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The extraction of bioactives from Pleurotus eryngii was addressed using innovative extraction techniques. Microwave hydrodiffusion and gravity, which yielded less than 1% of the initial material, can be proposed as an initial stage to dehydrate the mushroom. Autohydrolysis or hydrothermal extraction using water under subcritical conditions allowed solubilization of up to 80% of the dry weight of the mushroom and produced an extract rich in monosaccharides and oligosaccharides, which also contained 2 g gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g extract and showed antiradical capacity equivalent to 30 mg Trolox/g extract. Supercritical carbon dioxide is an alternative solvent with ability to selectively extract lipophilic fractions (<1% of the initial material) with antioxidant activity.
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... Subcritical water extraction (SWE), also known as hydrothermal extraction, or hot-compressed water extraction is a green method where high temperature and sufficient pressure are applied to extract polysaccharides with a higher yield. Under subcritical conditions (water temperature above its boiling point, and 1-22.1 MPa pressure while keeping water at liquid state), the viscosity and dielectric constant of the water are reduced which enable it to solubilize compounds with different polarities including high molecular weight polysaccharides [59,60]. Further, subcritical water can catalyse the hydrolysis of ether and ester bonds in polymer linkages, eliminating the need for a catalyst. ...
... Further, subcritical water can catalyse the hydrolysis of ether and ester bonds in polymer linkages, eliminating the need for a catalyst. Therefore, hydrothermal extraction furnishes simultaneous extraction, depolymerization and polysaccharide fractionation . ...
Polysaccharides are omnipresent biomolecules that hold great potential as promising biomaterials for a myriad of applications in various biotechnological and industrial sectors. The presence of diverse functional groups renders them tailorable functionalities for preparing a multitude of novel bio-nanostructures. Further, they are biocompatible and biodegradable, hence, considered as environmentally friendly biopolymers. Application of nanotechnology in food science has shown many advantages in improving food quality and enhancing its shelf life. Recently, considerable efforts have been made to develop polysaccharide-based nanostructures for possible food applications. Therefore, it is of immense importance to explore literature on polysaccharide-based nanostructures delineating their food application potentialities. Herein, we reviewed the developments in polysaccharide-based bio-nanostructures and highlighted their potential applications in food preservation and bioactive “smart” food packaging. We categorized these bio-nanostructures into polysaccharide-based nanoparticles, nanocapsules, nanocomposites, dendrimeric nanostructures, and metallo-polysaccharide hybrids. This review demonstrates that the polysaccharides are emerging biopolymers, gaining much attention as robust biomaterials with excellent tuneable properties.
... The molecular weight of the extracted polysaccharides also increases gradually with increasing treatment temperature but decreases over a critical point of 130 • C due to thermal degradation. Similarly, Rodríguez-Seoane et al. (2019) studied the effect of temperature on the monosaccharide and oligosaccharide content of polysaccharides from Pleurotus eryngii employing SWE. The oligosaccharide content increased with rising operating temperature, reaching a maximum glucan content of 73 % at 210 • C. ...
... Furthermore, it should be noted that the optimal conditions for maximum extraction yield do not guarantee the best performance in bioactivity (Fu et al., 2010;Morales et al., 2019). Some studies investigated the influence of treatment temperature and time on monosaccharide content of polysaccharide extracts where it varies under different conditions (Huamán-Leandro et al., 2020;Morales et al., 2019;Rodríguez-Seoane et al., 2019;Zhang et al., 2019). Furthermore, the effect of various extraction techniques on the degree of branching of β-glucan extracts and bioactivity has also been explored where UAE provided extracts with the degree of branching in the most bioactive range (Alzorqi et al., 2017). ...
Mushroom-derived polysaccharides (especially β-glucans) are gaining much interest from researchers and industries recently due to their antioxidant, antitumor, immune-modulating activities, and other health benefits. Besides conventional extraction methods, a wide range of advanced extraction technologies is available nowadays for the recovery of these bioactive ingredients from mushrooms, such as ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), enzyme-assisted extraction (EAE), ultrasonic-microwave synergistic extraction (UMSE), subcritical water extraction (SWE), pulsed electric field-assisted extraction (PEFAE), aqueous two-phase extraction (ATPE), integrated extraction techniques, and other novel extraction technologies. This review describes the background of edible mushrooms, followed by the structural characteristics and biological activities of mushroom-derived polysaccharides. Then, the recent developments in the technologies used for the extraction of mushroom polysaccharides are discussed and summarized, together with their strengths and limitations as well as the underlying mechanisms. Finally, these advanced extraction techniques are compared and critically analyzed. Future outlook has also been proposed.
... Generally, at a specified pressure of 200 bar, density decreases with the increase in temperature while at the same time the volatility of the sugar increases. At low temperatures of 40 and 50 ℃, the volatility effect was dominant while at high operating temperatures (60 ℃ and above), the volatility effect was dominant . ...
The extraction of date sugar using supercritical extraction is a process that is still in its formative stages. In this study, a comprehensive parametric analysis of the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) process using supercritical CO 2 with water/ethanol as co-solvents was performed to achieve maximum recovery of date sugar extract. The results showed that the maximum total sugar content (TSC) was 70.45 ± 0.01 g/100 g of DFP. This was made up of 7.42 g/100 g fructose, 6.49 g/100 g glucose, and 56.54 g/100 g sucrose. This was attained with 15 v/v% water as co-solvent, 50 ℃, and 200 bar. In addition, machine learning with non-linear regression and artificial neural network (ANN) ensembles was used for TSC prediction. The ANN results showed a strong correlation between operating parameters and sugar recovery with a total R 2 of 0.986 ± 0.010. Compared to conventional hot water extraction method (CHWE), the CO 2-SFE process resulted in a 1.4-fold increase in TSC recovery and a 2.1-fold increase in organic acids recovery. CO 2-SFE demonstrated comparable TSC results with a difference of only 1.2% when compared to the ultrasound-assisted extraction ''USAE' method. The results of the detailed chemical analysis (HPLC and FT-IR) and morphological analysis (SEM) showed that the USAE and CO 2-SFE were more efficient than CHWE. Supercritical extraction with co-solvents is particularly effective in recovering date sugar from date fruit, making it a desirable ingredient in a variety of food products.
