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Education and unemployment in Jammu and Kashmir: a study on embedding employability into the educational curriculum

RABIYA YASEEN BAZAZ, Research Scholar, Department of Sociology, AMU, Aligarh, (U.P.), E-
mail: and MOHAMMAD AKRAM, Professor, Department of Sociology,
AMU, Aligarh, (U.P.), E-mail:
Rabiya Yaseen Bazaz and Mohammad Akram
Education is generally seen as an integral component of socialisation.
At an individual level, it is increasingly being considered as one of the most
important component of human capital formation (Mehrotra 2005) and
capability enhancement (Sen 2000). Further, at the level of the society, it is
recognised as an important tool for bringing constructive and inclusive changes
(Walker and Unterhalter 2007; Hopper 2012). Education is considered as the
most important agent for bringing planned change. However, in a society like
In d i a wh e r e inequ a l iti es ar e str u c t u r e d an d di sc riminat i ons are
institutionalised, the contribution made by the education in bringing such
transformation is always debated. The increasing number of unemployed and
under employed youth in general and the educated unemployed youth in
particular, unambiguously, suggest that the prevailing education system in
India is unable to address the issues of employment generation.
India is a growing economy and has the advantage of the demographic
dividend thrown up by an increase in the working age population. However,
the paradox for India is that the unemployment rate among the youth (15-29
years) is much higher as compared to that in the overall populatio n
(Government of India 2015). The youth unemployment rate (Principal Status-
PS) is 7.6 percent whereas unemployment rate for the educated youth is 13.8
percent and overall unemployment rate of India is 2.7 percent. Further, the
general feature of unemployment rate is that it is increasing with the level of
education (NSSO 68th round, Employment and Unemployment report 2011-
12: Jha & Thakur 2012). Jammu and Kashmir, Kerala, Assam, and Jharkhand
are some of the major states of India where youth unemployment is highest.
In Jammu and Kashmir youth unemployment rate (PS) is 14.6 percent whereas
unemployment rate for the educated youth is 23.3 percent and overall
unemployment rate is 4.8 percent respectively . Fu rther educational
unemployment is higher in urban areas (12.2 percent) of Jammu and Kashmir
as compared to that of the rural areas (8.0 percent) (NSSO 68th round,
Employment and Unemployment 2011-12).
These compelling figures on unemployment force us to ask one question:
Can education in India, in its conventional form, serve the employment needs
of the increasing number of youth? We can try to find an answer of this question
by examining the global responses to similar problems. The experiences of newly
industralized countries of east Asia (Japan, China, Korea) show that prudent
reforms in the content and curriculum of education and adoption of technical
and vocational contents can help combat challenges of development especially
unemployment (Hopper 2012). Based on these experiences, it is increasingly
realized that the content and curriculum of education needs radical reforms in
India. Vocationalisation of the curriculum is suggested as an important measure
to yield the desired end-results from the educational institutions. However,
whether such reforms would be viable and what could be the direction of such
reforms, are some of the issues that need to be resolved and for this, a theoretical
understanding of the institution of education is also necessary.
The functionalist perspective portrays education as a benign institution
and suggests that it should be characterised by the common curriculum so
that shared norms and values could prevail at a larger level (Durkheim 1961;
Parsons 1961; Davis and Moore 1967). The conflict school of thought, on the
other hand, views education as an institution serving the interests of the
powerful and see curriculum as an instrument of it (Bowles and Gintis 1976;
Althusser 1971). Ivan Illich (1973) in his “Deschooling Society” argues that
present system of schooling does not impart skills according to the needs of
pupil and only legitimise the curriculum set by the state. Pierre Bourdieu
(1971) considers reproduction of the culture of the dominant class as major
role of education. But postmodernists, like Usher and Edward (1994), deny
the argument that there is any single best curriculum which should be followed
in all schools. There is no set of truth that can be accepted uniformly. Extending
the postmodernist argument, it could be stated that need based curriculums
for the pupils, is the need of the hour.
Recognising the pitfall in the present educational system the Report
of the Committee for Evolution of the New Education Policy (Government of
India 2016) the talks about mainstreaming of vocational education into the
formal academic system (after class VIII). Although NEP report, 2016
recognised importance of vocational education it did not give a comprehensive
picture of it. It is a harsh reality that vocational education is not the part of
compulsory education even when the country is witnessing huge drop out at
elementary and secondary level (Bhatty 2014).
