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AROMA THERAPY: AN ART OF HEALING

Authors:
  • Mata Gujri College of Pharmacy Mata Gujri University

Abstract and Figures

Aroma therapy is one of the most ancient healing arts & traces its origin to 4500BC, when Egyptians used aromatic substances in medicines. The term Aromatherapy was coined by Prof. Gatte`Fosse, a French cosmetic chemist. Aromatherapy is a holistic healing treatment that uses natural plant extracts from flowers, bark, stems, leaves, roots or other parts of plants to enhance psychological and physical well-being. The inhaled aroma from "essential" oils is widely believed to stimulate brain function. Essential oils can also be absorbed through the skin, where they travel through bloodstream and can promote whole-body healing. Aromatherapy activates areas in nose called olfactory receptors, which send messages through nervous system to brain. The oils may activate certain areas of brain, like limbic system, which plays a role in controlling emotions. They could also have an impact on your hypothalamus, which may respond to the oil by creating a good feeling in brain. Its use ranges from pain relief, mood enhancement and increased cognitive function to treat asthma, insomnia, fatigue, depression, inflammation, alopecia, cancer, arthritis, erectile dysfunction, menstrual disorders, menopausal syndromes, etc. According to the National Association for Holistic Aromatherapy, the most popular essential oils include fennel, geranium, lavender, lemongrass etc.
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Indian Research Journal of Pharmacy and Science; Editorial; D. Halder et.al
Sept’18
Ind Res J Pharm & Sci|2018: Sept.: 5 (3)
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AROMA THERAPY: AN ART OF HEALING
D. Halder, B. B. Barik, R.K. Dasgupta, S. Deb Roy
Deptt. Of Pharmacognosy, Bharat Technology, Banitabla, Uluberia, Howrah, West Bengal.
ABSTRACT: Aroma therapy is one of the most ancient healing arts & traces its origin to 4500BC, when
Egyptians used aromatic substances in medicines. The term Aromatherapy was coined by Prof. Gatte`Fosse, a
French cosmetic chemist. Aromatherapy is a holistic healing treatment that uses natural plant extracts from
flowers, bark, stems, leaves, roots or other parts of plants to enhance psychological and physical well-being. The
inhaled aroma from "essential" oils is widely believed to stimulate brain function. Essential oils can also be
absorbed through the skin, where they travel through bloodstream and can promote whole-body healing.
Aromatherapy activates areas in nose called olfactory receptors, which send messages through nervous system
to brain. The oils may activate certain areas of brain, like limbic system, which plays a role in controlling
emotions. They could also have an impact on your hypothalamus, which may respond to the oil by creating a
good feeling in brain. Its use ranges from pain relief, mood enhancement and increased cognitive function to
treat asthma, insomnia, fatigue, depression, inflammation, alopecia, cancer, arthritis, erectile dysfunction,
menstrual disorders, menopausal syndromes, etc. According to the National Association for Holistic
Aromatherapy, the most popular essential oils include fennel, geranium, lavender, lemongrass etc.
KEY WORDS: Aromatherapy, Volatile oil, Holistic treatment.
Corresponding Author: Debojyoti Halder
E-Mail: debojyotihaldar955@gmail.com
Phone: +91-7980474618
REVIEW
Submitted on: 15.07.18; Revised on: 08.08.18; Accepted on: 19.08.18
Indian Research Journal of Pharmacy and Science; 17(2018)1540-1558;
Journal Home Page: https://www.irjps.in
DOI: 10.21276/irjps.2018.5.3.2
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INTRODUCTION:
Now-a-days, traditional & alternative systems of
medicine has gained importancethey deserve, for
their medicinal as well as therapeutic values.
Various therapies as well as physiological&
psychological treatments used for healinghas
gained some momentum.“Aromatherapy” is a type
of alternative medicine practice utilizing fragrance
or aromatic essential oils derived from a wide
variety of plants.
Aromatherapy has established itself for the
treatment of various complications as well as
diseases. The essential or volatile oils are the
principle active ingredients form various sources
which acts as medicaments for treating various
ailments. These essential oils are extracted from
flowers, barks, stem, leaves, roots, fruits, and other
parts of the plant by various methods of extraction.
Aromatherapy is a holistic therapy and an art of
using essential oils from plants in the pursuit of
well-being, whether mental, emotional, physical or
aesthetic. The word “aroma” means fragrance or
sweet smell & “therapy” means a treatment
designed to cure. The fragrance in a plant is stored
in its essential oils. Hence, in using essential oils,
aromatherapy recreates the environment of
mesmerizing essence & fragrance.
1
Origin of Aromatherapy:
Aromatherapy is one of the most ancient “Art of
Healing” which originated even before5000BC,
when Egyptians used aromatic substances in
medicines. In Greek system of medicine as well as
in Ayurveda, plant essences & fragrances are used
for aromatic baths & scented massage. The term
“Aromatherapie” initially used by French cosmetic
chemist G.Fossein a book first published in 1936.A
laboratory accident caused third degree thermal
burns on Dr.MauriceG.Fosse’s hand and forearm.
He plunged his arm into a vessel of lavender oil,
mistakenly assuming it was water. To his surprise,
the pain ceased within moments; and with regular
application of lavender oil, the wound healed
without a scar. When he analysed the lavender oil,
he discovered many chemical constituents or
components, which he concluded had tremendous
healing properties. He then began researching the
healing properties of other essential oils, taking into
consideration their chemical properties as well as
their smells. Marguerite Maury, another French
chemist became interested in Aromatherapy in the
World War II period, where she used aromatherapy
in combination with other natural health remedies
& beauty products. She developed a separate strand
of aromatherapy in France, which employed the
oils externally, rather than internally, & combined
them with massage. Jean Valnet, a French
physician added to Gattefosse`s research while
working as a surgeon in World War II.
2
Figure 1: Essential oils in marketed forms & Stimulation of Olfactory receptors by aromatic fragrance.
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Essential oils:
Aromatherapy utilizes various essential oils that
can be issued through topical application, massage,
inhalation or water immersion to stimulate a
desired therapeutic response.Essential oils
therapeutic activity. They are colourless pleasant
smelling liquids with high refractive index.They
possesses healing powers of plants.Essential oils
are a mixture of saturated and unsaturated
hydrocarbons, alcohol, aldehydes, esters, ethers,
ketones, oxides phenols and terpenes, which may
produce characteristic odours.Essential oils are
volatile liquid substances extracted from aromatic
plant material by steam distillation or mechanical
expression(oils produced with the aid of chemical
solvents are not considered true essential oils).
They are made up of oxygen, amino acids and
minerals whose function is to carry nutrients
directly into the nucleus of cell. Essential oils are
neither acidic nor alkaline. They have the ability to
go into the body tissues and literally become free
radical scavengers. These oils are so potent and
concentrated that they work on pressure points and
rejuvenates the body. The essential oils in plants
are present in different areas like, pockets and
reservoirs, glandular hairs, specialized cells, or
even in the intercellularspaces.
3, 4
Essential oils have the highest level of oxygen
molecules of any substance known to man and we
know disease cannot exist or grow in an oxygen
rich environment.Essential oils containing
sesquiterpines have the ability to cross the blood-
brain barrier, thus carrying oxygen directly into the
brain. A brain deprived of oxygen for as little as 5
minutes, will have irreversible brain damage.
