory activity of the extract was observed
upon its use in mice with Carrageenan induced edema, as
it resulted in reduction of swelling. Moreover, no
toxicity symptoms in mice were found even after
administration of 10g/kg of extract [27].
4.3. Anticonvulsant Activity
Avocado was found to possess anticonvulsant Activity as
it antagonized seizures induced in mice by administration
of the drugs, viz. pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and
picrotoxin (PCT). The anti-convulsant property of the
extract can be attributed to its ability to enhance the
neurotransmission and/or action of GABA in the brain
4.4. Anti-Diabetic Activity
The anti-diabetic activity of hydroalcoholic extract of
Avocado leaves on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats
has been reported. Upon administration of the extract,
reduction in blood glucose levels (hypoglycemia) has
been observed. In addition, treatment of rats with the
extract of Persea Americana resulted in an increase in the
phospho-PKB expression in the soleus muscle. The
activation of this enzyme leads to the translocation of the
GLUT-2 molecule from the cytoplasm to the cell
membrane in the uptake of glucose [31, 32].
4.5. Hypercholesterolemia
It has also been found that administration of aqueous leaf
extracts to rats with hypercholesterolemia caused a
decrease in the levels of plasma glucose, total cholesterol
and LDL and a significant increase in the HDL levels [33].
4.6. Vasorelaxant properties
The vasorelaxant properties of aqueous leaf extract of
Avocado on isolated rat aorta has been investigated. A
significant vasorelaxation in aorta has been observed due
the synthesis of endothelium derived relaxing factors
(EDRF’s) and the release of prostanoid. The treatment of
the aorta with the extract also reduces vasoconstriction,
the probable reason for it being the inhibition of Ca2+
influx through calcium channels [34].
4.7. Anti-ulcer activity
Aqueous leaf extract of Avocado consisting of alkaloids,
flavonoids, saponins and tannins produced significant
dose-dependent anti-ulcer activity when administered
orally to sick rats (rats pre-treated with ulcerogenic
drugs- indomethacin and ethanol [35].
4.8. Anti-platelet and Anti-thrombic activity:
Avocado has acetogenin compounds which are
responsible for anti-platelet and anti-thrombic activity.
Platelet aggregation and thrombus formation occur
during ischemic diseases.
4.9. Lowers LDL
Avocado oil also reduces the very-low density lipids
(VLDL), low density lipids (LDL) levels without
affecting the high density lipids (HDL) levels in sick mice
4.10. Anti-diarrheal property
The anti-diarrheal property of bioactive compounds
present in Avocado seeds has been reported.
Administration of chloroform-methanolic extracts of
these seeds to castor oil induced diarrheal rats caused
significant reduction in wetness of feces in a dose-
dependent manner. Also, the LD50 values of the extracts
were found to be lower than 5000mg/kg body weight of
the rats. This attested the safety of the extracts with only
a remote chance of acute toxicity [37].
4.11. Osteoarthritis
A mixture of unsaponifiables of soyabean and Avocado
oils, which constitute a 4rug known as piascledine, has
been used to effectively treat osteoarthritis. The drug
enhanced the synthesis of collagen and proteoglycan and
decreased the synthesis of fibronectin. The drug also the
inhibited the release and activity of metalloproteinases
and pro-inflammatory cytokines which play a major role
in the development of osteoarthritis. Within two years
of drug administration, reduction in pain and analgesic
drug demands in patients was found. Also, radiological
evaluation of patients revealed delayed joint destruction.
Other studies have also confirmed the beneficial effects
of Avocado unsaponifiables in the treatment of
osteoarthritis [38-42].
4.12. Anti-Fungal Property
A compound- (E,Z,Z )-1-Acetoxy-2-hydroxy-4-oxo-
heneicosa-5,12,15-triene has been isolated from Avocado
fruit. This compound was found to exhibit anti-fungal
property against the fungal pathogen Colletotrichumgloeo
sporioides by inhibiting spore germination. Seed extracts
of Avocado have also shown to be toxic towards other
fungal pathogens like Candida sp, Cryptococcus neoformans.
Another study has shown that a topical cream consisting
of mixture of Avocado oil, tea tree oil, emu oil and
jojoba oil inhibited the growth of the canine skin
pathogens - Staphylococcus pseudintermedius and
Malasseziapachy dermatis and could be used as an
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alternative for the commonly used antibiotic and anti-
fungal agents [43, 44].
