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Background Adipose tissue dysfunction is a condition characterized by inflammation and oxidative stress able to lead metabolic disorders. Curcuma longa L. ( Cl ) is a rhizome commonly used in Indian culinary which presents anti-inflammatory and antioxidant compounds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of in natura Curcuma longa L. on adipose tissue dysfunction and comorbidities in obese rats. Methods Male Wistar rats (8 weeks old, n = 16) received standard chow + fructose in drinking water (30%) ad libitum for 16 weeks. After this period, animals were randomly divided to receive placebo treatment (fructose, n = 8) or Curcuma longa L. treatment (fructose + Cl , n = 8) for more 8 weeks, totalizing 24 weeks of experiment. Curcuma longa L. was mixed in water and gave to the animals by gavage in a dose of 80 mg/kg of body weight. Body composition, systolic blood pressure, metabolic, hormonal, inflammatory, and oxidative stress analysis were performed in plasma and adipose tissue. Results Curcuma longa L. reduced adiposity index and adipocyte hypertrophy, improved insulin resistance and systolic blood pressure, and reduced inflammation and oxidative stress in adipose tissue. Conclusion Curcuma longa L. in natura is able to modulate adipose tissue dysfunction, avoiding the development of comorbidities. It can be considered a phytochemical treatment strategy against obesity-related chronic diseases.
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R E S E A R C H Open Access
Brazilian Curcuma longa L. attenuates
comorbidities by modulating adipose tissue
dysfunction in obese rats
Angelo Thompson Colombo Lo
1
, Fabiane Valentini Francisqueti
1*
, Fabiana Kurokawa Hasimoto
2
,
Ana Paula Costa Rodrigues Ferraz
1
, Igor Otávio Minatel
1,2
, Jéssica Leite Garcia
1
, Klinsmann Carolo dos Santos
1
,
Pedro Henrique Rizzi Alves
2
, Giuseppina Pace Pereira Lima
2
, Fernando Moreto
1
, Artur Junio Togneri Ferron
1
and Camila Renata Corrêa
1
Abstract
Background: Adipose tissue dysfunction is a condition characterized by inflammation and oxidative stress able to
lead metabolic disorders. Curcuma longa L. (Cl) is a rhizome commonly used in Indian culinary which presents anti-
inflammatory and antioxidant compounds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of in natura Curcuma
longa L. on adipose tissue dysfunction and comorbidities in obese rats.
Methods: Male Wistar rats (8 weeks old, n= 16) received standard chow + fructose in drinking water (30%) ad
libitum for 16 weeks. After this period, animals were randomly divided to receive placebo treatment (fructose, n=8)
or Curcuma longa L. treatment (fructose + Cl,n= 8) for more 8 weeks, totalizing 24 weeks of experiment. Curcuma
longa L. was mixed in water and gave to the animals by gavage in a dose of 80 mg/kg of body weight. Body
composition, systolic blood pressure, metabolic, hormonal, inflammatory, and oxidative stress analysis were
performed in plasma and adipose tissue.
Results: Curcuma longa L. reduced adiposity index and adipocyte hypertrophy, improved insulin resistance and
systolic blood pressure, and reduced inflammation and oxidative stress in adipose tissue.
Conclusion: Curcuma longa L. in natura is able to modulate adipose tissue dysfunction, avoiding the development
of comorbidities. It can be considered a phytochemical treatment strategy against obesity-related chronic diseases.
Keywords: Adipose dysfunction, Comorbidities, Obesity
Background
White adipose tissue (WAT) is the primary site for en-
ergy storage and is also responsible by thermal isolation
and mechanical protection. Moreover, it is considered an
important endocrine organ which secrets a large number
of adipokines responsible by the whole body metabolism
maintenance [1,2]
.
However, obese individuals are sus-
ceptible to adipose tissue dysfunction, which is character-
ized by altered adipokine secretion, increased reactive
oxygen species, and inability to store triacylglycerol [24].
This condition is able to lead to metabolic syndrome and
cardiovascular diseases [57].