4
Many essential oils acts as antibacterial, anti-
fungal, anti-infectious, antimicrobial, anti-parasitic,
anti-viral, anti-septic, antitumor, and immune
stimulating agents. Viruses cannot mutate or
replicate in the presence of essential oils because of
their complex chemical structures.Essential oils
also detoxify the cells and blood in the body.
1, 4
Essential oils are aromatic volatile liquids distilled
from shrubs, flowers, trees, bushes, and seeds.
They contain highly oxygenating molecules.
Essential oils are called “essential” because the
plant would die without them. They are made up of
oxygen, amino acids and minerals whose function
is to carry nutrients directly into the cell nucleus.
Essential oils are neither acidic nor alkaline.
Destruction of tissues is caused by acid, whether it
is due to disease or inflammation. Essential oils
have the ability to go into the body tissues and
literally become “free radical scavengers.” They are
acid binding and promote excretion of acid that
causes cell irregularities. Essential oils are 50 to 70
times more therapeutically potent than the herbs or
plants from which they are derived. When the plant
is cut and dehydrated, 98% of the life substance
that is responsible for the healing power of that
plant is evaporated. This is why essential oils are so
much more powerful in healing than herbs.
5
Common constituents found in essential oils are
esters, aldehydes, ketones, sesquiterpenes, oxides,
monoterpenes, alcohols, and phenols. These
molecules each have characteristics that are unique
and that give the essential oil its specific
therapeutic quality.
5
Therapeutic-grade oils can be checked to see if they
meet the agreed upon standards set by AFNOR
(Association French Normalization Organization
Regulation) that determines if an oil is therapeutic
grade. The ISO (International Standards
Organization) has also set standards for the
therapeutic-grade essential oils adapted from
AFNOR. The AFNOR standard was written by a
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team of government certified botanical chemists
which determine and set a range that the
constituents of a specified oil must be within in
order to be of therapeutic quality. If two or more
constituents are too high or too low, that oil cannot
be certified as therapeutic grade, even though it
may be of high quality.
5
How Essential Oils Work?
The therapeutic activity of essential oils, like other
plant-derived remedies, has yet to be fully realized.
In addition, only a small proportion of the world
flora (plant) hasbeen examined for
pharmacologically active compounds, but with the
ever-increasing danger of plants- which
arebecoming extinct, there is a real risk that many
important plant sources may be lost. Modern
research has largely confirmed the traditionally
held beliefs regarding the therapeutic uses of
particular plants has changed with time. A herb
such as basil, at one time described as a ‘protection
against evil’, or ‘good for the heart’ whose scent
‘taketh away sorrowfulness’, may in modern usage
be described as an excellent prophylactic, nerve
tonic and antidepressant. Like herbal remedies, an
essential oil can cover a wide field of activities;
indeed the same herb or oil (such as lemon balm)
can stimulate certain systems of the body while
sedating or relaxing others. In order to gain a
clearer understanding of the way essential oils
work, and some of their particular areas of activity,
it may be helpful to take an overall view of the
systems of the human body.
1, 3, and 4
Chemistry of essential oils:
In course of time, secondary metabolites of plants
greatly contributed to the human civilization.
Secondary metabolites directly involved in the
ecological process as well. Pigments and aromatic
compounds confer colour and scentto reproductive
organs and fruits, thus attracting pollinators and
favouring seed dispersal byanimals. However,
volatile compounds can also repel phytophagous
organisms, including virusand phytoplasma
vectors, whereas phytoalexins are broad-spectrum
antimicrobial metabolites.
5
In this complex scenario, humans have greatly
benefited from plants and their
secondarymetabolites. During the plant-human
coevolution, plants represented (and represent) a
nearlyunlimited source of food, feed for
domesticated animals, fibres for clothes and, not
the least,medicaments. Among the vastness of plant
products, essential oils deserve particular
attention.
4, 5
These are complex mixtures of hydrocarbons and
oxygenated hydrocarbons arising from the
isoprenoidpathways, mainly consisting in
monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Essential oils are
produced andsecreted by glandular trichomes,
specialized secretory tissues diffused onto the
surface of plant organs,particularly flowers and
leaves.
5
Biosynthesis of Plant Volatiles in Glandular
Trichomes
There are two main pathways for terpene
biosynthesis, and most researchers hold that all
steps ofthis route take place in the secretory cells
themselves (Figure 2):
Molecules ofGlandular trichomes (GTs) are
modified epidermal hairs containing cells
specialized for PVs synthesis and secretion.
Noteworthy, other internal secretory structures can
also synthetize andsecrete PVs. GTs are found on
leaves, stems, more rarely on petals, sepals, and
petioles in roughly30% of all.
5
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Figure 2: 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate in plastids; isoprenoids synthesis from precursors
(isopentenylpyrophosphate and dimethylallyl pyrophosphate) occurs in cytoplasm.
Figure 2 shows, Isoprenoid biosynthetic routes in
plant cell: mevalonic pathway, in cytoplasm, and2-
C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate in plastids;
isoprenoids synthesis from precursors
(isopentenylpyrophosphate and dimethylallyl
pyrophosphate) occurs in cytoplasm.
5
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p-Cymene Limonene
Monoterpene
hydrocarbons
HO
Carvacrol
OH
Thymol
H
H
Cadinene
H
H
H
H
Aromadendrene
OH
Globuol
OH
Oxygeneted
Monoterpenes
Sesquiterpene
Hydrocarbons
Oxygeneted
Sesquiterpenes
Viridiflorol
C10H14
C10H16
C10H14O C10H14O
Figure 3: Various Terpenoids
Biogenic volatile compounds produced by plants
include monoterpene and sesquiterpenes
hydrocarbons, as well as oxygenated monoterpenes
and sesquiterpenes, also referred to terpenesand
terpenoids, respectively; these compounds are the
main constituents of essential oils.
5
The intracellular compartmentalization of terpene
biosynthesis is still not known. It has beenobserved
that at secretory stage GTs show highly developed
smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER), amoeboid
leucoplasts, sometimes surrounded by periplasmic
SER, with many plastid-SER membranecontacts.
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These plastids showed the greatest changes during
development and in relations to secretions,
correlate strongly with monoterpenes in vivo, and
can synthesize monoterpenehydrocarbons in vitro if
fed with precursors (IPP and DMAPP). The close
association, in secreting peltate GTs, of plastids,
SER.
6, 7
Mechanisms of Essential Oil Cytotoxicity
Essential oils are a complex mixture of molecules,
which generally contains more than 20
differentcomponents of low molecular weight with
very variable concentrations. In general,
monoterpenes andsesquiterpenes are themain
components of essential oils, though diterpenes and
phenyl-propanoids canbe present to a different
extent. Many of these molecules are found in low
concentrations, while fewof them are the main
components that can represent up to 70% of total
oil and will be the mainresponsible for the
biological effects of the oil. Until now, more than
3000 essential oils havebeen described, of which
about one tenth are relevant for pharmaceutical,
nutritional or cosmeticindustries. Several essential
oils have a strong interest in research for their
cytotoxic capacity. Greatefforts are performed in
order to investigate the potential therapeutic effects
of oils against severaldiseases especially those
characterized by excessive cell growth and
proliferation such as cancer or bacterial infections.
