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Chinese Voice: ba (把) and bei (被)

Authors:

Abstract

Chinese ba (把) and bei (被) display argument alternations which reveal new properties in the cartographic projection of Chinese Voice.
Chinese Voice (ba/bei)
漢漢漢漢漢漢漢漢漢漢漢漢漢漢漢漢
Keith Tse ( 漢漢漢 )
University of York/Ronin Institute ( 漢漢漢漢漢漢 / 漢漢漢漢 )
ba  bei  
    
 !"#$% &#'
''%%(
  ) *#+,,&-
.#%%
'-/#
  ba  bei#''
#'0'
('%#
''1'. !#
+,,#002
3%pace42 ,# *#+,+5
6
'%'$'
0'-0
'%%780
3703''+,,&-
91'   (
':  #  #  #%  #
 #'  #  #  '-
0ba  bei  #
':gen  '#yong 
#wang  '#cong  '#wei
 ;'%#gei  ';'%-Ba  bei
 ##
''%
<<'(#'1'
' ba'1' bei:
  
/=0'(>$4/(>$4'
?/'-2.##+,, 
  
(>$4))=>/(>$4
?)%-2.##+,, 
/''1'''
'+,,#  ba'
0'  gei08'  bei:

=>/=0@>/'-%(>$4
?.'%-2+,,A:!A
'''#
#''B:
C3C'(BEIC'0'BAC08'GEIC
0CC
/'''#'
'#'
#';'09'
<(#'9'08'
'1'9'(= A#
+,,+#''%9'9'
-$#8'
'%'<
9'08#1'
9'=0
9'=>/-'0
$(%2+,,".0'#
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This paper examines the interaction of DOM with information structure in Mandarin Chinese. Despite the large amount of works on this topic, much remains to be explained, in particular with respect to some alternations that do not easily fit the explanations proposed so far in terms of affectedness, animacy and definiteness. Through the analysis of text excerpts taken from the Corpus of Modern Chinese of the Center for Chinese Linguistics (CCL) of Peking University, we argue that, in addition to previously identified constraints, DOM in Mandarin Chinese performs another important function in discourse, namely that of signalling the high identifiability of the marked referent.
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There is a traditional belief that a bare verb in the ba construction is never allowed. While often observed, the rule does not always hold true, as I propose to show in this paper. In poems, for example. bare verbs are commonly used to form ba constructions. In everyday speech, disyllabic bare verbs in the ba construction are also allowed, whereas a monosyllable counterpart is strictly banned in the same environment. Given this, it is argued that the Bare Verb Effect in ba constructions is constrained neither by syntax nor by semantics, but primarily by prosody. The argument made here strongly supports the proposal made in Feng (1995) that the interactions between syntax and prosody are bi-directional: Syntax governs prosody and prosody also constrains syntax. The prosodic constraints developed in this paper can also be viewed as well-formed conditions on all the sentences which cannot surface until all of the relevant types of structural constraints (syntactic, semantic and prosodic) are satisfied. The prosodic constraints could, therefore, be one type of interface condition under the assumption that all conditions are interface conditions and that a linguistic expression is the optimal realization of the interface conditions.
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1: Universal Grammar and Word Order.- Notes.- 2: Dimensions of the Case Module.- 2.0. Introduction.- 2.1. Subject and Case.- 2.2. Case Assignees.- 2.2.1. Theoretical Issues.- 2.2.2. Nonsubcategorized NPs and the Case Filter.- 2.2.3. PPs and Clauses: Visibility.- 2.2.4. Thematic and Case Conflict.- 2.2.5. Summary.- 2.3. Conditions on Case Assignment.- Notes.- 3: Single Complementation.- 3.0. Introduction.- 3.1. Descriptive/Resultative Expressions.- 3.1.1. Properties of Descriptive/Resultative Expressions.- 3.1.1.1. Descriptive/Resultative Expressions as Predicates.- 3.1.1.2. Descriptive/Resultative Expressions as Complement.- 3.1.2. Descriptive Expressions.- 3.1.3. Resultative Expressions.- 3.2. Postverbal PPs.- 3.3. Summary.- Notes.- 4: Multiple Complementation.- 4.0. Introduction.- 4.1. Double Object Structures [V NP2 NP1].- 4.1.1. Types of Double Object Structures [VNP2 NP1] in Chinese.- 4.1.1.1. Goal Double Object Structures.- 4.1.1.2. Source Double Object Structures.- 4.1.2. Mechanism for Case Assignment in the Double Object Structure.- 4.1.2.1. Inherent Case Marking.- 4.1.2.2. Structural Case Marking.- 4.1.3. Inherent Case Marking for [V NP2 NP1] in Chinese.- 4.1.4. Structural Case Marking for [V NP2 NP1] in Chines.- 4.1.4.1. NP-Incorporation.- 4.1.4.2. Problems for NP-Incorporation.- 4.1.4.3. The Empty Category Principle.- 4.1.4.4. The Empty Category Principle for [V NP2 NP1] in Chinese.- 4.1.4.5. Source Double Object Structures.- 4.2. [VNP$$\bar S$$] Structures.- 4.3. [V NP1 gei NP2] and [V gei NP2 NP1].- 4.3.1. The Status of Gei.- 4.3.2. Word Order.- 4.3.3. A Problem: Subcategorization.- 4.4. Conclusion.- 4.5. Alternatives.- Notes.- 5: Lexical and Categorial Properties of Case.- 5.0. Introduction.- 5.1. Raising Structures.- 5.2. Exceptional Case Marking Structures.- 5.3. Existential/Presentative Sentences.- 5.3.1. Contrasts between English and Chinese.- 5.3.2. The Problem.- 5.3.3. Analysis.- 5.4. Weather Verbs.- 5.5. Expletive Empty Category.- 5.5.1. The Definiteness Effect.- 5.5.2. Case Assignment of Ergative Verbs.- 5.5.3. Implications.- 5.6. Conclusion.- Notes.- 6: Passive, BA, and Topic Constructions.- 6.0. Introduction.- 6.1. The BEI Construction.- 6.1.1. Syntactic Properties.- 6.1.2. Case and Theta-Role Assignment.- 6.1.3. The Passive Morpheme in Chinese.- 6.1.4. Case Assignment.- 6.1.5. Theta-Role Assignment.- 6.1.6. Obligatory NP-Movement.- 6.1.7. Summary.- 6.2. The BA Construction.- 6.2.1. Properties.- 6.2.2. The Status of Ba.- 6.2.3. Analysis.- 6.2.3.1. Movement Analysis.- 6.2.3.2. Nonmovement Analysis.- 6.2.3.3. Theta-Role Assignment.- 6.2.3.4. Subcategorization.- 6.2.4. Conclusion.- 6.3. Topic Structures.- 6.4. Conclusion.- Notes.- 7: Conclusion.- 7.1. Empirical Consequences.- 7.2. Theoretical Implications.- Index of Names.- Index of Subjects.
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