Studies show that the excessive fructose intake is one
cause for the current epidemics of metabolic syndrome
and obesity [811]. Fructose is a sugar commonly found
in fruits. However, the industry has used corn syrup,
which is rich in fructose, to sweet beverages and foods,
increasing the intake of this sugar by the population
[12]. Although glucose and fructose present similar mo-
lecular structures, their metabolism is different. Fructose
has a lower glycemic index and does not generate an in-
sulin response, but present a higher sweetener power
[13]. Moreover, fructose is quickly absorbed by the liver
and converted into glucose, glycogen, lactate, and fat
[14]. For this reason, fructose is considered a potent
* Correspondence: fabiane_vf@yahoo.com.br
1
Medical School, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Avenida Professor
Montenegro, s/n- Rubião Júnior, Botucatu, SP 18618-970, Brazil
Full list of author information is available at the end of the article
Nutrir
e
© The Author(s). 2018 Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0
International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and
reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to
the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver
(http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
Lo et al. Nutrire (2018) 43:25
https://doi.org/10.1186/s41110-018-0085-y
lipogenic and adipogenic nutrient, able to promote
hypertrophy in adipocyte precursor cells (APCs), other
condition related to adipose tissue dysfunction, and
metabolic disorders [15].
Considering this condition, functional foods have pre-
sented many health benefits, protecting against several
diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, and cancer [16].
Curcuma longa L. (Cl) is a cultivated and appreciated
spice since antiquity in the Mediterranean region, com-
monly used as coloring, flavoring, and seasonings [17].
This rhizome is composed mainly by curcumin (1,7-bis
(4-hidroxi-3-metoxifenil)-1,6-heptadieno-3,5-diona) but
also by bis-demethoxycurcumin and demethoxycurcumin.
Curcumin is a polyphenol very studied in the isolated
form and presents anti-inflammatory and antioxidant ac-
tivity and is able to attenuate obesity-related disorders
[1721]. Curcuma longa L. extract is another administra-
tion form with health benefit results [17]. However, most
of population ingests this food in natura in the diet, added
in the preparations. Considering that studies with
Curcuma longa L. in natura in the literature are scarce, it
is important to evaluate the action of this food on inflam-
mation and oxidative due adipose tissue dysfunction. So,
the aim of this study was to evaluate the in natura effect
of Curcuma longa L. on adipose tissue dysfunction and
comorbidities in obese rats.
Material and methods
Experimental protocol
All the experiments and procedures were approved by the
Animal Ethics Committee of Botucatu Medical School
(1065/2013) and performed in accordance with the Na-
tional Institute of Healths Guide for the Care and Use of
Laboratory Animals. Male Wistar rats (8 weeks old) were
housed in individual cages in an environmental controlled
room (22 °C ± 3 °C; 12-h light-dark cycle and relative hu-
midity of 60 ± 5%). During 16 weeks, animals (n= 16) re-
ceived standard chow + fructose in drinking water (30%)
ad libitum. After this period, animals were randomly di-
vided to receive placebo treatment (fructose, n=8) or
Curcuma longa L. treatment (fructose + Cl,n=8) for
more 8 weeks, totalizing 24 weeks of experiment. Both
groups (fructose and fructose + Cl) continued receiving
standard chow + fructose in drinking water (30%) ad libi-
tum.In order to confirm obesity in the fructose group,
additional rats of the same age, fed with a chow diet and
water, were used as control group (n=8).
Curcuma longa L. preparation and treatment
Curcuma longa L. was harvested in São Manuel city, São
Paulo, Brazil, in the Experimental Farm of Teaching,
Research and Production, belonging to the Agronomic
Sciences Faculty (FCA) - UNESP/Botucatu-SP. After the
harvest, the rhizomes were washed and sent to the
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry of the Institute
of Biosciences (IB) - UNESP/Botucatu-SP, where they were
chopped and dried in a forced air circulation oven at 65 °C
until stabilization of pasta. The rhizomes were ground in a
knife mill and stored in amber glass bottles at room
temperature, protected from light and moisture. After this,
animals received both placebo or Curcuma longa L. (Cl)by
gavagem. Curcuma longa L. was mixed in water and ad-
ministered to the animals in a dose of 80 mg/kg of body
weight [22]. It was also added black pepper (1%) to increase
Curcuma longa L. absorption [23]. Placebo was only water.
Body composition
Body composition was evaluated by initial and final body
weight and adiposity index. Adiposity index (AI), consid-
ered an estimative of body fat, was calculated according
to the formula: [(epididymal + retroperitoneal + vis-
ceral)/body weight] × 100 [24,25].
Systolic blood pressure
Systolic blood pressure (SBP) evaluation was assessed in con-
scious rats by the non-invasive tail-cuff method with a Nar-
coBioSystems® Electro-Sphygmomanometer (International
Biomedical, Austin, TX, USA). The animals were kept in a
wooden box (50 × 40 cm) between 38 and 40 °C for 45min
to stimulate arterial vasodilation [26]. After this procedure, a
cuff with a pneumatic pulse sensor was attached to the tail
of each animal. The cuff was inflated to 200 mmHg pressure
and subsequently deflated. The blood pressure values were
recorded on a Gould RS 3200 polygraph (Gould Instrumen-
tal Valley View, OH, USA). Theaverageofthreepressure
readings was recorded for each animal.