The main mechanisms that mediate the cytotoxic
effects of essential oilsinclude the induction of cell
death by activation of apoptosis and/or necrosis
processes, cell cycle arrest,and loss of function of
essential organelles. Several of these effects are
attributable to the lipophilicnature and low
molecular weight of the main components that
comprise essential oils which allowthem to cross
cell membranes, alter membrane composition and
increase membrane fluidity, leadingto leakage of
ions and cytoplasmic molecules. Altering
membranes lead to reduced ATP
production,alteration of the pH gradient, and loss of
mitochondrial potential that can result to the cell
death.In addition, some essential oils may also act
as pro-oxidant elements which can alter cellular
redoxstate and also compromise cellular
survival.The cytotoxic properties of essential oils
result from the complex interaction between
thedifferent classes of compounds such as phenols,
aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, esters, ethers or
hydrocarbons. In addition, in some cases, the
cytotoxic activity are closely related tofew of the
main components of the oils and, in this way, it has
been reported that some of theseisolated
compounds exert considerable cytotoxic properties
when have been tested individually.However, the
wide variation in the chemical profile of essential
oils means a great diversity in themechanisms of
action and molecular targets. Furthermore, because
these oils consist of a wide varietyof compounds,
each compound can modulate or alter the effects of
other ones.
8, 9, and 10
FROM AROMATHERAPY TO
PHYTOTHERAPY:
Phytotherapyuses plant-derived medications in the
treatment and prevention of disease. It is a science-
based medical practice and thus is distinguished
from other, more traditional approaches, such as
medical herbalism, which relies on an empirical
appreciation of medicinal herbs and which is often
linked to traditional knowledge.
2, 13
There are various branches of Phytotherapy and
Aromatherapy is one of them which uses fresh
plants or plant extracts distilled using valor to
extract the essential oils, “the most active
ingredients of plants.” The oils are 70 times more
potent than the plant from which they are
extracted.
2, 13
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Branches of Aromatherapy:
1
Medical Psychological Environmental Aesthetic Holistic
Aromatherapy Aromatherapy Aromatherapy Aromatherapy Aromatherapy
Cosmetic aromatherapy
This therapy utilizes certain essential oils for skin,
body, face and hair cosmetic products. These
products are used for their various effects as
cleansing, moisturizing, drying and toning. A
healthy skin can be obtained by use of essential oils
in facial products. On a personal level, cosmetic
aromatherapy of full-body or foot bath will be a
simple and an effective way to have an experience.
Similarly, few drops of appropriate oil give a
rejuvenating and revitalizing experience.
1, 2
Massage aromatherapy
The use of grape seed, almond, or jojoba oil in pure
vegetable oil during massage has been shown to
have wonderful effects. This is also known as
healing touch of massage therapy.
1, 2
Medical aromatherapy
The founder of modern aromatherapy Rene-
Maurice Gattefosse has used essential oils to
massage patients during surgery, thus utilizing the
medical aromatherapy knowledge of the effect of
essential oils on promoting and treating clinically
diagnosed medical ailments.
1, 2
Olfactory aromatherapy
Inhalation of essential oils has given rise to
olfactory aromatherapy, where simple inhalation
has resulted in enhanced emotional wellness,
calmness, relaxation or rejuvenation of the human
body. The release of stress is welded with
pleasurable scents which unlock odor memories.
Essential oils are complemented to medical
treatment and can never be taken as a replacement
for it.
1, 2
Psycho-aromatherapy
In psycho-aromatherapy, certain states of moods
and emotions can be obtained by these oils giving
the pleasure of relaxation, invigoration or a
pleasant memory. The inhalation of the oils in this
therapy is direct though the infusion in the room of
a patient. Psycho-aromatherapy and aroma ology,
both deal with the study and effects of aroma be it
natural or synthetic. Psycho-aromatherapy has
limited itself with study of natural essential oils.
1, 2
ESSENTIAL OIL CONTAINING PLANTS:
Eucalyptus
Eucalyptus [Eucalyptus globules Labill (E.
globulus)] belonging to the family of Myrtaceae, is
a long evergreen plant with a height up to 250 feet.
It is known for its constituents like cineole (70%–
85%), aromadendrene, limonene, cymene, etc. Its
oils have been used to regulate and activate the
various systems like nervous system for neuralgia,
headache and debility. The immune system boosts
the immunity against measles, flu, cold and
chickenpox. Leucorrhea and cystitis of
genitourinary system can also be well treated with
it. Throat infections, catarrh, coughs, bronchitis,
asthma and sinusitis associated with respiratory
system have been taken care of by oils of this plant.
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Topical problems like wounds, cuts, burns, and
herpes, and lice, insect repellent and insect bites
can be treated with it. Treatment of rheumatoid
arthritis, muscle and joint pains and aches is well
reported from the essential oils of this plant.
Eucalyptus oil has demonstrated its antioxidant,
anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative and
antibacterial activities and researchers have proved
its efficacy beyond doubt in treatment of various
metabolic and infectious diseases. The results are
promising and can be utilized for treatment of
multifactorial diseases of various origins in
humans.
1
Figure 4: E. globules Labill. Figure 5: Pelargonium graveolens L' Herit.
Geranium
Geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L' Herit)
belongs to the family of Geraniaceae (Figure 3). A
perennial hairy shrub native of South Africa, up to
one meter in height, also found and cultivated in
France, Italy, Spain, Central America, Egypt, Japan
and Congo is a plant of choice for essential oil.
Eugenol, geranic, citronellol, geraniol, linalol
(linalool), citronellylformate, citral, myrtenol,
terpineol, methone and sabinene are the chemical
constituents of its essential oil. One of the best
natural perfume, complete in itself is geranium oil,
generally used in soaps and detergents because its
unique nature is never challenged with alkalinity of
soaps. Hence, this oil is generally used to control
the emotions in aroma therapy. It is used in
dermatitis, eczema, aging skin, some fungal
infections, along with anxiety and stress related
problems. The oil has some anti-bacterial action
and is an important ingredient for endometriosis
treatment. This oil is further used for its sedative
properties, nerve tonic, in throat infection, to rectify
the blood disorder diabetes and for menopausal
associated problems. Some reports are there about
its supportive therapy in uterine and breast cancer,
and it also certainly can help the patient in coping
with the pain. People have used this as a flavouring
agent for food stuff along with alcoholic and non-
alcoholic beverages. It is an effective insect
repellent. Moreover, this oil is gaining popularity
as antidiabetic, anticancer, antibacterial and
antimicrobial agent.
4, 11
Lavender
Lavender (Lavandula officinalis Chaix.) belonging
to the family of Lamiaceae, is a beautiful herb of
the garden. It contains camphor, terpinen-4-ol,
beta-ocimene, 1, 8-cineole, etc. Its constituent
varies in concentration and therapeutic effects with
the different species. Linalool and linalyl acetate
have maximum and great absorbing properties
during skin massage with a depression of CNS.
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Linalool shows sedative effects and linalyl acetate
shows marked narcotic actions. These two actions
may be responsible for its use in lavender pillow
anxiety patients with sleep disturbance pattern,
improving the feeling of well-being, supporting
mental alertness and suppressing aggression and
anxiety. Lavender oil shows its antibacterial and
antifungal properties against many species of
bacteria, especially when antibiotics fail to work,
but the exact mechanisms are yet to be established.
When talking about its use in aromatherapy, it is
well documented for the treatment of abrasions,
burns, stress, headaches, in promotion of new cell
growth, skin problems, painful muscles and
boosting an immune system. This oil is used in the
treatment of primary dysmenorrheal and has shown
some promising results in one of the randomized,
double-blind clinical trials.
1,2,3
Figure 6: Lavandulaofficinalis Chaix. Figure 7: C. limon Linn.