Jammu and Kashmir is witnessing a huge problem relating to
unemployment, underemployment and rising dropout rates. There is a large
section of youth in Jammu and Kashmir who back off from education at
some point, due to various socio economic impediments (National Skill
Development Corporation 2013). They remain deprived of descent jobs and
the kind of education they receive, often uproot, them from their traditional
occupational bases. Jammu and Kashmir is a conflict prone state and youth
unemployment is further escalating tension in the state thus aggravating
their marginalization. Although the state has substantial natural resources
along with traditional sources of employment generation sectors like crafts,
handloom, tourism, allied sectors etc which can be explored and improved in
order to foster employment opportunities, but it is dwindling with lack of
industrial base (Jammu and Kashmir Economic Survey 2014-2015). This
paper focuses within this larger background and explores the problems
existing in the educational curriculum in Jammu and Kashmir and suggests,
in the light of the existing opportunities, the ways of generating further
Methods, objectives and area of the study
This paper mainly uses the data provided by National Sample Survey
Office (NSSO) 68th round (2011-12), Jammu and Kashmir Economic Survey
(2014-15) and National Skill Development Corporation (2013). This paper has
used analytical method and the findings are based on extensive review of
other related literature and government reports. The main objectives of this
paper are: (i) To analyse the magnitude of unemployment and educational
unemployment in Jammu and Kashmir; (ii) To examine the status of vocational
education and skill development in the educational curriculum of Jammu and
Kashmir; and (iii) To suggest reforms in the existing curriculum structure by
identifying sectors with potentials of generating employment in Jammu and
Jammu and Kashmir is situated at the northern most part of the
Country. It is divided into three important zones, Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh
comprising a total of 22 districts. Jammu is the winter capital of the state
whereas Srinagar is the summer capital of the state. The state of Jammu and
Kashmir with an area of 138 thousand square kilometres and a population of
1,25,48,926 occupies the 6th place in respect of area and the 19th in respect of
population among the states in India (Census 2011). The district of Jammu is
most populous district followed by Srinagar. The total literacy rate of the state
is 68.74 percent. The total male and female literacy rate is 78.26 percent and
58.01 percent respectively. The total sex ratio of the state is 883 (Census,
2011). The estimated BPL population of Jammu and Kashmir is 24.21 lakhs
persons (21.63 percent) of which 22.00 lakhs persons are from rural areas and
2.21 lakhs persons are living in urban areas. This shows that about one fifth
of the state’s population falls below the poverty line (Jammu and Kashmir
Economic Survey, 2014-2015).
Jammu and Kashmir is industrially not well developed. Majority of
people reside in rural areas (about 70 percent) and directly or indirectly depend
upon agriculture for their livelihood. In last few decades, the occupational
structure of Jammu and Kashmir has witnessed significant changes. The
percentage of labour force employed in primary, secondary and tertiary sectors
was 75.8 percent, 9.03 percent and 12.3 percent respectively in 1961. However,
in 2011 the percentage of labour force employed in primary, secondary and
tertiary sectors has become 45 percent, 8.0 percent and 49 percent respectively.
The contribution of agriculture and industrial sector to GSDP (Gross State
Domestic Product) is also declining from past few decades. However, the
contribution of tertiary sector to GSPD, which is largely operated from urban
area, has risen sharply. The estimated percentage contribution of agriculture
and allied activities, industry and service sectors to GSDP were 17.49%, 25.87%
and 56.64% respectively in 2014-15 as against 28.06%, 28.23% and 43.71%
respectively in 2004-05 (Jammu and Kashmir Economic Survey, 2014-2015).
Further, work force participation rate of the state has declined from 42.7
percent in 1961 to 36.6 percent in 2001 (Census 1961 and 2001).
Findings and analysis
Unemployment in Jammu and Kashmir
In Jammu and Kashmir unemployment rate for usual principal status
(UPS), usual status (adjusted) (UPSS), current weekly status (CWS), and
current daily status (CDS) stands at 4.8 percent, 3.5 percent, 4.7 percent and
6.7 percent respectively (NSSO 68th round, Employment and Unemployment
report, 2011-12). As against this, the all India level indicator was lower than
that of state level under all the four approaches as is indicated in Table 1.
