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ANTI-AGEING NATURAL HERBS: A SYSTEMIC REVIEW

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Indian Research Journal of Pharmacy and Science; Editorial; A. Chakraborty
et.al
Sept’18
Ind Res J Pharm & Sci|2018: Sept.: 5 (3)
1589
ANTI-AGEING NATURAL HERBS: A SYSTEMIC REVIEW
Atyurmila Chakraborty*, Mitali Sahoo, Saumendu Deb Roy, Ramesh Kumari Dasgupta
Dept. of Pharmacognosy, Bharat Technology, Uluberia, Howrah
ABSTRACT: Skin is the largest organ of the integumentary system. The overall well-being& perception of health
in humans, very much depends on skin health & beauty. Skin plays a vital role in immunity& protects the body
against pathogens, maintains water and electrolyte balance & also regulates body temperature. Epidermis is the
protective covering over the body surface which serves as a barrier to infection. Thinning of this epidermal layer,
loosening of collagen & elastic fiber, leads to the wrinkle formation and causes ageing. Ageing occurs due to the
intrinsic factors like genetics, cellular metabolism, hormone & metabolic process or extrinsic factors like sun
exposure, smoking, diet and pollution. In this era of modern science, people choose natural herbs rather than plastic
surgery or laser therapy for not only looking younger but also to reduce complications. Herbs help in biological
functioning of the skin & supplies nutrients required for healthy skin. Herbs contain several phytochemicals like
carotenoids, terpenoids, polyphenols which possesses anti-aging activity. A few herb which shows anti-aging
activity includes, Aloe, Cucumber, Ginseng, Honey, Wheat, Liquorice, Arjuna, Jatamansi etc.
KEYWORDS: Herbs, Anti-aging, Skin, Phytochemicals
Corresponding Author: Atyurmila Chakraborty
E-Mail: milachakraborty1996@gmail.com
Phone: +91-8617390669
REVIEW
Submitted on: 12.08.18; Revised on: 19.08.18; Accepted on: 28.08.18
Indian Research Journal of Pharmacy and Science; 17(2018)1589-1598
;
Journal Home Page: https://www.irjps.in
DOI: 10.21276/irjps.2018.5.3.4
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INTRODUCTION:
Ageing is an unavoidable process for all living
organisms. Ageing phenomena starts from the
moment of our birth and is markedly visible on the
skin in progressive years. Based on increased life
expectancy, it is estimated that there will be over 1.2
billion older adults (over 60 years old) worldwide in
2025.
1
Ageing is at least partially attributed to an age
related increase in weakness and immunosenscence
and perhaps mitochondrial dysfunction.
2
Maintenance of the physical function in older adults
is therefore a major public and clinical priority. In
humans the skin is the tissue most markedly affected.
Skin is a protective barrier against the external
environment. Its function is to regulate temperature,
fluid balance & to protect from harmful microbes and
UV radiation in sunlight. Two types of skin ageing
exist: age-dependent/chronological ageing and
premature ageing/photoageing. Photoageing is caused
by extrinsic factors and includes signs such as a
leathery appearance, dark/light pigmentation and
deep furrows.
Natural ageing is visible as wrinkling
of the skin. The skin is divided into three layers; the
epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous tissue.
3
The extracellular matrix (ECM) is the outermost part
of the skin and is composed of fibroblasts and
proteins including collagen and elastin. After the age
of 20, its symptoms appears as the collagen content
per unit area starts decreasing, there is 1% decrease
in collagen content per unit area of the skin every
year. The ECM provides a structural supporting
structure which is essential for growth and elasticity
of the skin and plays an important role in the
maintenance of physiological functions of the body.
Degenaration of the ECM has directly been linked to
skin ageing and is correlated with an increase in
activity of certain enzymes involved in skin ageing,
which includes hyaluronidase, elastase and
collagenase. Collagen is one of the major building
blocks of the skin, which is responsible for the
elasticity and strength of the skin and maintains its
flexibility. Hyaluronic acid performs a role in
retaining the moisture of the skin, as well as its
structure and elasticity. It also facilitates the
exchange of nutrients and waste products and is
participating in rapid tissue proliferation,
regeneration and repair. With ageing, collagen,
elastin and hyaluronic acid levels declines, leading to
a loss of strength and flexibility in the skin which
results in visible wrinkles associated with the
thickened epidermis, mottled discoloration, laxity,
dullness and roughness of the skin.