... Additionally, subcritical water's ionization constant increases dramatically with temperature, resembling an acidic solution and activating chemical reactions such as the hydrolysis of ether and ester bonds in polymer bonds without needing additional catalysts . Seoane et al.  investigated the effect of temperature on Pleurotus eryngii polysaccharides using SWE. The oligosaccharide content was shown to increase with increasing extraction temperature, with the highest glucan content (73%) at 210 • C. At 150 • C, the glucose concentration was maximum, whereas fructose, mannitol, and trehalose reached their maximum levels at 180 • C. In addition, the glucose content was observed to increase steadily with increasing processing temperature and duration, according to a study on the impact of the SWE microenvironment on the extraction of polysaccharides from shiitake mushrooms [33,76]. ...
Edible fungi, commonly known as mushrooms, are precious medicinal and edible homologous gifts from nature to us. Because of their distinctive flavor and exceptional nutritional and medicinal value, they have been a frequent visitor to people’s dining tables and have become a hot star in the healthcare, pharmaceutical, and cosmetics industries. Edible fungal polysaccharides (EFPs) are an essential nutrient for edible fungi to exert bioactivity. They have attracted much attention because of their antioxidant, immunomodulatory, antitumor, hypoglycemic, and hypolipidemic bioactivities. As a result, EFPs have demonstrated outstanding potential over the past few decades in various disciplines, including molecular biology, immunology, biotechnology, and pharmaceutical chemistry. However, the complexity of EFPs and the significant impact of mushroom variety and extraction techniques on their bioactivities prevents a complete investigation of their biological features. Therefore, the authors of this paper thoroughly reviewed the comparison of different extraction methods of EFPs and their advantages and disadvantages. In addition, the molecular weight, monosaccharide composition, and glycosidic bond type and backbone structure of EFPs are described in detail. Moreover, the in vitro and in vivo bioactivities of EFPs extracted by different methods and their potential regulatory mechanisms are summarized. These provide a valuable reference for improving the extraction process of EFPs and their production and development in the pharmaceutical field.
... It is recognised that improved techniques and technologies may remedy disadvantages associated with the extraction of bioactive compounds, such as long extraction times, low selectivity, and solubility [53,97]. As an example of the potential associated with improved technologies, Wu et al.  undertook a study to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of total polysaccharides and β-glucans extracted from G. frondosa mycelia. ...
Many mushroom species are consumed as food, while significant numbers are also utilised medicinally. Mushrooms are rich in nutrients and bioactive compounds. A growing body of in vitro, in vivo, and human research has revealed their therapeutic potentials, which include such properties as anti-pathogenic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, gut microbiota enhancement, and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 specificity. The uses of medicinal mushrooms (MMs) as extracts in nutraceuticals and other functional food and health products are burgeoning. COVID-19 presents an opportunity to consider how, and if, specific MM compounds might be utilised therapeutically to mitigate associated risk factors, reduce disease severity, and support recovery. As vaccines become a mainstay, MMs may have the potential as an adjunct therapy to enhance immunity. In the context of COVID-19, this review explores current research about MMs to identify the key properties claimed to confer health benefits. Considered also are barriers or limitations that may impact general recommendations on MMs as therapy. It is contended that the extraction method used to isolate bioactive compounds must be a primary consideration for efficacious targeting of physiological endpoints. Mushrooms commonly available for culinary use and obtainable as a dietary supplement for medicinal purposes are included in this review. Specific properties related to these mushrooms have been considered due to their potential protective and mediating effects on human exposure to the SARS CoV-2 virus and the ensuing COVID-19 disease processes.
... MHG was used from the last decade with a wide range of raw materials (e.g. aromatic and medicinal plants (Asofiei et al., 2017;L opez-Hortas et al., 2020), fruits (Ravi et al., 2018;Turk et al., 2017), vegetables (Angoy et al., 2018), mushrooms (Rodríguez-Seoane et al., 2019), seaweeds and by-products (L opez-Hortas et al., 2019b) for the recovery of bioactive compounds, essential oils or juices, among others. Casas et al. (2020) reported preliminary studies on the effect of MHG on the air-dried Acacia dealbata flowers solid residue after a multistage extraction with green aqueous and acid solvents. ...
Natural extracts recovered from underutilized wild Acacia dealbata flowers using microwave hydrodiffusion and gravity (MHG) were compared with those obtained from conventional steam distillation. Several irradiation powers (50-125 W) were studied. MHG solid phases were treated by solid-liquid extraction (SLE) with ethanol solvent. Their total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, total carotenoid content, color characteristics, pH value and solar protection factor (SPF) were tested. Selected extracts were incorporated to an oil-in-water emulsion cosmetic model made with three thermal spring waters and preliminary sensory analysis was made. These creams were chemically and rheologically analyzed jointly with their bioactive capacity by an acceleration oxidation test. The optimum MHG extract was collected at 75 W for 180 min, since this flower liquor exhibited the highest total phenolic content (around 0.15 mg GAE/g flower dry weight) and antioxidant capacities (about 0.39 mg Trolox eq/g flower dry weight and 0.36 μg β-carotene/g flower dry weight) of microwave extracts. Distillation extracts presented higher concentrations (about 0.20 mg GAE/g flower dry weight and around 0.58 mg Trolox eq/g flower dry weight), but with larger (two times) estimated specific energy requirements. Selected extracts provided sunscreen creams with similar chemical (i.e., pH and SPF values) and bioactive properties (i.e., thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) outcomes) that cosmetics prepared with BHT or (±)-α-tocopherol commercial antioxidants. The viscosity features of the different cosmetic samples were similar, except for those sun creams elaborated with one thermal spring water. This sample presented lower apparent viscosity profiles, which could be an important advantage from the skin application point of view.