The unemployment rate is recorded highest in CDS approach, in Jammu
and Kashmir, which is an indication of labour underutilization (India Labour
and Employment Report, 2014). Unemployment rate for males in Jammu and
Kashmir (UPS) is 3.1 percent whereas that of females was 20.6 percent which
is far too high when compared to the unemployment of females at all Indian
level (3.7 percent). Further the unemployment is more prevalent in urban areas
than in rural areas of Jammu and Kashmir. Unemployment rate in urban areas
of Jammu and Kashmir, based on 68th Round of NSS, stood at 7.8 percent as
against 3.9 percent in rural area. The unemployment amongst urban male (4.7
percent) is higher than that of rural males (2.7 percent) in Jammu and Kashmir.
The Unemployment situation of Jammu and Kashmir in comparison
to Northern States is quite higher. Jammu and Kashmir has the highest
Unemployment rate (UPS) of 4.9 percent in comparison to its neighbouring
states like Punjab (2.8 percent), Himachal Pradesh (2.0 percent), Delhi (4.7
percent) and Haryana (3.2 percent) (NSSO 68th round, Employment and
Unemployment report 2011-12).
Educational unemployment and its magnitude
The problem of unemployment gains more importance because of
higher incidence of unemployment among the educated section of youth in
the State. Due to limited job opportunities available for educated youth in the
State, the number of unemployed youth has been increasing with every passing
year (Jammu and Kashmir Economic Survey 2014-15).
There are 4.88 lakh educated youths who are seeking jobs in Jammu
& Kashmir (Table 2). Majority of job seekers are from Srinagar district followed
by Jammu district which are largely urban areas and also from the capital
cities of Jammu and Kashmir (Table 2). As depicted in Table-3, majority of job
seekers are from 12th standard followed by 10th standard and 8th standard.
Thus it becomes difficult to refute the notion that a substantial section of the
popu lation in Jammu and Kashmir, after completing their primary or
secondary education is unable to find the jobs. Due to various socio-economic
impediments these youth cannot continue their education for a longer period
(National Skill Development Corportation, 2013). Students from weaker
sections are first to drop out of schools. Their previous education do not serve
them much and therefore they end up in doing menial work which further
aggravates their marginalization and cause specific deprivation among them.
Nearly 72 percent of the total work force in Jammu and Kashmir is working
in an informal sector (NSSO 68th round, Informal Sector and Condition of
Employment in India 2011-12).
Skill development and vocationalisation
There are pitfalls in the present Indian education system. It often
focuses on rote learning and do not encourage creativity. Even the Report of
the Committee for Evolution of the New Education Policy finds that education
in India is characterised by poor quality and corruption, which exist at every
level of education starting from teacher selection to the student examination.
It does not develop necessary skills among the pupils (Government of India,
2016). Madan (2013) in a case study on role of education in bringing change in
society finds that educational practises of the class room reinforces traditional
inequality. It socialises rural folk into new cultural milieu which not only
makes them unfit for their traditional jobs but they also fail to get new middle
class jobs in town. Their learning leads them nowhere in life. He further says
that girls and dalits, because of their socio-economic constraints, left school at
an early stage. In the absence of any formal skill training, these marginalised
groups fail to get a decent work for themselves, which further adds to their
Bala (2005) in his study argues that with the serious problem of
mounting educated unemployed young women and men and growing unrest
among the students, re-orientation of the education system on the spirit of
Gandhain conception of education seems to be the need of the 21st century.
Mahatma Gandhi talks about vocationalisation of education which means
increasing vocation oriented skills and components of education for all
students. Such education can lead society toward social, economic and
sustainable development. Akram (2012) in his study reveals that skill
development should be the part of the formal education. Education can become
the path for social and sustainable development only when schools impart
necessary skills to the youth. Education without such enabling features can
get reduced to a ritual.