Lemon
Lemon [Citrus limon Linn. (C. limon)] belongs to
the family of Rutaceae. C. limon long trees grow up
to the 15 feet height and bear rich scented lemon
fruits all year round. Its oil constituents are
abundant in the terpenes, d-limonene and l-
limonene, together forming about 90 percent of the
bulk of the oil. Traces of phellandrene, pinene and
sesquiterpene are also present. The valuable portion
of the oil is the remaining 10 percent which
consists of oxygenated bodies, chiefly the aldehyde
citral, to which the odour of the oil is largely due
and of which there is 3.5%–5% odour present in the
oil. When compared to other essential oils, its
constituents have antiseptic, astringent and
detoxifying properties, for blemishes associated
with oily skin. Its oil brightens and rejuvenates dull
skin. Lemon essential oil is mainly used to boost
the immune system and to accelerate the white
corpuscles production along with counteracting
acidity and ulcers through citric acid, which helps
digestion, by forming carbonates and bicarbonates
of potassium and calcium. A recently conducted
double-blinded, randomized, controlled clinical
trial study on aromatherapy has suggested that
citrus oil is good in relieving the first stage labour
pain. It is effective in controlling the nausea and
vomiting along with its mood elevating properties.
1,
2
Peppermint
Peppermint [ Mentha piperita Linn. (M. piperita)]
belongs to the family of Lamiaceae. Till date, all
the 600 kinds of mints are raised from 25 well-
defined species. The two most important are
peppermint (M. piperita) and spearmint (Mentha
spicata). Spearmint bears the strong aroma of sweet
character with a sharp menthol undertone. Its oil
constituents include carvacrol, menthol, carvone,
methyl acetate, limonene and menthone. The
pharmacological action is due to menthol, a
primary constituent of peppermint oil. At least 44%
free menthol is present in peppermint oil.
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Components are sensitive to climate, latitude and
maturity of the plant. Inhalation and application of
menthol on skin causes a skin reaction. It is used in
many liniments dosage form to relieve pain spasms
and arthritic problems. Peppermint oil is studied
and documented for its anti-inflammatory,
analgesic, anti-infectious, antimicrobial, antiseptic,
antispasmodic, astringent, digestive, carminative,
fungicidal effects, nervine stimulant,
vasoconstrictor, decongestant and stomachic
properties.
1
The antispasmodic properties of oil make it a better
choice during pain associated with the menstrual
cycle and are also used in the treatment of irritable
bowel syndrome. When superficially applied
around the head and temple, it has very good action
on headache. Further, itching due to various
reasons like herpes blisters, ringworm infestation,
scabies, poison oak, and ivy can also be relieved. It
is observed that it can relieve many bacterial,
fungal, and viral infections when inhaled or applied
in the form of a vapor balm. Sinus and lung
congestion are also known to be cleared by this oil.
Figure 8: M. piperita Linn. Figure 9: Anthemis nobilis Linn.
Roman chamomile
Roman chamomile (Anthemis nobilis Linn.)
belongs to the family of Asteraceae. It is a plant for
centuries with a potential to calm, moderate and
strong emotions and it bears a daisy like flowers.
Major constituents of Roman chamomile oil are
esters of angelic acid, tiglic acid and 2-
methylbutanoic acid. The freshly distilled oil has a
bluish tint due to the sesquiterpenoid chamazulene.
It is rich in pinocarvone, farnesol, pinene,
bisabolol, cineole, pinocarveol, beta-caryophyllene,
azulene, camphene and myrcene. Chamomile
preparations have made inroads in the treatment of
human ailments such as hay fever, inflammation,
muscle spasms, menstrual disorders, insomnia,
ulcers, wounds, gastrointestinal disorders,
rheumatic pain, and hemorrhoids. In cosmetics and
aromatherapy, it is employed for its anxiolytic
properties.
Its anti-anxiety and stress relieving properties ease
out depression, worry, and overactive mind. Its use
before sleep for bath can relax both mind and body
and brings on sleep, with a peaceful and spiritual
awareness. Headache, insomnia and menstrual
disorders are known to be treated with this oil. In
aromatherapy, it is extensively used to relieve the
pain from physical conditions, menstrual cramps
and tension with its application on lower abdomen.
Psoriasis, eczema, boils, sunburn and cold sores
have been treated with it along with its role in
decreasing the pain associated with joints, arthritis,
sprains and stings.
1
Rosemary
Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis Linn.) belonging
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to the family of Lamiaceae bears small pale blue
flowers in late spring/early summer and grows up
to the height of 90 cm. It has three varieties (silver,
gold and green stripe); it's the green variety that is
used for its medicinal properties. This plant is rich
in bitter principle, resin, tannic acid and volatile oil.
The active constituents are bornyl acetate, borneol
along with other esters and, special camphor
similar to that possessed by the myrtle, cineol,
pinene and camphene. Its oil has a marked action
on the digestive system, with relieving the
symptoms of indigestion, constipation and colitis. It
works as liver and gall-bladder tonic. The oil also
possesses some good action on the cardiovascular
system. It regularizes the blood pressure and retards
the hardening of arteries. In winter, it used to
relieve the rheumatic pain which aggravates due to
cold. Its stimulating properties on the nervous
system have found to be beneficial in hysteria and
paralysis. In latest human trials, aromatherapy is an
efficacious non-pharmacological therapy for
dementia and may have some potential for
improving cognitive function, especially in
Alzheimer's disease patients, due to its free radical
scavenging activity. Excellent skin tonic properties,
a soothing, positive effect on menstrual cramps, for
hair growth are some of the other important
properties of this oil. The other benefits of
rosemary include a stimulant for the scalp
encouraging hair growth and providing treatment
for dandruff and greasy hair.
1
Figure 10: Rosmarinus officinalis Linn. Figure 11: Melaleuca alternifoliaCheel.
Tea tree
Tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia Cheel) belonging
to the family of Myrtaceae, with yellow or purple
flower and needles like leaves is a shrub of marshy
area (Figure 11). Due to its commercial value, it is
cultivated on plantations. The main constituent of
its oil is terpinen-4-ol, an alcoholic terpene with a
clean musty aroma. The antiviral activity is due to
alpha-sabine with antibacterial and antifungal
effects. It is an immune booster due to terpinen-4-
ol while cineole is responsible for its antiseptic
character. The tea tree itself possesses antibacterial,
anti-inflammatory, antiviral, insecticidal, and
immune stimulant properties. The aromatherapy
utilizes the mixture of lemon, blue gum, clary sage,
eucalyptus, lavender, rosemary, ginger and Scotch
pine for treatment of different ailments. The oil is
used in herpes, abscess, blisters acne, cold sores,
burns, insect bites, dandruff and oily skin. Further,
in treatment of respiratory associated problems it
has been used for tuberculosis, cough, bronchitis,
asthma, catarrh and whooping cough; also it is used
in females for vaginitis, cystitis and pruritus
treatment. Cold, fever, flu and chickenpox have
called for its use. Well defined studies have been
carried out on Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) on
erpes through clinical trial efforts with a promising
result of this plant.
1
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YlangYlang
Ylang–ylang (Cananga odorata Hook. F. &Thoms)
belonging to the family of Annonaceae, native to
Madagascar, Indonesia and Philippines is a small
tree (Figure 12). Its chemical constituent includes
geranyl acetate, linalol, geraniol, farnesol, benzyl
acetate, geranial, methyl chavicol, beta-
caryophyllene, eugenol, pinene and farnesene. The
best property of this tree is to retard the heart beat
and rapid breathing with perfect use in shock and
trauma situations. It is antidepressive in nature with
euphoric properties, thus giving the feeling of well-
being. Low self-esteem and women suffering from
the post-menopausal syndrome have better results
on them. A pilot study involving 34 professionals
from a nursing group was carried out in Portugal to
verify the use of ylangylang essential oil in
relieving the anxiety and increasing the self-esteem
along with alteration of blood pressure and
temperature. The results showed clear evidence that
use of this plant led to a significant alteration in
self-esteem. Further, its aphrodisiac properties are
due to its exotic fragrance advantageous for both
dry and oily skins. It is also indicated in depression,
anxiety, hypertension, frigidity, stress and
palpitations.
