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Assessing other-directed, lighthearted, intellectual, and whimsical playfulness in adults: Development and initial validation of a short form of the OLIW using self- and peer-ratings
Abstract and Figures
Adult playfulness is an individual differences variable that allows people to (re-)frame everyday situations in a way to make them entertaining, stimulating, and/or interesting. Recently, a structural model with four facets (i.e., Other-directed, Lighthearted, Intellectual, and Whimsical; OLIW) and a subjective measure with 28 items have been developed. The main aim of this study is to test a 12-item short form (OLIW-S). In Study 1, we retrieved the 4-factorial OLIW structure in three independently collected samples (N = 1,168, 696 self-ratings and 166 dyads providing reciprocal self- and peer-ratings). We found satisfactory psychometric properties for research purposes, and there was convergent and nomological validity with external measures of playfulness and the Big Five personality traits. Data from Sample 3 showed robust self-other agreement in all facets (.27-52). In Study 2, N = 463 adults completed the OLIW-S and a measure for personality pathology (PID-5; shared variance 12-31%). A Principal Component Analysis of the OLIW-S and PID-5 scales yielded two unique factors representing playfulness and personality pathology. Overall, our expectations were widely met and the OLIW-facets could be well located in comprehensive systems of both personality and personality pathology. Applications of the OLIW-S (e.g., large-scale assessments; zero-acquaintance studies) are discussed.
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