... Microwave technologies could accelerate and potentiate the bioavailability of these phenolic compounds and increase notably the antioxidant activity of the products (Hayat et al., 2019;Feumba Dibanda et al., 2020). Pressurized hot water extraction is another technology that is applied to extract phenolic compounds from terrestrial and marine samples achieving favourable results in terms of recovering bioactive compounds, as previously reported (Rodríguez-Seoane et al., 2019;Fl orez-Fern andez et al., 2019). ...
This work deals with the study of tea stalks from pruning debris using environmental friendly extraction technology to offer new healthy properties. In the manufacturing tea industry, tea trees require to be pruned every year and most of their remains are discarded as a waste with no economic value. Microwave aqueous extraction and pressurized hot water extraction process (autohydrolysis) were used to recover bioactive compounds from the tea branches. Operating at a fixed solid: liquid ratio (1:15), the effect of the maximum heating temperatures from 140 to 220 °C was studied. Liquid extracts were analysed for total phenolic, oligosaccharides, protein, mineral and heavy metals content, as well as for antioxidant capacity. The antitumoral possibilities were also determined for selected samples. The obtained results indicated that both processes could be used as an alternative to recover bioactive compounds from tea wastes, although microwave-assisted extraction allowed saving time when compared with autohydrolysis processing. The temperature exhibited a relevant effect on the total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity, decreasing with the microwave treatment and increasing with the autohydrolysis temperature. The obtained extracts could be adequate for incorporation in food and non-food fields.
Many mushroom species are consumed as food, while significant numbers are also utilised medicinally. Mushrooms are rich in nutrients and bioactive compounds. A growing body of in vitro, in vivo, and human research has revealed their therapeutic potentials. Some of the most notable benefits include such properties as anti-pathogenic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, gut microbiota enhancement, and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 specificity. The use of medicinal mushrooms (MMs) as extracts in nutraceuticals and other health products are burgeoning. COVID-19 presents an opportunity to consider how, and if, specific MM compounds might be utilised therapeutically to mitigate associated risk factors, reduce disease severity, and support recovery. As vaccines become a mainstay, MMs may have the potential as an adjunct therapy to enhance immunity. In the context of COVID-19, this review explores current research about MMs to identify the key properties claimed to confer health benefits. Considered also are barriers or limitations that may impact general recommendations on MMs as therapy. It is contended that the extraction method used to isolate bioactive compounds must be a primary consideration for efficacious targeting of physiological endpoints. Mushrooms commonly available for culinary use and obtainable as a dietary supplement for medicinal purposes are included in this review. Specific properties related to these mushrooms have been considered due to their potential mediating effects on human exposure to the SARS CoV-2 virus and the ensuing COVID-19 disease processes.
Plant biomass remains a widely available and renewable source of bioactive compounds. Phenolics are among the most studied families and show potent activities, among them, antioxidant and antiinflammatory. The efficient extraction of these plant components is desirable to comply with the progressively more stringent environmental, health and safety regulations. This chapter presents an overview of the greener alternatives technologies for the extraction of plant bioactives with antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties.
Different species and geographic regions of mushrooms differ in nutritional and medicinal value, while traditional chemical methods are destructive, time-consuming and expensive to sample. In contrast, infrared spectroscopy enables accurate, noninvasive, rapid and inexpensive identification of species and quality analysis. But infrared spectroscopy technology has produced a large number of data, common data analysis methods cannot be analyzed, chemometrics can solve this problem. In recent years, the combination of infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics has made some progress in qualitative and quantitative analysis of mushrooms. In this review, the basic principle of infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics are introduced, and their typical applications in different directions of mushrooms are summarized. Finally, we point out the limitation of infrared spectroscopy, but with the development of chemometrics, infrared spectroscopy will have a broader prospect.
Microwave hydrodiffusion and gravity (MHG) and ethanolic solid-liquid extraction were compared using selected plant sources. Their bioactive profile, color features, and proximate chemical characterization were determined. MHG extracts, commercial antioxidants, and three distinct types of thermal spring water were used in a sunscreen cream formulation. Their bioactive capacity, chemical and rheological properties were evaluated. MHG Cytisus scoparius flower extract provided the highest bioactive properties. Pleurotus ostreatus MHG liquor exhibited the highest total solid extraction yield. The Brassica rapa MHG sample stood out for its total protein content and its monosaccharide and oligosaccharide concentration. Quercus robur acorns divided into quarters supplied MHG extract with the lowest energy requirements, highest DPPH inhibition percentage, total lipid content and the highest enzyme inhibition. The chemical and bioactive capacities stability of the sunscreen creams elaborated with the selected MHG extracts and the thermal spring waters showed a similar behavior than the samples containing commercial antioxidants.
This study aimed to investigate the effect of four cooking methods with different durations on the in vitro antioxidant activities of five edible mushrooms, namely Agaricus bisporus, Flammulina velutipes, Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus eryngii. Among the raw samples, A. bisporus showed the highest total antioxidant activity (reducing power and radical scavenging), total flavonoid, ascorbic acid and water soluble phenolic contents. Short-duration steam cooking (3 min) increased the total flavonoid and ascorbic acid while prolonged pressure cooking (15 min) reduced the water soluble phenolic content in the mushrooms. The retention of antioxidant value in the mushrooms varied with the variety of mushroom after the cooking process. The cooking duration significantly affected the ascorbic acid in the mushrooms regardless of cooking method. To achieve the best antioxidant values, steam cooking was preferred for F. velutipes (1.5 min), P. ostreatus (4.5 min) and L. edodes (4.5 min) while microwave cooking for 1.5 min was a better choice for A. bisporus. Pressure cooked P. eryngii showed the best overall antioxidant value among the cooked samples. Optimised cooking method including pressure cooking could increase the antioxidant values in the edible mushrooms.