1, 12
Figure 12: Cananga odorata Hook. F. &Thoms.
Properties of Essential oils:
The Skin
Skin problems are often the surface manifestation
of a deeper condition, such as a build-up of toxins
in the blood, hormonal imbalance or nervous and
emotional difficulties. In this area the versatility of
essential oils is particularly valuable because they
are able to combat such complaints on a variety of
levels.
Antiseptics for cuts, insect bites, spots,
etc.; for example, thyme, sage, eucalyptus,
tea tree, clove, lavender and lemon.
Anti-inflammatory oils for eczema,
infected wounds, bumps, bruises, etc.; for
example, German and Roman chamomile,
lavender and yarrow.
Fungicidal oils for athletes foot, candida,
ringworm, etc.; for example, lavender, tea
tree, myrrh, patchouli and sweet
marjoram.
Granulation stimulating or
cicatrising(healing) agents for burns, cuts,
scars, stretch marks, etc.; for example,
lavender, chamomile, rose, neroli,
frankincense and geranium.
Deodorants for excessive perspiration,
cleaning wounds, etc.; for example,
bergamot, lavender, thyme, juniper,
cypress, Spanish sage, lemongrass.
Insect repellents for lice, fleas, scabies,
ticks, mosquitos, ants, moths, etc.; for
example, spike lavender, garlic, geranium,
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citronella, eucalyptus, clove, camphor, and
Atlas cedar wood.
3, 4
The Circulation, Muscles and Joints
Essential oils are easily absorbed via the skin and
mucosa into the bloodstream, affecting the nature
of the circulation as a whole. Oils with a warming
effect not only cause a better local blood
circulation, but also influence the inner organs.
They bring a warmth and glow to the surface of the
skin and can provide considerable pain relief
through their analgesic or numbing effect. Suchoils
can relieve local inflammation by setting free
mediators in the body which in turn cause the
bloodvessels to expand, so the blood is able to
move more quickly and the swelling is reduced.
Some oilslike hyssop tend to have a balancing or
regulating effect on the circulatory system as a
whole, reducingthe blood pressure if it is too high
or stimulating the system if it is sluggish.
Hypotensivesfor high blood pressure,
palpitations, stress, etc.; for example,
sweet marjoram, ylangylang, lavender,
lemon.
Hypertensivesfor poor circulation,
chilblains, listlessness, etc.; for example,
rosemary, spike lavender, eucalyptus,
peppermint, thyme.
Rubefacientsfor rheumatism of the joints,
muscular stiffness, sciatica, lumbago, etc;
for example,black pepper, juniper,
rosemary, camphor, sweet marjoram.
Depurative or antitoxic agents for
arthritis, gout, congestion, skin eruptions,
etc.; for example, juniper,lemon, fennel,
etc.
Lymphatic stimulants for cellulitis,
obesity, water retention, etc.; for example,
grapefruit, lime, fennel,lemon, mandarin,
white birch.
Circulatory tonics and astringents for
swellings, inflammations, varicose veins,
etc.; for example, cypress, yarrow,
lemon.
2,3
The Respiratory System
Nose, throat and lung infections are conditions
which respond very well to treatment with essential
oils. Inhalation is a very effective way of utilizing
their properties. In addition, most essential oils
which are absorbed from the stomach are then
excreted via the lungs, only a small part in the
urine.
Expectorants for catarrh, sinusitis, coughs,
bronchitis, etc; for example, eucalyptus,
pine, thyme,myrrh, sandalwood, fennel.
Antispasmodics for colic, asthma, dry
cough, whooping cough, etc; for example,
hyssop, cypress, cedarwood, bergamot,
chamomile,etc.
Balsamic agents for colds, chills,
congestion, etc; for example, benzoin,
frankincense, Tolu balsam,Peru balsam,
myrrh.
Antiseptics for ’flu, colds, sore throat,
tonsillitis, gingivitis, etc; for example,
thyme, sage, eucalyptus,hyssop, pine,
cajeput, tea tree, borneol.
3,4
The Digestive System
Although it is not recommended that essential oils
be taken orally, they can by external application
effect certain changes in the digestive processes.
However, whereas herbal medicine has many
remedies at its disposal for a wide variety of
stomach, gall bladder and liver complaints, such as
dandelion, marshmallow, chamomile and
meadowsweet, much of their effectiveness is based
on a combination of aromatic components, together
with bitters, tannins and mucilage, which are absent
in the volatile oil alone. The external application of
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essential oils in problems of the digestive system
though effective, is consequently somewhat limited
compared to the internal use of herbal remedies.
Antispasmodics for spasm, pain,
indigestion, etc.; for example, chamomile,
caraway, fennel, orange,peppermint,
lemon balm, aniseed, cinnamon.
Carminatives and stomachicsfor flatulent
dyspepsia, aerophagia, nausea, etc.; for
example, angelica,basil, fennel,
chamomile, peppermint, mandarin.
Cholagoguesfor increasing the flow of bile
and stimulating the gall bladder; for
example, caraway, lavender, peppermint
and borneol.
Hepatics for liver congestion, jaundice,
etc; for example, lemon, lime, rosemary,
peppermint.
Aperitifs for loss of appetite, anorexia, etc;
for example, aniseed, angelica, orange,
ginger, garlic.
3
The Genito-urinary and Endocrine Systems
Like the digestive system, the reproductive organs
can be affected by absorption via the skin into the
bloodstream, as well as through hormonal changes.
Some essential oils such as rose and jasmine have
an affinity for the reproductive system having a
general strengthening effect as well as helping to
combat specific complaints like menstrual
problems, genital infections and sexual difficulties.
Other oils contain plant hormones which mimic the
corresponding human hormones; oils such as hops,
sageand fennel have been found to contain a form
of oestrogen that influences the menstrual cycle,
lactationand secondary sexual characteristics.
Oestrogen also helps maintain a healthy circulation,
good muscle and skin tone and strong bones in both
men and women.
Other essential oils are known to influence the
levels of hormone secretion of other glands,
including the thyroid gland (which governs growth
and metabolism), the adrenal medulla (which deals
with stress reactions) and the adrenal cortex (which
governs several processes including the production
of oestrogen and androgen, the male sex hormone).
Antispasmodics for menstrual cramp
(dysmenorrhoea), labour pains, etc.; for
example, sweetmarjoram, chamomile,
clary sage, jasmine, lavender.
Emmenagoguesfor scanty periods, lack of
periods (amenorrhoea), etc; for example,
chamomile,fennel, hyssop, juniper, sweet
marjoram, peppermint.
Uterine tonics and regulators for
pregnancy, excess menstruation
(menorrhagia), PMT, etc; forexample,
clary sage, jasmine, rose, myrrh,
frankincense, lemon balm.
Antiseptic and bactericidal agents for
leucorrhoea, vaginal pruritis, thrush, etc;
for example, bergamot,chamomile, myrrh,
rose, tea tree.