4.13. Wound Healing Properties
The wound healing properties of the Avocado fruit
extract has been confirmed. The topical or oral
administration of the fruit extract in wounded rats
resulted in the complete epithelialization of the wound.
Other parameters like rate of wound contraction and
hydroxyproline content of tissues along healing with
histological observations also indicated the wound healing
property of Persea Americana [43].
4.14. Platelet Aggregation
Avocado pulp contains bioactive compounds which
inhibit platelet aggregation and prevents thrombus
formation. Thus a diet supplemented with Avocado pulp
can be beneficial for patients suffering with ischemic
diseases. The anti-platelet and anti-thrombic activity of
Avocado has been confirmed [44].
4.15. Type 1 Diabetes
Administration of Avocado oil attenuates the alteration in
electron transfer in rat kidney mitochondria caused by
type 1 diabetes [45].
4.16. Antioxidants
Antioxidants in the Avocado oil reduce the formation of
ROS in the damaged mitochondria. The beneficial effects
of Avocado oil as a dietary supplement, over control of
metabolic illnesses, based on the evidence that the oil
positively affected hepatic markers in sucrose fed rats
(which had altered hepatic markers) has been reported. It
also results in liver regeneration [46].
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... The differences between studies may be due to the factors discussed previously for the antioxidant activity. This study also used the pulp of fruits considered inadequate for sale or rejected for quality control reasons and which, if they were included as inputs in the food industry, would present other types of compounds related to beneficial effects in the organisms that consume them, such as fatty acids and essential amino acids (Gupta et al., 2018). In recent years, studies have been completed which formulate animal diets containing avocado by-products or paste with a low quality, or which do not comply with the characteristics with the required characteristics for marketing. ...
... In aquaculture, there is a study reported in which avocado by-products were included in a diet for tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and their antioxidant properties improved (Jiménez-Ruiz et al., 2019). As in previous studies, this study also used the pulp in the by-products studied, out of which the importance of including them in the diets of the fed organisms has already been mentioned (Gupta et al., 2018). This study becomes relevant by showing that the time of use of the stored avocado paste can be extended when there are, for example, high levels of waste of this fruit depending on the different harvest times among regions. ...
... Se ha reportado también que los subproductos de aguacate obtenidos de la cáscara y semilla presentan mejores propiedades antioxidantes que la pulpa del fruto debido a la mayor concentración de compuestos fenólicos que poseen, por lo que pueden ser utilizados para fines alimenticios y farmacéuticos (Wang et al., 2010;Rodríguez-Carpena et al., 2011). Aun así, la pulpa comestible presenta propiedades antioxidantes, además de proveer con su inclusión en los subproductos cantidades considerables de ácidos grasos y aminoácidos esenciales (Gupta et al., 2018). Durante su producción y procesamiento el aguacate puede sufrir daños físicos, ya sea por compresión, roces y golpes, lo cual disminuye la calidad del fruto y no logra cumplir con las especificaciones deseadas por el comprador. ...
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During the harvest, processing, and distribution of avocado (Persea americana Mill.), a large amount of waste (peel, seed, and pulp) is produced, which has proven to have antioxidant properties and this by-product might be used as input within the food production chain. This study evaluates the lipid oxidation, antioxidant capacity and phenolic compounds of two pastes made with avocado by-products (with seed: PS and without seed: PWS) during 60 d stored under refrigeration. On the results obtained, an analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed, followed by the Tukey’s test (p ≤ 0.05). The lipid oxidation was controlled in both pastes and was even reduced during storage. In the PS, the antioxidant capacity declined, although it remained high and very similar to the PWS towards the end of the storage. The concentration of phenolic acids increased during most of the time of storage. Although PWS displayed better results with two of the analyses performed, both pastes were considered to have important antioxidant characteristics, which remained during the refrigerated storage. Due to this, its potential use in the production of foods is inferred, particularly for animals such as cattle, pigs, in aquaculture, or even in the cosmetics industry.
... It has been used for the treatment of scabies in traditional medicine. 6 The avocado pear common in Nigeria is a fruit with single seed. The avocado is assumed to have originated from Central America. ...