The aim of the study was to investigate the antioxidant properties, phenolic and flavonoid contents and composition and content of ascorbic acid in Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus eryngii enriched simultaneously with selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn). Non-enriched mushrooms contained Se and Zn at the level as in the most popular mushrooms. The total phenolic content (TPC) for non-enriched P. ostreatus and P. eryngii was 9.64 ± 0.33 and 7.91 ± 1.02 mg/g of extract, the total flavonoid content was 2.11 ± 0.19 and 1.26 ± 0.17 mg/g of extract, and ascorbic acid content ranged from 10.28 ± 0.39 to 16.64 ± 0.47 mg/100 g DW, respectively. Methanolic extracts contained 4-hydroxybenzoic, ferulic, p-coumaric, protocatechuic, t-cinnamic and vanillic acids and naringenin. In methanolic extract of P. eryngii, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid was also quantified. The correlation between the TPC and antioxidant activity in mushroom was confirmed. Additionally, the correlations between Zn and Se concentration in fruiting bodies and EC50 value and phenolic compounds were confirmed. Our results with simultaneous supplementation with Zn and Se provide the opportunity to increase the content of the elements in fruiting bodies and to improve antioxidant properties and antioxidant contents in enriched mushrooms. Additionally, the obtained results demonstrated that simultaneous enrichment with micronutrients with a contrary effect on antioxidant properties can activate synthesis of phenolic compounds and ascorbic acid. The investigation is the first study evaluating the effect of addition of two elements to the substrate at the same time on antioxidant properties of mushrooms.
Mushrooms are a great source of nutritionally valuable compounds, including proteins, lipids, polysaccharides, polyphenols, micronutrients and vitamins. In particular, they are a significant dietary source of B group vitamins and can be an ideal vehicle in order to supply these vitamins for vegetarians. Conventional extraction methods usually involve water or organic solvents and may results in the noticeable degradation of components. This review describes the potential use of the novel non-conventional methods including enzyme-assisted extraction, pulsed electric fields, ultrasounds, microwaves, subcritical and supercritical fluid extraction for recovery of valuable compounds from mushrooms. Recent studies have shown the great potential of these environmentally friendly methods for green production of specific compounds for use as nutraceuticals or as ingredients for functional foods.
The biorefinery concept integrates processes and technologies for an efficient
biomass conversion using all components of a feedstock. Sargassum muticum is an
invasive brown algae which could be regarded as a renewable resource susceptible of
individual valorization of the constituent fractions into high added-value compounds.
Microwave drying technology can be proposed before conventional ethanol extraction of
algal biomass, and supercritical fluid extraction with CO2 was useful to extract fucoxanthin
and for the fractionation of crude ethanol extracts. Hydrothermal processing is proposed to
fractionate the algal biomass and to solubilize the fucoidan and phlorotannin fractions.
Membrane technology was proposed to concentrate these fractions and obtain salt- and
arsenic-free saccharidic fractions. Based on these technologies, this study presents a
multipurpose process to obtain six different products with potential applications for
nutraceutical, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.
Nutritional value of cooked food has been considered to be lower compared to the fresh produce. However, many reports showed that processed fruits and vegetables including mushrooms may retain antioxidant activity. Pleurotus spp. as one of the edible mushroom are in great demand globally and become one of the most popular mushrooms grown worldwide with 25-fold increase in production from 1960-2009. The effects of three different cooking methods (boiling, microwave and pressure cooking) on the antioxidant activities of six different types of oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus eryngii, P citrinopileatus, P. cystidiosus P. flabellatus, P. floridanus and P. pulmonarius) were assessed. Free radical scavenging (DPPH) and reducing power (TEAC) were used to evaluate the antioxidant activities and the total phenolic contents were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Pressure cooking improved the scavenging abilities of P. floridanus (>200 %), P. flabellatus (117.6 %), and P. pulmonarius (49.1 %) compared to the uncooked samples. On the other hand, the microwaved Pleurotus eryngii showed 17 % higher in the TEAC value when compared to the uncooked sample. There was, however, no correlation between total phenolic content and antioxidant activities. There could be presence of other bioactive components in the processed mushrooms that may have contributed to the antioxidant activity. These results suggested that customized cooking method can be used to enhance the nutritional value of mushrooms and promote good health.
This research gives the results of a proximate analysis (moisture, ash, crude protein, fat, total carbohydrates, and total energy); a bioactive compounds analysis (γ-aminobutyric acid [GABA], ergothioneine, lovastatin, and cordycepin); fatty acid and amino acid analysis; and an analysis of macro- and microelement content of fruit bodies and mycelia of 15 higher Basidiomycetes medicinal mushroom strains belonging to 12 species. The results obtained demonstrate that almost all investigated mushrooms were found to be good sources of proteins and carbohydrates, with content varying in the ranges of 8.6-42.5% and 42.9-83.6%, respectively. Different species exhibited distinct free amino acid profiles. The total amino acid content was highest in Ophiocordyceps sinensis (MB) (23.84 mg/g) and Cordyceps militaris (FB) (23.69 mg/g). The quantification of the identified fatty acids indicated that, in general, palmitic acid, oleic acid, stearic acid, and linoleic acid were the major fatty acids. The micro- and macroelement compositions were studied, and the highest results were (as milligrams per kilogram) 224-7307 for calcium, 1668-38564 for potassium, 1091-11676 for phosphorus, and 5-97 for zinc. Bioactive components were lovastatin, GABA, and ergothioneine, which are commonly found in most mushrooms. C. militaris (FB), Pleurotus ostreatus (FB), and Coprinus comatus (FB) were most abundant and contained a high amount of GABA (756.30 μg/g, 1304.99 μg/g, 1092.45 μg/g, respectively) and ergothioneine (409.88 μg/g, 2443.53 μg/g, 764.35 μg/g, respectively). The highest lovastatin content was observed in Hericium erinaceus (FB) (14.38 μg/g) and Ganoderma lucidum (FB) (11.54 μg/g). In contrast to C. militaris (FB), cordycepin was not detected in O. sinensis (MB). The fruit body biomass of C. militaris cordycepin content reached 1.743 mg/g dry weight. The nutritional values of the mushroom species studied here could potentially be used in well-balanced diets and as sources of bioactive compounds.