Galactagoguesfor increasing milk flow;
for example, fennel, jasmine, anise,
lemongrass (sage, mintand parsley reduce
it).
Aphrodisiacs for impotence and frigidity,
etc; for example, black pepper, cardomon,
clary sage, neroli,jasmine, rose,
sandalwood, patchouli, ylangylang.
Anaphrodisiacsfor reducing sexual desire;
for example, sweet marjoram, camphor.
Adrenal stimulants for anxiety, stress-
related conditions, etc.; for example, basil,
geranium, rosemary,borneol, sage, pine,
savory.
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Urinary antiseptics for cystitis, urethritis,
etc; for example, bergamot, chamomile,
tea tree,sandalwood.
2, 3, 4
The Immune System
Virtually all essential oils have bactericidal
properties and by promoting the production of
white blood cells, they can help prevent and treat
infectious illness.
Bactericidal and antiviral agents
(prophylactics) for protection against
colds, ’flu, etc.; for example,tea tree,
cajeput, niaouli, basil, lavender,
eucalyptus, bergamot, camphor, clove,
rosemary.
Febrifuge agents for reducing fever and
temperature, etc; for example, angelica,
basil, peppermint,thyme, sage, lemon,
eucalyptus, tea tree.
Sudorifics and diaphoretics for promoting
sweating, eliminating toxins, etc; for
example, rosemary,thyme, hyssop,
chamomile.
3,4
The Nervous System
Recent research shows that the properties of many
oils correspond to the traditionally held views:
chamomile, bergamot, sandalwood, lavender and
sweet marjoram were found to have a sedative
effect on the central nervous system; jasmine,
peppermint, basil, clove and ylangylang were found
to have a stimulating effect. Neroli was found to be
stimulating and lemon to be sedating, contrary to
popular belief. Some oils are known to be
‘adaptogens’, that is, they have a balancing or
normalizing effect on the systems of the body:
geranium and rosewood were either sedative or
stimulating according to each situation and
individual.
Sedatives for nervous tension, stress,
insomnia, etc; for example, chamomile,
bergamot, sandalwood, lavender, sweet
marjoram, lemon balm, hops, valerian,
lemon.
Stimulants for convalescence, lack of
strength, nervous fatigue, etc; for example,
basil, jasmine, peppermint, ylangylang,
neroli, angelica, rosemary.
Nerve tonics (nervines) for strengthening
the nervous system as a whole; for
example, chamomile, clary sage, juniper,
lavender, marjoram, rosemary.
3,6,7
The Mind
This area is perhaps the most discussed and least
understood area of activity regarding essential oils.
There is no doubt that throughout history aromatic
oils have been used for their power to influence the
emotions and states of mind: this is the basis for
their employment as incense for religious and
ritualistic purposes. It is already known that two
olfactory nerve tracts run right into the limbic
system (the part of the brain concerned with
memory and emotion), which means that scents can
evoke an immediate and powerful response which
defies rational analysis.
Recent research at Warwick University, England,
and Toho University, Japan, has aimed to put these
traditionally held beliefs and applications into a
scientific context. They came up with two types of
reaction to odours which they called a ‘hard-wired’
response or a ‘soft-wired’ response: the first type is
ingrained from before birth and is purely
instinctual; the second is learned or acquired later
on.
The first type may be, for example, the
scent of the mother’s skin or a sexual
signal; the second mightbe the fragrance
of honeysuckle, reminiscent of a
childhood garden.
But to what extent is the effect of a particular oil
dependent upon its chemical or physiological
make-up, and to what extent does it rely upon a
Indian Research Journal of Pharmacy and Science; Editorial
belief or an asso
ciation? In dealing with the
psychological or emotional responses to the scent
of a particular oil, this
kind of classification
becomes
much more difficult: surely here it is more
appropriate to consider the temperament of
individual within a given co
ntext, rather than
predict a set reaction.
At the Psychology of Perfumery Conferenc
it was generally agreed
that ‘while pharmacological
effects may be very similar from one p
another, psychological
effects are bound to be
different.’ The effect of an odour on a
human being
was dependent on a
variety of factors which
include:
1. How the odour was applied,
2. How much was applied,
3. The
circumstances in which it was applied,
4. The
person to whom it was applied (age, sex,
personality type),
5. What
mood they were in to start with,
6. What
previous associations they may have with
the odour,
7. Anosmia
, or inability to smell (certain scents).
We must, therefore, seek odoriferous substances
which present
affinities with the human being
intend
to treat, those which will compensate for his
deficie
ncies and those which will make
faculties blossom. It was by searching for this
remedy that we encountered the
Figure 1
Indian Research Journal of Pharmacy and Science; Editorial; D. Halder et.al
Ind Res J Pharm & Sci|2018: Sept.: 5 (3)
ciation? In dealing with the
psychological or emotional responses to the scent
kind of classification
much more difficult: surely here it is more
appropriate to consider the temperament of
each
ntext, rather than
At the Psychology of Perfumery Conferenc
e 1991,
that ‘while pharmacological
effects may be very similar from one p
erson to
effects are bound to be
human being
variety of factors which
circumstances in which it was applied,
person to whom it was applied (age, sex,
mood they were in to start with,
previous associations they may have with
, or inability to smell (certain scents).
We must, therefore, seek odoriferous substances
affinities with the human being
we
to treat, those which will compensate for his
ncies and those which will make
his
faculties blossom. It was by searching for this
remedy that we encountered the
individualprescription
(IP), which on all points
represents the identity of the individu
When we begin to consider individual needs,
essential oils start to demon
strate the versatility of
their
nature. The rose is a good example; a flower
which has been associated with beauty, love, and
spiritual
depth in folklore and religious texts
(especially Sufi) but which als
o has a long tradition
of usage
for physical conditions such as skin
problems, regulating the female cy
the circulation,
purifying the blood and as a heart
tonic. When we smell the fragrance of
carries all these
rich associations with it, affecting
our mind and body simultaneously,
effect is moulded by
personal experience.
Anti-tumor& Anti-
Cancer activity
Tea tree oil and terpinen-4-
ol both were able to
retard the growth of human melanoma
cells and M14 adriamicin-
resistant cells. This
action was linked to apoptosis via caspase
dependent mechanism in melanoma cells. 5
Fluorouracil treatment is enhanced in human colon
cancer cells if sensitized by geraniol, a component
of plant essent
ial oils. Efforts are being made to
establish the link between essential oils and their
anti-
tumor activity. Polypharmacological anti
tumor mode-of-
action of essential oils in cardamom
has some promising results to substantiate the
claims.
Figure 1
3: Benefits of Aromatherapy
; D. Halder et.al
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Ind Res J Pharm & Sci|2018: Sept.: 5 (3)
1556
(IP), which on all points
represents the identity of the individu
al.
When we begin to consider individual needs,
strate the versatility of
nature. The rose is a good example; a flower
which has been associated with beauty, love, and
depth in folklore and religious texts
o has a long tradition
for physical conditions such as skin
problems, regulating the female cy
cle, promoting
purifying the blood and as a heart
tonic. When we smell the fragrance of
the rose, it
rich associations with it, affecting
our mind and body simultaneously,
where the
personal experience.
3.6,7
Cancer activity
:
ol both were able to
retard the growth of human melanoma
M14 WT
resistant cells. This
action was linked to apoptosis via caspase
-
dependent mechanism in melanoma cells. 5
-
Fluorouracil treatment is enhanced in human colon
cancer cells if sensitized by geraniol, a component
ial oils. Efforts are being made to
establish the link between essential oils and their
tumor activity. Polypharmacological anti
-
action of essential oils in cardamom
has some promising results to substantiate the
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Applications of Aromatherapy:
The use of aromatherapy in holistic medicine has
taken a long leap within a couple of years. On
reviewing the literature on this therapy, it is found
that numerous studies have been carried out to
study the effects of this therapy on human brain
and its emotions.