Plasma metabolic and hormonal analysis
After 12 h of fasting, blood was collected and plasma was
used for the following analysis. An enzymatic-colorimetric
kit was used to measure glucose and triglycerides
(Bioclin®; Belo Horizonte) using an automatic enzymatic
analyzer system (Chemistry Analyzer BS-200, Mindray
Medical International Limited, Shenzhen, China). The
insulin level was measured using the enzyme-linked im-
munosorbent assay (ELISA) method using commercial
kits (EMD Millipore Corporation, Billerica, MA, USA).
The homeostatic model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)
was used as an insulin resistance index, calculated accord-
ing to the formula: HOMA-IR = (fasting glucose (mmol/
L) × fasting insulin (μU/mL))/22.5 [27].
Plasma inflammatory cytokines
Plasma levels of tumoral necrose factor-alpha (TNF-α)
and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured by ELISA kits
(R&D System, Minneapolis, USA). Reading was made in a
microplate spectrophotometer reader (SpectraMax 190;
Molecular Devices).
Lo et al. Nutrire (2018) 43:25 Page 2 of 8
Plasma extraction and identification of curcuminoids by
HPLC-DAD-UV
The extraction was made according to Asai and Miyazawa
(2000) [28]. Aliquots (20 μL) were injected into a UHPLC
Thermo Scientific Dionex UltiMate 3000 system (Thermo
Fisher Scientific Inc., MA, USA), coupled to a quaternary
pump an Ultimate 3000RS auto sampler and a diode array
detector (DAD-3000RS). The reading was performed at a
wavelength of 245 nm using an isocratic method com-
posed of ethanol: methanol (60:40) as the mobile phase
under a flow of 1.0 mL per minute. The column used was
C18, 5 μm, 150 × 4.6. The results were obtained through a
curve performed with the sigma standards (98% purity) of
curcumin (C08511), bisdemethoxycurcumin (B6938), and
demethoxycurcumin (D7696).
Epididymal adipose tissue analysis
Tissue preparation
Epididymal adipose tissue (400 mg) was homogenized
with 2 ml of PBS (pH 7.4) and then centrifuged at
3000 rpm, 4 °C, 10 min. The supernatant was used to
evaluate inflammatory cytokines, malondialdehyde, and
carbonylation. The results were corrected by the protein
amounts of each sample, quantified by the Bradford
method [29].
Inflammatory cytokines in adipose tissue
Tumoral necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 6
(IL-6) were measured by ELISA kits (R&D System, Minne-
apolis, USA) according to the manufacturers instructions.
Reading was made in a microplate spectrophotometer
reader (SpectraMax 190; Molecular Devices).
Malondialdehyde (MDA) in adipose tissue
For MDA quantification, 250 μL of epididymal adipose
tissue supernatant was mixed with 750 μL of 10%
trichloroacetic acid for protein precipitation. After cen-
trifugation (3000 rpm, 5 min; Eppendorf® Centrifuge
5804-R, Hamburg, Germany), the supernatant was re-
moved. Thiobarbituric acid (TBA, 0.67%) was added in
ratio (1: 1), and the samples were heated for 15 min at
100 °C. MDA reacts with TBA in the ratio 1: 2
MDA-TBA, absorbed at 535 nm. After cooling, the read-
ing at 535 nm was performed on Spectra Max 190 mi-
croplate reader (Molecular Devices®, Sunnyvale, CA,
USA). The MDA concentration was obtained by the
molar extinction coefficient (1.56 × 105 M
1
cm
1
) and
the sample absorbance and the final result expressed in
nmol/g protein [30].
Protein carbonylation in adipose tissue
Epididymal adipose tissue supernatant was used to
measure protein carbonylation (PC) by an unspecific
method based on the photometric detection of DNPH
(2,4-dinitrophenyl hydrazine) derivatizing agent [31].
Briefly, 10 μL of diluted (1:10) supernatant was incu-
bated in an acid DNPH solution for 10 min. After this,
NaOH 1 M was added and the absorbance was checked.
Results were obtained according to the molecular extinc-
tion coefficient of DNPH and adjusted according to the
total tissue proteins amount (mg).
Histological analysis
Adipose tissue was fixed in 4% formaldehyde and embed-
ded in paraffin. Two consecutive sections from each sam-
ple were cut (4 μm) and stained with hematoxylin/eosin.