The biomass components of the invasive seaweed Sargassum muticum were fractionated to allow their separate valorization. S. muticum (Sm) and the solid residue remaining after alginate extraction of this seaweed (AESm) were processed with hot, compressed water (hydrothermal processing) to assess the effects of temperature on fucoidan solubilization. Fucose-containing oligosaccharides were identified as reaction products. Operating under optimal conditions (170 °C), up to 62 and 85 wt% of the dry mass of Sm and AESm were solubilized, respectively. The reaction media were subjected to precipitation, nanofiltration and freeze-drying. The dried products contained 50% and 85% of the fucoidan present in Sm and AESm, respectively; together with other components such as phenolics and inorganic components. The saccharidic fraction, accounting for up to 35% of the dried extracts, contained fucose as the main sugar, and also galactose, xylose, glucose and mannose. The concentrates were characterized for antioxidant activity using the TEAC assay.
Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) is a mushroom-forming white rot fungus that contains a wide variety of bioactive components (glucans). In this study, G. lucidum was utilized for the extraction of polysaccharides by hot compressed water at a temperature of 160°C and a pressure of 4.0 MPa using a semi-batch system. Under these conditions, thermal softening of G. lucidum occurred, allowing the removal of the polysaccharides protecting other constituents in G. lucidum via hydrolysis. Next, the extract was directly atomized by spray drying to remove the water. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images showed that the particles formed were spherical and dimpled or shriveled with diameters varying from 1 to 6 μm. Based on these results it is proposed that this process is applicable to isolate polysaccharides from other types of biomass and may result in advances in extraction technology to obtain plant biomass components.
Hydrothermal processing of lignocellulosic materials (wood or agricultural residues) causes a variety of effects including extractive removal, hemicellulose hydrolysis and alteration of the properties of both cellulose and lignin. This article reviews the chemical composition of raw materials potentially useful for hydrothermal processing as well as the results reported on the kinetics of hemicellulose hydrolysis by water treatments. The fundamentals of the mathematical modelling of hemicellulose degradation reactions by pseudohomogeneous kinetics and by severity factors are reviewed. Additional information on the effects caused by hydrothermal treatments on lignin and cellulose is also provided.
Shiitake mushroom contains several therapeutic actions such as antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, carried by the diversity of its components. In the present work, extracts from shiitake mushroom were obtained using different extraction techniques: high-pressure operations and low-pressure methods. The high-pressure technique was applied to obtain shiitake extracts using pure CO2 and CO2 with co-solvent in pressures up to 30 MPa. Organic solvents such as n-hexane, ethyl acetate and dichloromethane were furthermore used to produce the shiitake extracts in low-pressure extraction process. The different extraction procedures were evaluated for antioxidant activity by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) essays and the results compared with data from Folin–Denis method, used to measure the total phenolic content. Antimicrobial activities of the extracts were also subjected to preliminary screening against four strains of bacteria and one fungal strain using agar dilution method. The results indicate that the fractions obtained with CO2 using ethanol as co-solvent, at 40 °C, 20 MPa and 15% EtOH, and for dichloromethane in low-pressure technique had similar antioxidant activities. Furthermore, only the supercritical fluid extracts had antimicrobial activity against Micrococcus luteus and Bacillus cereus. The shiitake extraction yields were up to 3.81% w/w and up to 1.01% w/w for supercritical fluid extraction with ethanol as co-solvent and with pure CO2, respectively, while the low-pressure extraction indicates yields up to 1.25% w/w for n-hexane as solvent.
A heteropolysaccharide was isolated by cold aqueous extraction from edible mushroom Pleurotus eryngii (“King Oyster”) basidiocarps and its biological properties were evaluated. Structural assignments were carried out using mono- and bidimensional NMR spectroscopy, monosaccharide composition, and methylation analyses. A mannogalactan having a main chain of (1 → 6)-linked α-D-galactopyranosyl and 3-O-methyl-α-D-galactopyranosyl residues, both partially substituted at OH-2 by β-D-Manp (MG-Pe) single-unit was found. Biological effects of mannogalactan from P. eryngii (MG-Pe) were tested against murine melanoma cells. MG-Pe was non-cytotoxic, but reduced in vitro melanoma cells invasion. Also, 50 mg/kg MG-Pe administration to melanoma-bearing C57BL/6 mice up to 10 days decreased in 60% the tumor volume compared to control. Additionally, no changes were observed when biochemical profile, complete blood cells count (CBC), organs, and body weight were analyzed. Mg-Pe was shown to be a promising anti-melanoma molecule capable of switching melanoma cells to a non-invasive phenotype with no toxicity to melanoma-bearing mice.
This work is devoted to valorize olive kernel; a by-product produced during olive oil extraction process. For this purpose, aqueous liquid solid extraction (LSE), mechanical expression (ME), supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) and gas assisted mechanical expression (GAME), processes were compared when applied separately or consequently (ME + GAME), in terms of total phenolic compound (TPC) and oil recovery yields. Results showed that although the high extraction yields of TPC using LSE (61.4 ± 1.3%), the extraction process is economically not viable. However, it was demonstrated that applying ME (1 h at 30 MPa) followed by GAME (1 h at 30 MPa ME and 10 MPa SC-CO2 pressures) allowed recovering extracts enriched with TPC (≈50% yield) and oil (≈80% yield), respectively. Recovered phenolic compounds and oil were then identified using liquid and gas chromatography – mass spectrometry, showing no degradation and high oil quality compared to commercial virgin oil.