Its role in mood, alertness, and mental stress in
healthy subjects was a topic of discussion among
scientific community recently. The health benefits
of aromatherapy include its ability to relieve
anxiety and depression, boost energy levels, speed
up the healing process, cure headaches, boost
cognition, induce sleep, strengthen the immune
system, reduce pain, improve digestion, and
increase circulation.
Aromatherapy is not widely administered
via ingestion.
The effects of aromatherapy are theorized
to result from the binding of chemical components
in the essential oil to the olfactory receptor,
impacting the brain’s emotional centre, the limbic
system. Topical application of aromatic oils may
exert antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and
analgesic effects. Studies in animals show sedative
and stimulant effects of specific essential oils as
well as positive effects on behaviour and the
immune system. Functional imaging studies in
humans support the influence of odours on the
limbic system and its emotional pathways. Human
clinical trials have investigated aromatherapy
primarily in the treatment of stress and anxiety in
patients with critical illnesses or in other
hospitalized patients.
These oils have well proven antibacterial,
antibiotic, and antiviral properties and many
published reports elsewhere as well as practitioners
have suggested them to be useful in many other
diseases like alzheimer, cardiovascular, cancer and
labour pain in pregnancy, etc. There is an increased
trend nowadays to use this therapy in the treatment
of cancer and sleep disorder. Their organic
character and to act in a supportive manner with the
body, provide a feeling of well-beingness. It was
found that the locomotor activity of mice increased
significantly by inhalation of rosemary essential
oils, which are used in phytotherapy as activating
and refreshing remedy for exhaustion.
CONCLUSION:
Imagine a survivor of a failed civilization with
only a tattered book on Aromatherapy for guidance
in arresting a cholera epidemic. Yet, such a book
would more likely be found amid the debris than a
comprehensible medical text. - James Lovelock,
Environmentalist & Scientist.
Aromatherapy is not only having the ability to cure
several diseases but also use of essential oils
provides pleasure & soothing effect. Hence,
Aromatherapy is an Art of Healing & has similar
benefits, when used with the Modern Treatment
Techniques.
REFERENCES:
1. Ali B, Wabel N.A.A, Shams S, Ahamad
A, Khan S.A, Anwar F. Essential oils used
in aromatherapy: A systemic review. As.
Paci. J. Trop. Med., 2015, 5(8), 601-611.
2. http://healinghandsschool.com/wp-
content/uploads/2013/06/Aroma-Day1-
Part1.pdf
3. http://www.aaimt.edu/lc/Courses/EssOils/
EssentialOils.pdf
4. http://redwheelweiser.com/downloads/enc
yclopediaessoils.pdf
5. www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/22/1/70/pdf
6. Bakkali, F.; Averbeck, S.; Averbeck, D.;
Idaomar, M. Biological effects of essential
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oils—A review. Food Chem. Toxicol.
2008, 46, 446–475. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
7. Zitzelsberger, C.; Buchbauer, G. Essential
oils as “a cry for help”. A review. Nat.
Prod. Commun. 2015, 10,1127–1138.
[PubMed]
8. Freires, I.A.; Denny, C.; Benso, B.; de
Alencar, S.M.; Rosalen, P.L. Antibacterial
activity of essential oils andtheir isolated
constituents against cariogenic bacteria: A
systematic review. Molecules 2015, 20,
7329–7358.[CrossRef] [PubMed]
9. Russo, R.; Corasaniti, M.T.; Bagetta, G.;
Morrone, L.A. Exploitation of cytotoxicity
of some essential oilsfor translation in
cancer therapy. Evid. Based Complement.
Alternat. Med. 2015, 2015, 397821.
[CrossRef][PubMed]
10. Bayala, B.; Bassole, I.H.; Scifo, R.;
Gnoula, C.; Morel, L.; Lobaccaro, J.M.;
Simpore, J. Anticancer activity ofessential
oils and their chemical components—A
review. Am. J. Cancer Res. 2014, 19, 591–
607.
11. R. Tisserand, T. Balacs, Essential oil
safety: a guide for health
professionalsChurchill Livingstone,
Edinburgh (1995).
12. W.C. EvansTrease and Evans
pharmacognosy(4th ed.), WB Saunders
Co, London (2000).
13. https://www.britannica.com/science/phyto
therapy
conflict of interest reported: nil ; source of funding: nil
... This later property is due to the lipophilic character of volatile compounds and their small size. The action of essential oils begins by entering the human body via three possible different ways including direct absorption through inhalation, ingestion or diffusion through the skin tissue [17][18][19][20]. [7]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Aromatic plants produce diverse chemical constituents with potential to inhibit viral infections. These plants have been utilized for the prevention and treatment of a range of infectious and non-infectious diseases. Essential oils are among the plant-derived antiviral agents that are being employed in phytomedicine, and are considered as prospective drug candidate against the ravaging Coronavirus. Methods: Relevant articles relating to the concept were identified using a combination of manual library search as well as journal publication on the subject and critically reviewed. Results: Essential oils in medicinal plants have extensive applications in medicinal chemistry, aromatherapy and pharmaceuticals. Essential oils have several biological properties such as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, wound-healing and anti-cancer effects in vitro and in vivo. Several reports have analyzed and described essential oils as good antiviral agents against Respiratory tract viral infections hence are excellent prospective candidate against Corona virus. Conclusions: It is hoped that efficient and effective exploration and optimization of essential oils from medicinal plants would improve the drug discovery process against the ravaging Coronavirus.
... One of these complementarily approaches is -Aromatherapy‖, that involves the therapeutic use of natural fragrance or aromatic essential oils derived from a wide variety of plant species [3] to improve physical, emotional, and spiritual wellbeing [4]. Many ancient civilizations like Egypt, China and India have practiced this complementary and alternative therapy using essential oils from at least 6000 years [5], to treat and prevent diseases via several routes of administration: Usually topical, massage, inhalation, or oral [6]. ...
Article
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Over the centuries, humanity has known and utilized some sacred oils extracted from their medicinal plants for therapeutic purpose. They are considered as good source of bioactive compounds having a wide range of vital biological activities. Aromatic oils have been a part of human history for more than 3,500 years BC and appeared with regularity throughout all major civilizations down the ages, with uses ranging from religious ritual, food flavoring, medicines, perfumery and the masking of bad odors. It is impossible to date exactly when plants were first used medicinally, since such a development would have taken place over thousands of years. During recent decades, many researchers have investigated the mechanisms of action and the therapeutic use of essential oils as physical, emotional, and spiritual well-being. This review, highlights on some sacred essential oils extracted from important traditional medicinal plants that possesses several pharmacological properties, considering that the safety and versatility of this these supplement should allow for its use in numerous pathological conditions.
... [3,4] In the book wrote by a famous cardiologist in 1996 with the name "The lost Art of Healing" Bernard Lawn declares that behavior is the important part of a good medical care. [5,6] The achievement of complete patient health is directly linked with the behavior and empathic nature of the health care professionals including doctors, pharmacist, and ORIGINAL ARTICLE nurses. [6,7] A professional behavior is extremely needed in health care organization dealing with patients not only improve the adherence with therapy but also increases the health outcomes and reduction in health care cost. ...