On the totem pole of state management hierarchy, education comes
relatively low both in status and recognition. Even after completing 12 years
of schooling, present education system is not linking students with the world
of employment (Government of India 2016). Abysmally lower skill education
among the youth is an imperative reason behind this shortfall. It is estimated
that only 2.3 percent of the total workforce in India has undergone formal
skill training as compared to 68 percent in UK, 75 percent in Germany, 52
percent in USA, 80 percent in Japan and 96 per cent in Sou th Korea
(Government of India 2015).
The major goal of education in any society is to prepare pupil for
employment. Joblessness among youth, especially among those with a
substantial number of years of formal education, is one of the biggest challenges
with which India is dwindling. Formal education of India is not remarkable
(Majumdar and Mukerjee 2013; Daku and Oyekan 2014).Vocational education
is not an aspiration for students, parents and the community at large
(Government of India 2016).
Similar is the situation of Jammu and Kashmir. Large rate of
unemployment, underemployment and dropouts can be attributed to the fact
that education system in Jammu and Kashmir does not instil creativity and
skill to the youth at large (Government of India 2011). The occupation structure
of Jammu and Kashmir reveals that 60.2 per cent of the people are self
employed, 19.4 per cent are casual labourer and only 4.2 per cent works as
regular salaried employee. Further, out of 60.2 per cent who are self employed
only 1.62 per cent works in formal sector and 58.5 percent works in informal
sec tors (NSSO 68th roun d 2011-12, Infor mal Sector and Condition of
Employment in India). Thus, education system in Jammu and Kashmir are
producing citizens who are neither getting absorbed into the white collar and
government jobs ( only 4.2 per cent works as regular salaried employee) nor
getting any vocational training which could help them to find jobs as
entrepreneurs. In Jammu and Kashmir, only 4.2 percent of the total population
has received any vocational training out of which only 1.5 percent has received
any formal training and 2.7 percent has received informal training. The status
of vocational education in Jammu and Kashmir is much lower when compared
with all India figures i.e. 6.8 percent (Government of India 2013-14,).
Restructuring of curriculum and vocationalisation of formal education
The Government of India has launched several social development
initiatives and one of them is ‘skill India and Make in India’ which requires
the mainstreaming of vocational education within the formal academic system
(Government of India 2016). Skill development is intended to build the
capability to act in a variety of real life situations.
In order to over -come pro blems of unemploy men t and un der
employment in Jammu and Kashmir, we need to decolonize school life in a
way that does not necessarily mean disbandment of schools, but permits pupils
the autonomy to be educated in a non conventional way in the schools. For
achieving social, economic and sustainable development in Jammu and
Kashmir, it is essential to establish linkage between schools and work.
Integration of these two institutions can be achieved through vocationalisation
of school curriculum Rather than providing shallow and unconnected
knowledge it is imperative to restructure curriculum in Jammu and Kashmir
where focus should be given on vocational education.
Relating curriculum with vocational education, Kumarappa (1980) and
Bala (2005) argue that vocational education should be made part of the
compulsory education. Although number of policy documents talk about
vocationalization of formal education but they do not recognise that vocational
education could be introduced at earlier level as the part of primary or
elementary level (Government of India 1992 2016). Right to education, the
most dynamic step taken for universalization of elementary education in India,
came with 86th Amendment to the Constitution and added Article 21-A in the
Constitution. Article 21-A says that education is a fundamental right essential
for well-being of the people and makes it mandatory for state to provide free
and compulsory education to all children in the age group of six to fourteen
years (Bazaz 2016). However, the aim of universal elementary education cannot
be reduced to the learning a few letters or gaining just a school degree (Bala
2005; Akram 2012). The child at the age of fourteen, i.e. after completing his/
her compulsory education course should be discharged with capabilities which
could help them in becoming an earning unit, if the child becomes a drop-out.
Walker & Unterhalter (2007) also argue that skill training at an earlier level
will act as capability enhancer.