In this study, we noted that the Al-MPS from Pleurotus eryngii var. tuolensis provoked pharmacological effects on blood lipid profiles and oxidative stress. Animal studies demonstrated that Al-MPS showed potential effects on relieving hyperlipidemia and preventing oxidative stress, reflecting by decreasing the levels of serum enzyme activities (ALP, ALT and AST), restoring the activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GSH-Px, CAT and T-AOC), down-regulating the MDA and LPO contents, as well as remitting the hepatic and cardiac tissues injury, respectively. The serum levels of TC, TG, LDL-C, VLDL-C, and HDL-C on mice treated with Al-MPS (500 mg/kg bw) reached 2.48 ± 0.08, 1.24 ± 0.03, 0.84 ± 0.02, 0.34 ± 0.02, and 1.80 ± 0.03 mmol/L, which were lower/higher against the hyperlipidemia mice. The results clearly indicated that the Al-MPS could be used as a beneficial health food and potentially natural candidate medicine in preventing the high-fat emulsion-induced hyperlipidemia.
The main chemical and biochemical constituents of nine edible mushrooms were evaluated in this study. An enzymatic method was used to determine the α- and β-glucan contents, and the amino acid (AA) profiles were evaluated by RP-HPLC-DAD. The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of the nutrients was evaluated. Finally, principal component analysis (PCA) was used to group the mushrooms according to their AA, glucans and chemical composition. All mushrooms evaluated can be considered as a potential and alternative source of dietary fibre (24.4–46.62%) and protein (16.47–36.96%) in a diet, with low contents of fat (1.40–2.08%). Phosphorus, potassium, iron, copper and zinc were the main minerals found in the mushrooms, whereas sodium concentration was negligible. All essential AA were detected in the mushrooms, with Pleurotus ostreatus (black oyster) representing the main source of essential amino acids among the samples. The contents of β-glucan ranged from 1.58 to 16.91 mg g−1 of dry matter among the mushrooms and Pleurotus eryngii presented the highest amount of this component. Pleurotus ostreatus (black oyster) and P. eryngii were also grouped together due to similarities in their phosphorous and arginine contents. Among the main results, it can highlight the high concentration of dietary fibre and essential amino acids of the edible mushrooms.
Over a course of centuries, various food processing technologies have been explored and implemented to provide safe, fresher-tasting and nutritive food products. Among these technologies, application of emerging food processes (e.g., cold plasma, pressurized fluids, pulsed electric fields, ohmic heating, radiofrequency electric fields, ultrasonics and megasonics, high hydrostatic pressure, high pressure homogenization, hyperbaric storage, and negative pressure cavitation extraction) have attracted much attention in the past decades. This is because, compared to their conventional counterparts, novel food processes allow a significant reduction in the overall processing times with savings in energy consumption, while ensuring food safety, and ample benefits for the industry. Noteworthily, industry and university teams have made extensive efforts for the development of novel technologies, with sound scientific knowledge of their effects on different food materials. The main objective of this review is to provide a historical account of the extensive efforts and inventions in the field of emerging technologies that were applied to foods over the 21st century.
In this study, Rumex Acetosa extracts were obtained from extraction techniques with supercritical fluid (SFE), Soxhlet and low pressure solvent extraction (LPSE). In the SFE, it was evaluated the effect of the process variables (temperature, solvent flow rate, pressure and cosolvent concentration) on the extraction kinetics, yield and extract solubility. In the Soxhlet extraction, it was evaluated the usage of ethanol, acetonitrile, isopropanol and tert-butyl alcohol, while in LPSE extraction, it was used ethanol as solvent. The phenolics total content (TPC), antioxidant capacity (IC50) and extract composition were determined. The yield obtained ranged from 0.2 to 8.3%. The SFE extraction has demonstrated great efficiency in the extraction of phenolic compounds (anthraquinone and stilbene). The trans-resveratrol concentration in the extracts ranged between 1.03 and 3.52 mg/g, depending on the technique used, the values of IC50 and TPC ranges from 10.67 to 163.43 μg/mL and 27.63 to 157.04 mgEAG/g, respectively.
Influence of culinary treatments (boiling, microwaving, grilling, and deep frying) on proximate composition and antioxidant capacity of cultivated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus, Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Pleurotus eryngii) was studied. Proximate composition was affected by the cooking method and the mushrooms species. Frying induced more severe losses in protein, ash, and carbohydrates content but increased the fat and energy. Boiling improved the total glucans content by enhancing the β-glucans fraction. A significant decrease was detected in the antioxidant activity especially after boiling and frying, while grilled and microwaved mushrooms reached higher values of antioxidant activity. Maillard reaction products could be partially responsible, as supported by the absorbance values measured at 420 nm. Since cooking techniques clearly influence the nutritional attributes of mushrooms, the proper selection of treatments is a key factor to prevent/reduce nutritional losses. Microwaving and grilling were established as the best processes to maintain the nutritional profile of mushrooms.
Pleurotus eryngii oligosaccharides (PEOs) were prepared by hydrolyzing P. eryngii polysaccharides with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The antioxidant activities of PEOs were evaluated. Results revealed that PEO yields were affected by reaction time, temperature and H2O2 concentration. These parameters were optimized as follows: reaction time, 2 h; reaction temperature, 85C; and H2O2 concentration, 2%. The PEO yield reached 10.58% under the optimized conditions. The PEOs showed strong reducing power and high scavenging activities against hydroxyl and 2,2‐diphenyl‐β‐picrylhydrazyl radicals. Therefore, PEOs can be developed as a potential dietary supplement with antioxidant activities.
Pleurotus eryngii oligosaccharides prepared in this study have high antioxidant activities and can be developed as a potential dietary supplement with antioxidant activities. Therefore, the results obtained in this study could be of potential food industrial relevance.