... It has a fat content of about 88% of the total calories, and this is nearly 20 times the average for some other fruits. 6 A typical 200 gm avocado may contain as much as 30 gm of fat, out of which 67% are monounsaturated fats i.e. health promoting. 8 ...
... Avocado oil are used for various types of traditional medicine practices such as cosmetics and facial treatment, as well as weight management program. 6 It is also used for the treatment of various health conditions including diabetes and hypertension amongst others. These uses are based on its antioxidant, minerals and vitamin potentials. ...
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Most African communities consume various edible fruits, which are important to their well-being. Some of these edible fruits are indigenous and were well-known to the rural communities. These indigenous fruits can be collected from the wild or planted in home gardens and also as intercrops with staple crops. Some indigenous fruits, wild collection is still practiced, especially in parts of eastern, western and southern Africa. However, some fruits are still imported. A casual verbal survey indicated that many people in the general population do not know that actual differences in nutritional values between these fruits. Therefore, this study was a critical review of some fruits using the USDA database. Results show, for instance, that guava has over 250% vitamin C relative to orange. Avocado yields more calories than banana and this is very likely due to the fat/fibre ratio difference. Further, the imported cucumber and watermelon do not seem to have any advantage over the indigenous products. It concluded that the hidden potential of these indigenous fruits needs to be advanced and exploited to improve their consumption as they play a pivotal role in health economics of healthy dietary habit and self-management of ill-health.
... Currently, the seed represents an under-utilized resource and a waste issue for avocado processors. The avocado pear seeds are discarded in the majority of countries, although in some countries such as Niger Republic, it is consumed [20]. This waste may represent an ecological or human contaminant. ...
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The physiochemical properties, phytochemical content, and fatty acid profile of Avocado pear (Persea americana) pulp and seeds oils were investigated. The pulp oil was extracted using the hot water flotation method while the seed oil was extracted by the soxhlet extraction method. Extracted oils were analyzed. The pulp oil was emerald green while the seed oil was brownish red in colour. Pulp oil has significantly higher blue (27B) on Lovibond scale. The oil yield, smoke point and flash point of the pulp oil were 28.26%, 171.00 °C and 201.67 °C respectively. Which were higher than 13.64%, 100.00 and 130.66 °C seen in the seed oil. Iodine value, FFA, peroxide value and saponification value of the pulp oil were respectively 50.70 g/100 g, 0.53%, 1.10 mEq/kg and 218.66 mgKOH/g while those of the seed oil were 40.68 g/100 g, 2.85%, 2.16 mEq/kg and 198.31 mgKOH/g respectively. Saponins, alkaloid, phenol, tannin, and oxalate content of the seed oil were significantly higher than those of the pulp oil, with respective values of 12.23, 1.06, 5.06, 3.05 and 10.07 mg/100 g. Flavonoid was however higher in the pulp oil, at 6.20 mg/100 g. avocado pulp oil contained 43.23% oleic acid, 19.78% linoleic acid. It contains only 35.31% total saturated fatty acids. The seed oil was shown to contain 55% palmitic acid, as the predominant saturated fatty acid and contained a total of 69% saturated fatty acids. It is recommended that avocado seed oil be refined before use for culinary purposes.
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The projection of world population growth with concurrent generation of large volumes of agro-industrial waste that negatively affect the environment is of great concern. Therefore, this review article describes the nexus between concepts of Circular Bioeconomy, Zero Waste Technology, Sustainable Development, Biorefineries, and alternatives and research efforts to generate less environmental impact. A brief analysis of the Ecuadorian industry and exports is described, emphasizing the fact that, to improve the Ecuadorian trade balance, it is necessary to increase industrial competitiveness. It is important to have emerging technologies and innovation in order to promote the replacement of fossil-derived raw materials with renewable raw materials and develop more environmentally friendly processes and industries. This paper analyses the state of biomass research and its transformation in Ecuador, together with current pretreatment research on biomass to obtain bioproducts and biofuels in a biorefinery that promotes clean production for the extraction of phytochemicals using green solvents, such as deep eutectic solvents; and technologies to recover high-value added materials with enhanced properties. In conclusion, the need to develop technologies and markets to commercialize high value-added products coming from biorefineries is highlighted, as this will increase the income both in rural and urban areas and will strengthen the productivity and profitability of the Ecuadorian agroindustry. Our goal through this analysis is to improve Ecuador's trade balance while also contributing to the circular bioeconomy that promotes sustainable development.