While preparing any plan for sustainable employment generation in
Jammu and Kashmir, it has to be kept in view that the state lags behind in
industrialization. Second, the prospects of any large scale expansion in the public
sector jobs are not very bright as share of regular salaried jobs in the employment
generation programme is not substantial (Jammu and Kashmir Economic Survey
2014-15). Therefore, other avenues would have to be explored for providing
sustainable employment to the people of the Jammu and Kashmir. The state
has its traditional sectors like agriculture and allied activity, handloom and
handicraft, tourism, banking etc. It is imperative to provide knowledge and
skill of these sectors to the youth and to train them as entrepreneurs. As
discussed earlier, substantial number of youth in Jammu and Kashmir after
completing their secondary education are unable to find jobs. They remain
unemployed, underemployed or carry on their traditional occupation. The kind
of education they get neither help them in getting employment nor help them
in making any contribution in their traditional occupation. Vocational courses
should be made part of compulsory education in Jammu and Kashmir where
activities and work experience of a simple type should be introduced such as
kitchen gardening, floriculture, modelling, Papier-mâché, paper work, cardboard
modelling, etc. At this stage, work-experience has only educative and not
productive value. Thus, after completing their compulsory education pupil should
atleast possess some basic skills and should be aware about the State and
traditional economic sectors. Without the general skill development, the specific
skill cannot help pupil much. In high schools and in higher secondary more
specialised knowledge of these courses should be offered to the youth. In these
classes, agriculture and allied activity, animal husbandry, carpentry, smithy,
weaving, tailoring, embroidery, gabba- making, pisci-culture tourism, computers,
marketing and entrepreneurship skills and all viable local handicrafts, electrical
and mechanical trades of local demand should be given to the pupil. Therefore,
besides vocational training institution, mainstreaming of vocational education
with the formal academic system and making it part of compulsory education is
ind ispensible in Jammu and Kashmir. The prog ramme of inte nsified
vocationalisation starting from the very of beginning of school education would
enable pupil to earn their livelihood and can prove more beneficial for the
students hailing from poor socio-economic background. This will make education
more productive and inclusive and can help in combating unemployment and
underemployment in Jammu and Kashmir.
Sectors with Employment Potentials or potential sectors
Several studies have identified some important economic sectors of
Jammu and Kashmir which, with proper interventions, can become the
development and employment engine for the State in the upcoming years
(National Skill Development Corporation 2013: Government of India 2011).
There exists skill gap in these sectors where people lack essential skills and
knowledge which are essential for the growth of these sectors. Human
re sources initia tiv es vi a vocati ona lization of form al educa tio n and
decentralization of curriculum can prove vital for the growth of these sectors.
Some of these important sectors are:
For an inclusive growth, agriculture needs to be given priority as
livelihood and food security of large number of low income and other
disadvantaged sections of society what depend upon agriculture. Study reveals
that lack of scientific knowledge regarding new techniques in agriculture,
hybrid varieties, correct and balanced dosage of fertilizers, new irrigation
methods and land conservation are the main factors responsible for low
productivity in agriculture and declining growth rate of this sector. Further
lack of business management skills among the people also stands as an obstacle
for this sector to grow in a desirable way (National Skill Development
Corporation 2013).
As per estimates, over 6 lakh families are actively involved in
horticulture sector in Jammu and Kashmir (Jammu and Kashmir Economic
survey 2015-2016). This sector is one of the most important employment
generating sectors in the state and has the potential for generating more
employment and revenue for the State if people are provided scientific
knowledge of this sector. The challenge which this sector is facing is the lack
of understanding about preservation of fruits and vegetables and minimising
their wastage.
Animal Husbandry
Livestock industry in the state has vast scope for development thereby
rendering quick economic returns. Study reveals that lack of scientific
knowledge about dairy, poultry management, hygiene and sanitation for animal
rearing is creating major hurdles for this sector to create further growth
(National Skill Development Corporation 2013).
Handicraft and Handloom
In the absence of any other manufacturing industry in the State,
handicraft remained a key economic activity from time immemorial. Handicraft
has great potentials for generating employment as it is highly labour intensive.
For promoting growth, this sector needs to be modernized and skill upgradation
is required (Jammu and Kashmir Economic Survey 2015-2016). Kashmir,
especially Srinagar district is the hub of handicrafts and handlooms. Handicraft
and handloom sector is facing number of challenges such as lac k of
understanding about the market and requirements of consumers, poor
production of weavers and lack of creativity. These things have put serious
constraints in the development of this sector.