4
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important
role in many cellular mechanism . When UV
radiation is absorbed by the skin, it leads to enhanced
ROS generation and induction of oxidative stress.
Oxidative damage may lead to lipid peroxide
formation, mitochondrial and DNA damage, and
protein and gene modification which change protein
structure and function. High levels of ROS lead to the
activation of hyaluronidase, collagenase and elastase,
which can further contribute to skin ageing.
5
The enzyme angiotensin 2 also plays a vital role in
photoaging of skin as it involved in healing wounds
and scar formation, appearance of scars leads to
wrinkles. So by using angiotensin converting enzyme
(ACE) inhibitors which prevent the conversion of
angiotensinogen (inactive) to angiotensin (active) we
can decrease the effect of angiotensin 2 induced skin
ageing and wrinkles.
The modern science and technology provides plastic
surgery, laser rejuvenation, and many more invasive
techniques. Noninvasive techniques do not involve
any risks or complications and mostly free of side
Indian Research Journal of Pharmacy and Science; Editorial; A. Chakraborty
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effects as compared to the invasive techniques which
are more painful and laborious. Over the last decade,
there has been an increase in the use of herbal
extracts in cosmetics to reduce the ageing process.
The extracts of Aloe Vera, Amla, Turmeric,
Cucumber, Ginseng, Honey, Wheat, Liquorice,
Arjuna, Jatamansi are extensively used in herbal
cosmetic industries due to their skin beneficial
properties.
6
MECHANISM OF SKIN AGING
Extrinsic skin ageing:-
This is caused by environmental factors, such as
exposure to the sun rays, repetitive facial expressions,
gravity, sleeping positions and smoking.
7
Extrinsic
ageing is caused by chronic exposure to UV light, so
it is also known as photoageing.
8
Extrinsic skin
ageing is a collective process and depends mostly on
the degree of sun exposure and skin pigment. With
chronic skin exposure to UV rays, the stratum
corneum layer of skin thickens, the epidermis is
damaged and there is progressive dysplasia with
cellular atypia and anaplasia, reduction in collagen
and degradation of elastic fibres.
9
a. Membrane/ nuclear signaling:-
UV irradiation provokes reactive
oxygen species (ROS) which repress the
activity of enzyme protein tyrosine
phosphatase κ. This enzyme maintains
cell surface receptors of skin, including
receptors for epidermal growth
factor(EGF), interleukin (IL)-1,
keratinocyte growth factor and tumour
necrosis factor (TNF)-α in an inactive
(hypophosphorylated) state.
10
Activated
receptors impel to intracellular
signaling through stimulation of the
stress-associated mitrogen activated
protein (MAP) kinases p38 and c-Jun
amino terminal kinase (JNK). Kinase
activation induces the transcription of
MMPs (matrix metalloproteinase) and
decreases expression of the procollagen
I and III and TGF-β receptors, with
afinal outcome of reduced dermal
matrix formation and hence, it reduces
the synthesis of collagen.
11
Fig.1: Nuclear Signaling
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b. Mitochondrial damage :-
Mitochondria are cellular organelles
that generate energy (ATP) by
compelling oxygen. UV effect on the
mitochondria electron transport chain
produces abundant ROS that can
damage mitochondrial DNA
(mtDNA).The mitochondrial genome
encodes 13 components of the electron
transport chain and oxidative damage
may be foremost to deletions or
rearrangements of the DNA, most likely
due to double-strand breaks which may
affect mitochondrial ability to generate
energy for the cell. It is inferred that the
consequent decrease in mitochondrial
function photodamaged skin leads to
additional accumulation of ROS and
further compromises the cell’s ability to
initiate energy.
12
Fig. 2: Mitochondrial damage.
c. Protein oxidation :-
Oxidative damage can also affect
proteins and photodamaged skin.
Oxidative protein impair may result in
loss or gain of activity (i.e. enzymes),
loss of structural protein function and
increased/decreased susceptibility to
degradation.
13
d. Telomere :-
Telomeres are tandem repeats of a short
sequence TTAGGG. It exists in a loop
configuration. Telomeres become
critically short when these loop is
disrupted by cell division or UV
irradiation. During cell division
telomeres cap (the terminal portion of
chromosomes, preventing the fusion of
telomeres with each other) cannot be
replicated, so the bases of the telomeres
caps are lost with each cell division and
finally enters a state of senescence or
apoptosis. When telomeres are damaged
by UV irradiation the loops
configuration becomes disclosed and
through interaction with the protein
activates the tumour suppressor protein
p53 and other proteins which
responsible for DNA damage and also
induces senescence or apoptosis.