A method for the screening of antioxidant activity is reported as a decolorization assay applicable to both lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants, including flavonoids, hydroxycinnamates, carotenoids, and plasma antioxidants. The pre-formed radical monocation of 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS*+) is generated by oxidation of ABTS with potassium persulfate and is reduced in the presence of such hydrogen-donating antioxidants. The influences of both the concentration of antioxidant and duration of reaction on the inhibition of the radical cation absorption are taken into account when determining the antioxidant activity. This assay clearly improves the original TEAC assay (the ferryl myoglobin/ABTS assay) for the determination of antioxidant activity in a number of ways. First, the chemistry involves the direct generation of the ABTS radical monocation with no involvement of an intermediary radical. Second, it is a decolorization assay; thus the radical cation is pre-formed prior to addition of antioxidant test systems, rather than the generation of the radical taking place continually in the presence of the antioxidant. Hence the results obtained with the improved system may not always be directly comparable with those obtained using the original TEAC assay. Third, it is applicable to both aqueous and lipophilic systems.
Response surface methodology was employed to optimize extraction conditions for finding the maximal functional properties of Pleurotus eryngii. Based on central composite design, the study plan was established with variations of microwave power (30-150 W), ethanol concentration (0-99.9%), and extraction time (1-9 min). Regression analysis was applied to obtain a mathematical model. A maximal yield of 47.86% was obtained when the microwave power, ethanol concentration, and extraction time were set at 122.7 W, 42.14%, and 8.3 min, respectively. A maximized electron donating ability of 93.32% was found under the following conditions: a microwave power of 144.19 W, an ethanol concentration of 49.52%, and an extraction time of 6.7 min. When the microwave power, ethanol concentration, and extraction time were set at 125.43 W, 40.54%, and 8.1 min, respectively, the maximum nitrite-scavenging ability was 80.47%. The optimum ranges of the extraction conditions, superimposed by the response surface methodology, could predicate a microwave power of 110-150 W, ethanol concentration of 0-45%, and extraction time of 7-9 min.
Hericium erinaceus was processed to obtain soluble fractions using a sequence of stages consisting on: microwave hydrogravity (400 W), supercritical CO2 extraction (20 MPa, 40 °C, 10% ethanol) and the remaining raffinates were subjected either to enzyme assisted extraction (3% protease + cellulase + pectinase, 50 °C, 3 h) or to non-isothermal autohydrolysis with water (200 °C). More than 40% of the mushroom could be solubilized with the proposed green processes, which provided extracts containing the phenolic and the polysaccharide fractions. The phenolic components could be further concentrated by adsorption onto polymeric resins and desorption with 96% ethanol to yield concentrates with ABTS radical scavenging capacity equivalent to 0.6 g of Trolox/g extract.
Pleurotus eryngii, a popular edible mushroom in Taiwan, is usually cultivated using sawdust medium packing bags through several procedures including culture medium confection, bagging and sterilization, spawn inoculation, fostering mycelia, full growth of mycelia, and inducing fruiting body formation. In this study, P. eryngii commercial products harvested at the 10th, 12th and 15th days after inducing the fruiting body formation were extracted with ethanol, individually. Through determination of chemical composition, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of these extracts, the optimal harvest time of P. eryngii fruiting bodies with higher functional attributes was revealed. The earlier harvested sample extracts had higher effects for scavenging 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals, reducing power, chelating power, and beta-carotene bleaching inhibition, as well as down-regulating lipopolysaccharide-stimulated nitric oxide, prostaglandin E-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in RAW264.7 macrophages. These functional responses were closely related to levels of phytochemical components including phenolic acids, flavonoids, tocopherols and carotenoids.
The objective of this study was to obtain extracts from the mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with pure CO2 and with CO2 plus 2.5%, 5.0% and 10.0% (w/w) of ethanol as co-solvent. In order to evaluate the high-pressure method in terms of process yield, extract composition and biological activity, low-pressure methods, such as maceration with ethanol (Mac), Soxhlet (Sox) with different organic solvents, and hydrodistillation (HD), were also applied to obtain extracts. The SFE conditions were temperatures of 313.15 K, 323.15 K and 333.15 K and pressures from 10 to 30 MPa. The SFE kinetics was investigated through the overall extraction curve (OEC). The extracts obtained by Sox with water and ethanol showed the best results for the global extraction yield. The best conditions in the studied range to obtain high yields using pure CO2 resulted to be 30.0 MPa and 323.15 K. The antioxidant potential of the extracts was evaluated by the DPPH method and by the Folin–Ciocalteau method. Maceration extract presented low yield, but good results of antioxidant activity by DPPH assays and total phenolic. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts was also studied. The main identified compounds in the extracts were linoleic and palmitic acids.
The aim of this research was to study effects of drying methods on the tasty compounds of Pleurotus eryngii, a common commercial edible fungus. In order to maximally maintain the taste of P. eryngii, several different drying methods, including hot air, vacuum, microwave, freeze drying and naturally air-drying, were compared. Results showed that freeze drying and hot air were capable of the conservation of the taste compounds maximally in P. eryngii, followed by natural air drying and vacuum, while microwave drying was not suitable for P. eryngii due to the loss of taste compounds. Moreover, concentrations of free amino acids in freeze drying were significantly reduced, so as to 5'-nucleotides in hot air drying. In addition, the umami concentration of the sample using hot air dry was significantly (p<0.05) higher than that using microwave.
Ergosterol, ergosta7,22 dienol, ergosta 5,7 dienol, fungisterol, ergosta-4,7,2-trien-3-ona and ergosta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-ona were the fungal sterols detected in Agaricus bisporus mushrooms after optimization of a sterol extraction method. Their concentration ranged from 3.1 to 11.2 mg/g dw depending on the strain, casing soil, flush number, developmental stage and sporophore tissue analyzed. Two methods were optimized to obtain sterol enriched extracts from A. bisporus fruiting bodies using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). PLE using ethanol as solvent at 10.7 MPa (50 °C and 100 °C) after 5 cycles of 5 min extraction (mixing in the extraction cell the sample with sand in a ratio 1:4) yielded extracts with respectively 5 and 2.9% sterols. Using SFE-CO2 at 40 °C and 9 to 30 MPa fractions containing 60% of sterols were obtained. Both technologies could be also utilized to extract sterols from mushroom by-products (the lower part of the stipe) as a method for their valorization.Industrial relevanceIn this work, two environmentally friendly methods (SFE and PLE) to obtain sterol enriched fractions from Agaricus bisporus mushrooms were optimized. Extractions from both the complete fruiting body and the lower part of the stipe (usually discarded as a by-product during harvesting) yielded extracts with high ergosterol (and derivatives) content that could be used as functional ingredients to design novel foods with hypocholesterolemic properties since fungal sterols are able to reduce cholesterol levels in serum as plant phytosterols. Moreover, if the mushroom by-products are utilized as starting material, this application can be an interesting alternative method for the commercial valorization of this residue.