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The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of ascorbic acid for smokers was recently increased from 60 to 100 mg. To determine whether this new RDA for smokers is sufficient to reduce the risk of low serum ascorbic acid (AA) concentrations (LoC) to the same concentration as nonsmokers, we analyzed the dietary intakes and serum concentrations of AA in 11,582 adult respondents in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1976-1980). Serum AA concentrations and the risk of LoC (serum ascorbic acid levels less than 23 mumol/L) for smokers consuming different amounts of AA were compared with those for nonsmokers whose AA intake exceeded the RDA (60 mg). Serum AA concentrations were reduced, and risk of LoC increased, in smokers maintaining AA intakes greater than 60, 100, and 150 mg. Only smokers consuming greater than 200 mg AA/d had serum ascorbate concentrations and risk of LoC equivalent to nonsmokers meeting the RDA.
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In addition to a number of deleterious effects on cellular integrity and functions, diabetic metabolic milieu has been implicated in a rapidly growing number of alterations in signal transduction. In this review we focus on Akt kinase physiology, its alterations in diabetes mellitus (DM), and on the emerging role of this signaling system in the pathophysiology of diabetic microvascular complications. Studies focusing on Akt in diabetes suggest both decrease and increase of Akt activity in DM. Alterations of Akt activity have been found in various tissues and cells in diabetes depending on experimental and clinical contexts. There is convincing evidence suggesting defective Akt signaling in the development of insulin resistance. Similar defects, as in insulin-sensitive tissues, have been reported in endothelia of DM Type 2 models, possibly contributing to the development of endothelial dysfunction under these conditions. In contrast, Akt activity is increased in some tissues and vascular beds affected by complications in DM Type 1. Identification of the role of this phenomenon in DM-induced growth and hemodynamic alterations in affected vascular beds remains one of the major challenges for future research in this area. Future studies should include the evaluation of therapeutical benefits of pharmacological modulators of Akt activity.
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Dietary lipids are hypothesized to be an important factor for carotenoid bioavailability. However, most carotenoid-rich fruits and vegetables are low in lipids. The objective of this study was to assess whether the addition of avocado fruit as a lipid source enhances carotenoid absorption in humans. Healthy subjects (n = 11/study) were recruited for 2 crossover, postprandial studies. The effect of avocado addition (150 g) to salsa on lycopene and beta-carotene absorption was examined in Study 1, and the absorption of lutein, alpha-carotene, and beta-carotene from salad in Study 2. Furthermore, the effects of avocado dose (75 vs. 150 g containing 12 vs. 24 g lipid, respectively) and of lipid source (avocado fruit vs. avocado oil) on carotenoid absorption were examined in Study 2. Intact carotenoids were quantified in the plasma triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein (TRL) fraction during the 9.5 h after consumption of the test meal and expressed as baseline-corrected area under the concentration-vs.-time curve (AUC). The addition of avocado to salsa enhanced lycopene and beta-carotene absorption (P < 0.003), resulting in 4.4 and 2.6 times the mean AUC after intake of avocado-free salsa, respectively. In Study 2, supplementing 150 g avocado or 24 g avocado oil to salad similarly enhanced alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, and lutein absorption (P < 0.01), resulting in 7.2, 15.3, and 5.1 times the mean AUC after intake of avocado-free salad, respectively (150 g avocado). Neither the avocado dose nor the lipid source affected carotenoid absorption. In conclusion, adding avocado fruit can significantly enhance carotenoid absorption from salad and salsa, which is attributed primarily to the lipids present in avocado.
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Phytochemicals have provided an abundant and effective source of therapeutics for the treatment of cancer. Here we describe the characterization of a novel plant toxin, persin, with in vivo activity in the mammary gland and a p53-, estrogen receptor-, and Bcl-2-independent mode of action. Persin was previously identified from avocado leaves as the toxic principle responsible for mammary gland-specific necrosis and apoptosis in lactating livestock. Here we used a lactating mouse model to confirm that persin has a similar cytotoxicity for the lactating mammary epithelium. Further in vitro studies in a panel of human breast cancer cell lines show that persin selectively induces a G2-M cell cycle arrest and caspase-dependent apoptosis in sensitive cells. The latter is dependent on expression of the BH3-only protein Bim. Bim is a sensor of cytoskeletal integrity, and there is evidence that persin acts as a microtubule-stabilizing agent. Due to the unique structure of the compound, persin could represent a novel class of microtubule-targeting agent with potential specificity for breast cancers.