14
Indian Research Journal of Pharmacy and Science; Editorial; A. Chakraborty
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Fig.3: Telomerase induced skin aging
Intrinsic skin ageing: -
Intrinsic skin ageing, also known as natural ageing
mostly found in sun protected area. It is due to the
passage of time or by the inherited gene, therefore
also termed as chronological ageing. Basically the
molecular machanisms of both the type of skin
ageing (extrinsic and intrinsic) are similar, for
example shortening of telomeres, mutations of
mitochondrial DNA, oxidative stress, genetic
mutations and decrease of many hormone levels.
According to the free radical theory of ageing, ROS,
chiefly commencing from oxidative cell metabolism,
play a notable role in both chronological ageing and
photoageing. ROS influence the transcription factor
c-Jun via MAPK (mitrogen activated protein
kinase).Intrinsic skin ageing as same like extrinsic
ageing and collagen is degraded present in
intrinsically aged skin similar to photoaged skin.
12
Hormonal changes can also alter intrinsic skin
ageing. The exhibition of sex hormones in the
gonads, the pituitary and adrenal glands already
gradually decline in the mid-twenties. The hormone
oestrogen and progesterone start decreasing during
menopause. In particular, the imperfection in
oestrogens and androgens cause dryness, wrinkling,
epidermal atrophy, collagen breakdown and loss of
elasticity.
15
NATURAL HERBS USED FOR ANTI-
AGEING:-
Herbal cosmetics play a leading role in impeding and
reversing ageing of skin. Ingredients present in herbal
cosmetics impact biological functions of skin and it
also provide required nutrition for healthy skin. It
has been estimated that more than 50% of all the
drugs in the world are natural products and their
derivatives, and plant-based health remedies are
promising. The application of herbal anti ageing
products has been proliferated to many folds in
personal care practices. The recent trends in anti-
ageing skin care products is focussed on developing
new plant extracts and botanical ingredients based on
their traditional medicinal uses which leads to the
emergence of several cosmoceuticals that prevent
wrinkles and protect the skin from any kind of
unwanted symptoms.
17
Indian Research Journal of Pharmacy and Science; Editorial; A. Chakraborty
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NA TURAL ANTI_AGING HERBS
14 , 15 , 16
AL OE V ERA
Biological Source: Aloes are the dried juice of
leaves of Aloe barbadensis, belonging to the family
Liliaceae.
Phyto-constituents: All the varieties of aloe are the
major sources of anthraquinone glycosides. The
principal active constituent of aloe is aloin, which is a
mixture of glycosides, among which barbaloin is the
chief constituent. Along with barbaloin, the drug also
contains isobarbaloin, β- barbaloin, aloe-emodin and
resins.
Ro le i n Anti-ageing:
The leaves of aloes are commonly used in anti-aging
and anti-wrinkle creams and moisturizers. In the
treatment of aging and wrinkles the constituents of
aloe Vera such as aloin A and B have shown the
property to inhibit the activity of collagenase, the
enzyme which causes degradation of collagen fibres.
Fig.5: Aloe Fig.6: Amla
Fig. 4: Mechanism of action of Herbs in Anti-a
geing
Indian Research Journal of Pharmacy and Science; Editorial; A. Chakraborty
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AMLA
Biological Source: This consists of dried as well as
fresh fruits of the plant Emblica officinalis belonging
to the family Euphorbiaceae.
Phyto-constituents: Amla fruit is a natural source of
vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) and also contains fat,
phyllembelin and tannins. Amla fruit is also rich in
mineral matters like phosphorus, iron and calcium.
Role in anti-ageing:
Amla, being a rich source of vitamin C, is considered
important to slow ageing process. It improves skin
health. Ageing is a cumulative result of damage to
various cells and tissues, mainly by oxygen free
radicals. Vitamin C is a scavenger of free radicals
which breaks them down.
TURMERIC
Biological Source: Turmeric consists of dried as well
as, fresh rhizomes of the plant Curcuma longa
belonging to the family Zingiberaceae.
Phyto-constituents: Turmeric contains a yellow
coloured substance known as curcuminoids. The
chief component of curcuminoids is known as
curcumin (50-60%). It also contains volatile oil,
resin, camphor, camphene etc.