The subcritical water (SCW) extraction of Chaga mushroom (CM) was carried out at various temperatures (50, 100, 150, 200, 250, and 300°C) and times (10, 30, and 60 min), and then antioxidant activities of the SCW extracts were evaluated by determining 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, 2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity, reducing power (RP), superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity, and total phenol content (TPC). The DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities, and the SOD-like activity of the extracts increased with elevated temperatures and times. For example, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities, and SOD-like activity of the extracts at 250°C for 60 min were 72.5, 97.8, and 92.3%, respectively, while those at 50°C for 60 min were 63.2, 14.4, and 22.6%, respectively. However, the activities decreased at 300°C. The highest TPC and RP were found at 250°C for 30 min with values of 10.724 mg/mL and 1.063 optical density, respectively. These results indicate that SCW extraction was significantly effective on the increase of antioxidant activity of the CM.
Non-isothermal treatments of barley husks in aqueous media were performed under a variety of operational conditions, to cause the hydrolytic degradation of hemicelluloses. The amount and composition of solid and liquid phases were determined. Liquors from treatments were extracted with ethyl acetate in order to remove non-saccharide components (mainly derived from the extractive acid-soluble lignin fractions), and the extracted fractions were quantified and assayed for antioxidant activity using the DPPH radical scavenging test. Posthydrolysis of autohydrolysis liquors led to xylose-containing solutions suitable as fermentation media. The dependence of the major process parameters (concentrations of monosaccharides and monosaccharide-degradation products obtained after autohydrolysis–posthydrolysis, yield of ethyl acetate soluble compounds and antioxidant activity of isolates) on the severity of treatments was assessed. The ethyl acetate soluble fraction obtained under the best processing conditions showed an antioxidant activity in the range reported for synthetic antioxidants.
Four specialty mushrooms are commercially available in Taiwan, including Dictyophora indusiata (basket stinkhorn), Grifola frondosa (maitake), Hericium erinaceus (lion's mane), and Tricholoma giganteum (white matsutake). Methanolic extracts were prepared from these specialty mushrooms and their antioxidant properties were studied. The antioxidant activities at 1.2 mg ml−1 were in the order of basket stinkhorn>lion's mane>maitake>white matsutake. Basket stinkhorn showed an excellent reducing power of 1.09 at 3 mg ml−1. At 6.4 mg ml−1, scavenging effects on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals were 92.1% for basket stinkhorn and 63.2–67.8% for other specialty mushrooms. At 40 mg ml−1, scavenging effects were 75.0 and 69.4% for basket stinkhorn and lion's mane and 39.6 and 47.4% for maitake and white matsutake, respectively. At 24 mg ml−1, chelating effects on ferrous ions were 91.9% for basket stinkhorn and 46.4–52.0% for other specialty mushrooms. Total polyphenols were the major naturally occurring antioxidant components found in the methanolic extracts from these specialty mushrooms.
The present study reports a comparison of the antioxidant properties and phenolic profile of the most consumed species as fresh cultivated mushrooms and their mycelia produced in vitro: Agaricus bisporus (white and brown), Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster), Pleurotus eryngii (king oyster) and Lentinula edodes (shiitake). The antioxidant activity was evaluated through reducing power (Folin-Ciocalteu and Ferricyanide/Prussian blue assays), free radical scavenging activity (DPPH assay) and lipid peroxidation inhibition (β-carotene/linoleate and TBARS assays). The analysis of phenolic compounds was performed by HPLC/PAD. The mushroom species with the highest antioxidant potential was Agaricus bispous (brown). However, concerning to the species obtained in vitro, it was L. edodes that demonstrate the highest reducing power. Generally, in vivo samples revealed higher antioxidant properties than their mycelia obtained by in vitro techniques. About the phenolic compounds researched, they were detected both in mushrooms and mycelia without any particular abundance. Results showed that there is no correlation between the studied commercial mushrooms and the corresponding mycelia obtained in vitro. Nevertheless, this study contributes to the rise of data relatively to the species consumed as fresh mushrooms and the possibility of their in vitro production as a source of bioactive compounds.
The aim of the study was to investigate phenolic composition, antioxidative, protective and cytotoxic effects of Pleurotus eryngii and Auricularia auricula-judae. Analysis of phenolic compounds in these edible mushrooms species has been carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Protective effect of these mushrooms on H2O2 induced oxidative cell damage was determined by using MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, a yellow tetrazole) assay. Antioxidant activities of the mushrooms extracts were evaluated by using complementary in vitro assays. In addition, the measurement of total antioxidant compounds in the extracts was carried out. All the extracts exhibited protective effect against H2O2 induced oxidative cell damage but the highest activity was observed for A. auricula-judae aqueous extract (89.5±1.8% cell viability at 0.1mg/ml). P. eryngii methanolic extract showed the highest ferrous iron chelating ability (IC50=0.42±0.03mg/ml). A. auricula-judae extracts (at concentration of 0.025–0.100mg/ml) were not toxic to baby hamster kidney fibroblast cell line (BHK 21). These results suggest that these mushrooms may be used as a potential source of natural antioxidants for food supplementation or in the development of nutraceuticals.
Supercritical fluid extraction of nutraceuticals and bioactive compounds
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LWT -Food Science and Technology 101 (2019) 774-782