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Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavior of the pharmacists and patients' satisfaction in coronavirus disease-19 pandemic in Pakistan. Materials and Methods: A total of 314 participants participated in the study by cross-sectional study design and convenient sampling technique. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Results: Results revealed that significant number of respondents was not fully satisfied with behavior of the pharmacists. Around half of the respondents were agreed that pharmacists dispensed the same medication as prescribed by the prescribers. Around 38.9% of respondents noticed that pharmacists were not taking keen interest in resolving their health issues. Statistically, significant association (P < 0.05) was observed among patients' overall satisfaction with pharmacists' behavior and services, and precise dispensing of medications, medications counseling, interest in resolving patients' health problems, and general attention given by the pharmacists toward patients. Conclusion: The study concluded that pharmacists should pay more attention to deal with their patients, especially during such pandemics when there is a more need of empathy and good behavior to increase patients' satisfaction and decrease health-related problems.
... This later property is explained by the lipophilic character of volatile compounds and their small scale. The action of essential oils starts with three potential ways of entering the human body, As well as direct absorption into the skin tissue through inhalation, ingestion, or diffusion [69][70][71][72]. ...
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The COVID-19 pandemic is a global public health epidemic, with significant mortality and morbidity, including critical care, putting a strain on health care services. In the city of Wuhan, China, a novel coronavirus called SARS-CoV-2 appeared at the end of 2019, causing an outbreak of unusual viral pneumonia. A type of coronavirus disease belonging to the family Coronaviridae is COVID-19. Moreover, the disease's symptoms include fever, dry cough, tiredness. It is possible to foresee numerous options to monitor or avoid emerging 2019-nCoV infections, including small-molecule drugs, interferon therapies, and Vaccines. Novel interventions may take a long time.
... One of these treatments could be traditional medicine which has long employed the use of botanical preparations to address human ailments, "Aromatherapy", is one such modality. It involves the therapeutic use of natural fragrance or aromatic essential oils derived from a wide variety of plant species (Halder et al., 2018) to improve physical, emotional, and spiritual wellbeing (Vigan, 2010). ...
... Lavender oil for example can cause a depression of the central nervous system, increasing  and  brain waves (Diego et al., 1989), which are typical for a relaxed mood. This way Lavender oil can suppress anxiety (Halder et al., 2018) and help to activate the vigilance for long-term tasks (Shimizu et al., 2008). This is due to containing linalool showing sedative effects and linalyl acetate causing narcotic actions. ...
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Explicit vocabulary learning is a burden for most of the students. But vocabulary is the basis of each language, and not all words can be acquired incidentally through context or reading. Especially for content and language integrated learning in L2 it is important to offer lots of support for learning a large number of terms in order to avoid frustration and negative impact on motivation for the subject. This classroom study investigated the effects of odor on L2 vocabulary learning. The olfactory sense is connected with the limbic system and therefore associated with emotions and motivation. Young EFL Learners (n=158) were randomized to 7 different groups to compare the effects on retention of vocabulary, on motivation and concentration. A mix of essential oils that is proven to enhance concentration and vigilance was given as support. Major finding found as a result of the testing was the positive correlation with the time during a school day the odor was offered as support.
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An outbreak of a novel coronavirus Covid -19 infection began in December 2019 in Wuhan- China, and rapidly spread across the world affecting 210 countries and territories. Vaccine development has been successful, but its supply is limited especially in some countries such as Syria which is under war and sanctions. Thus, practices of preventive management steps are highly suggested, by using complementary and alternative therapies such as aromatherapy to control this pandemic. This review highlighted aromatherapy as an effective management approach against this pandemic, presenting some products related to BioCham Aromatherapy Company that is helping to control or minimize this disease
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Essential oils are widely used in pharmaceutical, sanitary, cosmetic, agriculture and food industries for their bactericidal, virucidal, fungicidal, antiparasitical and insecticidal properties. Their anticancer activity is well documented. Over a hundred essential oils from more than twenty plant families have been tested on more than twenty types of cancers in last past ten years. This review is focused on the activity of essential oils and their components on various types of cancers. For some of them the mechanisms involved in their anticancer activities have been carried out.
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Nowadays, use of alternative and complementary therapies with mainstream medicine has gained the momentum. Aromatherapy is one of the complementary therapies which use essential oils as the major therapeutic agents to treat several diseases. The essential or volatile oils are extracted from the flowers, barks, stem, leaves, roots, fruits and other parts of the plant by various methods. It came into existence after the scientists deciphered the antiseptic and skin permeability properties of essential oils. Inhalation, local application and baths are the major methods used in aromatherapy that utilize these oils to penetrate the human skin surface with marked aura. Once the oils are in the system, they remodulate themselves and work in a friendly manner at the site of malfunction or at the affected area. This type of therapy utilizes various permutation and combinations to get relief from numerous ailments like depression, indigestion, headache, insomnia, muscular pain, respiratory problems, skin ailments, swollen joints, urine associated complications etc. The essential oils are found to be more beneficial when other aspects of life and diet are given due consideration. This review explores the information available in the literature regarding therapeutic, medical, cosmetic, psychological, olfactory, massage aromatherapy, safety issues and different plants used in aromatherapy. All the available information was compiled from electronic databases such as Academic Journals, Ethnobotany, Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, and library search.
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Dental caries remains the most prevalent and costly oral infectious disease worldwide. Several methods have been employed to prevent this biofilm-dependent disease, including the use of essential oils (EOs). In this systematic review, we discuss the antibacterial activity of EOs and their isolated constituents in view of a potential applicability in novel dental formulations. Seven databases were systematically searched for clinical trials, in situ, in vivo and in vitro studies addressing the topic published up to date. Most of the knowledge in the literature is based on in vitro studies assessing the effects of EOs on caries-related streptococci (mainly Streptococcus mutans) and lactobacilli, and on a limited number of clinical trials. The most promising species with antibacterial potential against cariogenic bacteria are: Achillea ligustica, Baccharis dracunculifolia, Croton cajucara, Cryptomeria japonica, Coriandrum sativum, Eugenia caryophyllata, Lippia sidoides, Ocimum americanum, and Rosmarinus officinalis. In some cases, the major phytochemical compounds determine the biological properties of EOs. Menthol and eugenol were considered outstanding compounds demonstrating an antibacterial potential. Only L. sidoides mouthwash (1%) has shown clinical antimicrobial effects against oral pathogens thus far. This review suggests avenues for further non-clinical and clinical studies with the most promising EOs and their isolated constituents bioprospected worldwide.
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Essential oils are complex mixtures of several components endowed with a wide range of biological activities, including antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic, sedative, analgesic, and anesthetic properties. A growing body of scientific reports has recently focused on the potential of essential oils as anticancer treatment in the attempt to overcome the development of multidrug resistance and important side effects associated with the antitumor drugs currently used. In this review we discuss the literature on the effects of essential oils in in vitro and in vivo models of cancer, focusing on the studies performed with the whole phytocomplex rather than single constituents.
  • Paci
Paci. J. Trop. Med., 2015, 5(8), 601-611.
Essential oils as "a cry for help
  • C Zitzelsberger
  • G Buchbauer
Zitzelsberger, C.; Buchbauer, G. Essential oils as "a cry for help". A review. Nat.
Essential oil safety: a guide for health professionalsChurchill Livingstone
  • R Tisserand
  • T Balacs
R. Tisserand, T. Balacs, Essential oil safety: a guide for health professionalsChurchill Livingstone, Edinburgh (1995).