Tourism in Jammu and Kashmir is a multi-segmental industry and
can play an important role in the employment generation. Apart from
agriculture, tourism industry is the most popular source of income there. People
who are engaged directly or indirectly in tourism industry do not necessarily
have any formal training or knowledge. Local guides and tour operators are
not well equipped in handling tourists. They lack communication skills and
time management skill and sometime they even lack information about
different routes. Besides this, there exist poor hotel management where staff
lacks hospitality skills (Mir 2014).
In order to overcome skill gaps in these sectors it is very important that
knowledge and skills of these sectors should be divulged at primary and at
every possible level of schooling by broadening and revising existing curriculum.
Fo llowing sk ills shou ld be impar ted to pupil (Nation al Ski ll
Development 2013: Government of India 2011).
Knowledge of various crops and fruits and how and when they can
be cultivated.
Scientific and latest technique of preservation of fruits and vegetables.
Knowledge about domestic animals, livestock population, animal
health and care.
Providi ng info rmation abo ut tourist destination, enha ncing
communication and time management skills and basic first aid
Enhancing hospitality skills, where pupil should be taught how to
address guests.
Knowledge about hygiene and sanitation.
Basic computer knowledge.
Driving rules and regulation, road side safety norms.
Kn owl edge of state handloom and handicrafts (hi stor y and
Basic knowledge of papier mâché, embroidery, cutting, tailoring and
Basic entrepreneurship and marketing knowledge.
Decentralisation of curriculum and local government
Mehrotra, Gandhi & Kamaladevi (2015) in “China’s Skill Development
System: Lessons for India” argue that economic and employment growth in
China can be attributed to their focus on vocational and technological education
and training as well as on decentralization of curriculum. Decentralization of
curriculum holds special importance in China. It defines the flexibility at the
local level for government as well as for the industrial participation in
imparting vocational education and training. The curriculum for vocational
courses is designed in such a way that one third of it includes general academic
skills defined by the centre, another one third by the state government and
the remaining one third is determined locally with the help of local government
and local enterprises. The involvement of local enterprises is mandated by
There exists no such flexibility in Jammu and Kashmir where curriculum
remains very rigid. Decision regarding curriculum is highly centralised in a
decentralised government. Introducing new courses is extremely tedious,
bureaucratic and cumbersome process. In Jammu and Kashmir, elementary
and secondary education is devolved by the State as well as by the Central
Government and there exist little or no participation of local government in the
elementary education (Jammu and Kashmir Economic Survey 2014-2015). This
signifies that to what extend system has colonised the school life. This imposing
of legally enforceable boundaries to school life limits what forms of education
are possible and therefore individuality is suppressed by the monopoly of the
management who make everything time, space, texts and procedures, as uniform
as possible.
Decentralisation of school management is one of the effective ways
for responding to the needs of the local people. There should be devolution of
authority in Jammu and Kashmir to local level (panchayats, committees or
municipalities). For introducing knowledge of agriculture, horticulture,
tourism etc new courses have to be developed. This demands flexibility of
curriculum and participation of local government. The curriculum and content
of such courses should be decided by the local government, local enterprise
and experts of these sectors. The content for each trade should be in line with
the needs of the local enterprises (Government of India 2016). The knowledge
of these courses should be divulged by the experts of respective Departments.
The participation of local enterprise in these schools/courses should be
mandated by law. These experts would be required to come either weekly or
fortnightly and should impart training and knowledge of these courses. The
management of these courses should be left to the local government of each
district. The state will have to provide the equipment needed for teaching
craft in the schools, arrange for its proper maintenance and supply raw
material. Further, it also needs to take over the finished products and market
them. Work experience should be an integral part of all general education and
should be treated as a separate subject of the curriculum. One fifth or one
sixth of the total school time should be devoted to it. It should be both a subject
of instruction and examination. This bottom up approach of development can
prove more beneficial for marginalised groups, as it ensures grass-root
participation in education.
Decentralisation of curriculum can enhance quality and social efficiency
of education. It can help in imparting knowledge and skill of local economy
efficiently and can make education more productive and inclusive (Winkler
1989: National Knowledge Commission 2006-2009).