Role in anti-ageing:
The chief constituent of Turmeric is curcumin which
acts as a superoxide scavenger & as a singlet oxygen
quencher. Therefore, the anti-ageing property of
Turmeric is mainly due to the curcumin.
Fig.7: Turmeric Fig.8: Honey
HONEY
Biological Source: Honey is a sugar secretion
deposited in honey comb by the bees, Apis mellifera
and other species of Apis, belonging to the family
Apidae.
.Phyto-constituents: Honey is an aqueous solution
of glucose (35%), fructose (45%) and sucrose (2%).It
also contains maltose, gum, polyphenols, flavonoids,
vitamins, proteins etc.
Role in anti-ageing:
The antioxidant property of Honey is due to the
phenolic compounds (benzoic acid and cinnamic
acid) and flavonoids present in it, which helps to
prevent wrinkles in our skin.
GINSENG
Biological Source: Ginseng is the dried root of
various species of Panax, like P. ginseng (Korean
ginseng), P. japonica (Japanese ginseng), P.
notoginseng (Chinese ginseng), belonging to the
family Araliaceae.
Phyto-constituents: Ginseng contains a mixture of
several saponin glycosides, belonging to triterpinoid
group. These are Ginsenosides, Panaxosides and
Chikusetsusaponin which are responsible for various
activity of ginseng.
Role in anti-ageing:
The chief constituent of Ginseng is Ginsenoside
which is responsible for the anti ageing activity of the
ginseng. It improves the blood circulation and skin
tone and also moisturizes the skin.
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Fig.9: Ginseng Fig.10: Liquorice
LIQUORICE
Biological Source: Liquorice consists of dried,
unpeeled, roots and stolons of Glycyrrhiza glabra,
belonging to the family Leguminosae.
Phyto-constituents: The chief constituent is of
liquorice is a triterpenoid saponin known as
glycyrrhizin ( glycyrrhizic acid),which is a potassium
and calcium salt of glycyrrhizinic acid. It also
contains flavonoids, liquiritin and isoliquiritin.
Role in anti-ageing:
The anti ageing activity of liquorice is due to the
presence of phenylflavonoids (dehydroglyasperin C,
dehydroglyasperin D and isoangustone A, which are
acts as superoxide scavenger and prevent wrinkles.
JATAMANSI
Biological Source: Jatamansi consists of dried
rhizomes of Nardostachys jatamansi belonging to the
family Valerianaceae.
.Phyto-constituents: It contains volatile oil, resin,
sugar, starch and also contains jatamansic acid and
ketones, jatamansone and nardostachnone.
Role in anti-ageing:
Jatamansi triggers fibroblasts to increase the
synthesis of collagen and elastin fibres, due to which
skin elasticity increases and wrinkles formation
(ageing) decreases.
Fig.11: Jatamansi Fig.12: Arjuna
ARJUNA
Biological Source: Arjuna consists of dried stem
bark of the plant known as Terminalia arjuna,
belonging to the family Combretaceae.
.Phyto-constituents: Arjuna contains tannins,
triterpenoid saponins, arjunolic acid, arjunic acid,
arjungenin. It also contains ellagic acid, arjunine,
arjunolone.
Role in anti-ageing:
Aging occurs due to decrease in the collagen
production. Collagen synthesis and epidermal barrier
function is improved by pentacyclic triterpenoids
found in Terminalia arjuna. It also increases skin
moisturization and decreased scaliness. It strengthens
the skin barrier and induces sebum production to
reduce the signs of dry skin and protect the skin from
external challenges. It also contributes to an
improved blood circulation for better nutrient supply.
Indian Research Journal of Pharmacy and Science; Editorial; A. Chakraborty
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DI SCUSSION:
Phytochemicals derived from plants have a lot of skin
beneficial properties related to UV protection,
antioxidant action, matrix protection and skin
hydration. Over the past decade, a lot of
phytochemicals from the plant extracts have been
explored and their biological activities well-studied
in vitro. Therefore, there is a continuous requirement
for more clinical studies with emphasis on the
concentration of the ingredient in herbal products,
their formulation, safety, and the anti-ageing effect
duration.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT:
The authors are very much thankful to the
Management of Bharat Technology for providing the
necessary facilities to carry out the study.
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conflict of interest reported: nil ; source of funding: nil
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