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Avocado (Persea americana) oil is rich in nutrient waxes, proteins and minerals, as well as vitamins A, D and E. It is an excellent source of enrichment for dry, damaged or chapped skin. This study aimed to evaluate the wound-healing activity of fruit extract of Persea americana in rats. The effect of topical and oral administration of Persea americana fruit extract (300 mg/kg/day) on excision and dead space wound models was evaluated. The rats used in the excision wound model were divided into four groups of five each and received either topical or oral treatment. The rats used in the dead space wound model were divided into two groups of five each and were treated orally. Healing was assessed by the rate of wound contraction, period of epithelialisation, granulation tissue weight and hydoxyproline content. In the excision wound model, complete healing (full epithelialisation) was observed on average on day 14 in the rats who receive oral or topical treatment. In contrast, the controls took approximately 17 days to heal completely. The extract-treated wounds were found to epithelialise faster than the controls (p < 0.001). Wet and dry granulation tissue weight and the hydroxyproline content of the tissue obtained from extract-treated animals used in the dead space wound model were significantly higher (p < 0.05) compared with the controls. Rate of wound contraction, epithelialisation time together with the hydroxyproline content and histological observations support the use of Persea americana in the management of wound healing.
Ethnopharmacological relevance: The leaves of Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae) have been popularly used in the treatment of diabetes in countries in Latin America and Africa. Aim of the study: To investigate the hypoglycaemic properties and to determine the molecular mechanism by which the hydroalcoholic extract of the leaves of Persea americana reduce blood glucose levels in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in rats via the enzymatic pathway of protein kinase B (PKB/Akt). Methods: The hydroalcoholic extract of the leaves of Persea americana (0.15 and 0.3g/kg/day), vehicle and metformin (0.5g/kg/day) were administered orally to STZ-diabetic rats (n=7/group) for 4 weeks. Changes in body weight, food and water intake, fasting glucose levels and oral glucose tolerance were evaluated. Phosphorylation and the expression of PKB in the liver and soleus muscle were determined by Western blot. Results: The hydroalcoholic extract of the leaves of Persea americana reduced blood glucose levels and improved the metabolic state of the animals. Additionally, PKB activation was observed in the liver and skeletal muscle of treated rats when compared with untreated rats. Conclusion: The results indicate that the hydroalcoholic extract of the leaves of Persea americana has anti-diabetic properties and possibly acts to regulate glucose uptake in liver and muscles by way of PKB/Akt activation, restoring the intracellular energy balance.
The effect of aqueous and methanolic leaf extracts of Persea americana on plasma glucose, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-CHOL), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-CHOL) in rats was investigated. Albino rats were fed a diet containing 20% groundnut oil, 0.5% cholesterol, and 0.25% cholic acid to induce hypercholesterolemia. They were then treated daily with aqueous or methanolic extract of P. americana leaf (10 mg/kg of body weight) for 8 weeks. There were no significant (P > .05) differences in the overall body weight gain of the hypercholesterolemic rats compared to normal control. Liver to body weight ratio, plasma glucose, total cholesterol (T-CHOL), and LDL-CHOL levels were significantly (P < .05) elevated in rats fed hypercholesterolemic diet compared to normal controls. The administration of aqueous and methanolic leaf extracts of P. americana induced reductions in plasma glucose (16% and 11%,respectively), T-CHOL (8% and 5%, respectively), and LDL-CHOL (19% and 20%, respectively) in the treated rats compared to the hypercholesterolemic controls. Also, plasma HDL-CHOL concentrations increased by 85% and 68%, respectively, in the aqueous and methanolic extract-treated rats compared to the hypercholesterolemic controls. These results suggest that aqueous and methanolic leaf extracts of P. americana lower plasma glucose and influence lipid metabolism in hypercholesterolemic rats with consequent lowering of T-CHOL and LDL-CHOL and a restoration of HDL-CHOL levels. This could represent a protective mechanism against the development of atherosclerosis.
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