While concluding, it can be said that one of the cherished goal of
education is to link people with employment. However, in Jammu and Kashmir,
this linkage of education with work seems missing. Today, we need broader
and organic approach to education which would enable educated youth to solve
complex array of problems that they face in the modern world. In the absence
of industrial development focus on traditional economic sectors and imparting
knowledge of these sectors in school curriculum is highly recommendable.
Vocationalisation and decentralisation can address the issue of structural
inequalities by making education more productive and inclusive. It can also
mitigate conflicting situation in the state by providing the youth a decent job
and a decent life free from poverty, unemployment, atrocities and deprivations.
Decentralisation and vocationalisation will certainly pave way for social
development and empowerment of the masses, especially of deprived and
margin alised categories of Jammu & Kashmir . It will also in crease
participation of people in the democratic and nation building process.
Table 1
Unemployment Rate of Jammu and Kashmir and India in UPS, UPSS,
CWS, CDS approach
Region Criterion J&K ( %) All India (%)
Male Female Total Male Female Total
Rural UPS 2.7 16.6 3.9 2.1 2.9 2.3
UPSS 2.2 3.0 2.5 1.7 1.7 1.7
CWS 3.0 6.3 3.8 3.3 3.5 3.4
CDS 5.0 11.8 6.1 5.5 6.2 5. 7
Urban UPS 4.7 25.6 7.8 3.2 6.6 3.8
UPSS 4.1 19.0 7.0 3.0 5.2 3.4
CWS 4.5 21.8 7.6 3.8 6.7 4.4
CDS 5.3 24.2 8.4 4.9 8.0 5. 5
Combined UPS 3.1 20.6 4.8 2.4 3.7 2.7
UPSS 2.7 5.1 3.5 2.2 2.2 2.3
CWS 3.4 8.8 4.7 3.5 4.2 3.7
CDS 5.0 14.7 6.7 5.3 6.6 5. 6
Source : NSSO 68th round, Employ ment and Unemployment situation, 2011-12.
Table 2
Job Seekers at District Level in Jammu and Kashmir
S. District of Kashmir Job S. District of Job
No. Division Seekers No. Jammu Division Seekers
1 Srinagar 69815 1 Jammu 60701
2 Gander bal 8205 2 Samba 11081
3 Budgam 30212 3 Udhampur 13916
4 Anantnag 20301 4 Reasi 3413
5 Kulgam 17257 5 Kathua 16322
6 Pulwama 25538 6 Doda 26092
7 Shopian 2568 7 Ramban 6821
8 Baramulla 26981 8 Kisthwar 13734
9. Bandipora 16937 9 Rajouri 30561
10 Kupwara 34902 10 Poonch 37186
11 Leh 5397 - - -
12 Kargil 10906 - - -
Kashmir Division 269,019 Jammu Division 219,827
Grand total of Jammu & 488,846
Kashmir (22 district)
Source : National Skill Development Corporation, 2013
Table 3
Job Seekers and their qualifi cations in Jamm u and Kashmir (in percen tage)
Qualific ation Percentage
8th 15%
10th 30%
11th 4%
12th 36%
Graduates 8%
Post graduates 2%
ITI 3%
Others 2%
Source : National Skill Development Corporation, 2013
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... Further, Bazaz (2020) finds that besides formal educational qualifications, there are other factors such as social capital, cultural capital, human capital, social capital, type and quality of employment and government policies which play important roles in connecting individual's educational attainment with employment. In the absence of these factors and due to various socio--economic and cultural impediments, most of these lower caste women remain deprived of descent jobs and many remain unemployed (Bazaz, 2020;Bazaz & Akram, 2017). Although the rate of unemployment is higher across women of all caste groups, upper caste women often remain unemployed as a choice but lower castes women feel the compulsion to remain unemployed or accept very low paid jobs. ...
Full-text available
Aim Caste studies conducted among Muslims in India generally focus on establishing the existence of caste system among Muslims but they seldom talk about different types of oppression and inequalities faced byMuslim women.This empirical study exploreshow gender and caste identities and their mutual intersectionality impact education,occupation and income choices and actual attainments of Muslim women. Methods This study is part of a larger study conducted among Muslims of Kashmir in India.Primary datawas collected from 704 eligible respondents (Male=392, Female=312) using mixed methods. Three layers of ‘caste like’ and ‘caste’ groups existing in the research area are identified and gender situation within these groups are comparatively examined. Results Each of the ‘caste like’ and ‘caste’ groupshas patriarchal caste capital.Higher professions within the government and private services are largely acquired by upper caste male Muslims or other male and female Muslims having rich cultural and social capital. There is preponderance of lower caste male Muslims in low income self-employment but lower caste Muslim females seldom find say in family based business and compelled to join low paid private jobs. More than fifty percent educated Muslim females are unemployed. Conclusion Although patriarchy is the general rule here, not all women face discrimination and inequality in the same way. Upper caste Muslim women often witness so called benevolent restriction of choices whereas lower caste women are the most excluded and marginalised section of the society who face double discrimination due to patriarchy and interwoven caste positions which severely impacts their educational as well as employment choices and attainments.
Full-text available
The sustained rates of China's economic and industrial growth, along with the country's ability to become the world's factory, can be attributed, at least in part, to its educational reforms. China was able to realise the potential benefits of its demographic dividend by prudent reforms in technical, vocational education and training system. Policymakers in India are grappling with a similar set of constraints and it is crucial to undertake critical reforms in our skill development ecosystem to be able to realise the demographic dividend that is available till about 2040. The Chinese system, its major features, the periodic reforms undertaken, its financing, and the participation of industry, are discussed here. Further, the similarities and distinctions with the Indian system are highlighted along with key lessons from the Chinese experience.
Sociologists and anthropologists always have a sense of unease over what education is doing to society. Does education really make any difference? Or is it only reproducing inequality? And how can one know the answer? This chapter highlights some of the ways in which recent social theory can help us grapple with these questions. This chapter evaluates the notion that education leads to the reproduction of inequality in society, culture, and economy, and examines the roles played by structure and agency. It argues that a literal interpretation of the reproduction thesis is misleading, and suggests that a more nuanced understanding-with a more differentiated conceptual treatment-is needed. This author identifies the ways by which social theory can help illuminate the role of education in inequality, and discusses the views of Margaret Archer and Anthony Giddens who integrated systemic theorizing with the play of individual agency. In conclusion, the author suggests that we need a vision that encapsulates a wider view of the concrete roles, groups, and processes in society. Only then may one begin to address the question of whether education is making any difference at all.
This paper compares human capital theory with the capability approach and lays out the problems with the theory. As a knowledge paradigm for education and development, it finds the theory wanting. However, it has remained the foundation for sectoral work in education and health by international financial institutions. The paper spells out the problems, historically, with World Bank lending in the education sector, some of which follow from human capital theory, while others follow from a broader neoliberal agenda. It concludes by delineating the foundational elements of an alternative knowledge paradigm for 'education for all', based on the capability approach and its extension.
Mahatma Gandhi, the father of the nation gave the scheme of education for modern India, which can be called the first blue print of national system of education, which is job centered, value based and mass oriented. It is the first model of vocationalisation of education in India. In Gandhi an scheme of education, knowledge must be related to activity and practical experience. His scheme of education envisages, a close integration between the schools and community so as to make child more social minded and co-operative. Need of the hour is to reorient education so as to channelise the manpower in the right direction. In the reports of the various committees and commissions the need and the importance of education has been emphasized to make it vocational i.e. job oriented and productive for self-employment. With the serious problem of mounting educated unemployed young men and women, growing unrest among the students, re-orientation of the educational system on the spirit of Gandhian conception of education seems to be the need of the 21st century.
Incl. bibl. notes, index.
Formal education, skill development & vocationalisation: The missing link in India
  • M Akram
Akram, M. 2012 "Formal education, skill development & vocationalisation: The missing link in India", Research on Humanities & Social Science, 2 (8). 142-146.
Right to education: An analysis of the role of private and public schools in upholding educational rights of marginalized group
  • R Bazaz
Bazaz, R. 2016 "Right to education: An analysis of the role of private and public schools in upholding educational rights of marginalized group", Education, 6(2). 40-47.
Review of elementary education policy in India: has it upheld constitution objective of equality
  • K Bhatty
Bhatty, K. 2014 "Review of elementary education policy in India: has it upheld constitution objective of equality", Economic Political Weekly, XLIX (43 & 44). 100-107.