The entire slide was scanned using a 3DHISTECH Pano-
ramic MIDI System attached to a Hitachi HV-F22 color
camera and ten fields/slide were analyzed under × 100
magnification in a blinded manner. The inflammatory re-
actions are reported as present/absent. Using the same
slides, adipocyte mean area was calculated using a method
previously described by Osman et al. in 2013 [32].
Statistical analysis
Results are expressed as mean + standard deviation (SD).
The significance of differences was calculated by the Stu-
dentsttest, using SigmaStat version 3.5 for Windows
(Systat Software, Inc., San Jose, CA, USA). A pvalue of
0.05 was considered as statistically significant.
Results
Effect of Curcuma longa L. on body weight and adiposity
index
There were no differences in BW among the groups in the
beginning of this study. At the end of the experiment, the
mean BWs of the fructose group was significantly higher
than control group (control 489 + 58 g vs. fructose 579 +
71 g, p< 0.05). Regarding the effect of Curcuma longa L.
on body weight, the treated group (fructose + Cl) did not
present difference compared to fructose group. The adi-
posity index was also significantly higher in fructose group
(control 5.3 + 1.2% vs. fructose 9.5 + 1.7%, p<0.001) com-
pared to control group, which confirms obesity in fructose
group. However, fructose + Cl group presented after the
treatment, lower adiposity index compared to fructose
group, demonstrating the positive effect of Curcuma longa
L. against obesity. In order to confirm the presence of
Curcuma longa L. in the treated group, plasma detection
of curcumin and two isoforms, bis-demethoxycurcumin
and demethoxycurcumin, were analyzed. It is possible to
verify the presence of curcuminoids only in fructose + Cl
group. All the results are presented in Table 1.
Effect of Curcuma longa L. on the adipose tissue
dysfunction
Adipose tissue histological analysis showed inflammatory
cells in both groups that received fructose. About the
Lo et al. Nutrire (2018) 43:25 Page 3 of 8
effect of Curcuma longa L. the treated group (fructose +
Cl) presented reduction in adipocyte area compared to
fructose group, confirming the positive result of this
food to reduce hypertrophy (Fig. 1).
Inflammatory cytokine levels are presented in Fig. 2.
Fructose + Cl group also presented reduced plasma and
adipose tissue IL-6 levels as well as reduced TNF-αcon-
centration in adipose tissue compared to fructose group.
Figure 3presents oxidative stress parameters in adi-
pose tissue. Fructose + Cl group showed lower levels of
MDA compared to fructose group. No effect on carbon-
ylation was observed.
Effect of Curcuma longa L. on comorbidities
Figure 4shows the effect of Cl on metabolic parameters.
It is possible to verify a positive effect to reduce plasma
triglycerides, HOMA-IR, and systolic blood pressure in
fructose + Cl group compared to fructose group.
Discussion
The aim of this study was to evaluate the in natura effect
of Curcuma longa L. on adipose tissue dysfunction and
comorbidities in obese rats. Adipose tissue dysfunction is
characterized by an imbalanced production and release of
pro- and anti-inflammatory adipokines, increased produc-
tion of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and increased in-
flammatory cell infiltrate [33]. This condition is associated
with metabolic systemic consequences such as systemic
low-grade inflammation, hypercoagulability, hypertension,
dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance [12,15,3436].
Therefore, it is extremely important to prevent or to treat
the adipose tissue dysfunction in order to avoid the devel-
opment of diabetes and cardiovascular and renal diseases.
The consumption of bioactive compounds present in
many foods can be a treatment option for these condi-
tions. In this way, our results showed a positive effect of
Curcuma longa L. on attenuation of adipose tissue dys-
function and comorbidities.
Curcumin is the major active component of turmeric, a
yellow compound originally isolated from the plant
Table 1 BW, adiposity index, and plasma levels of curcuminoids
Variables Groups
Fructose Fructose + Cl
Initial BW (g) 257 ± 15 258 ± 14
Final BW (g) 538 ± 15 467 ± 42
Adiposity index (%) 6.59 ± 0.69 4.92 ± 1.05
*
Caloric intake (Kcal) 66.9 ± 8.3 70.2 ± 9.3
Feed efficiency (%) 2.64 ± 0.23 2.37 ± 0.57
Plasm total curcumin (nmol) ND 0.08 ± 0.04
Bisdemetoxicurcumin (μg/dL) ND 0.09 ± 0.03
Demetoxicurcumin (μg/dL) ND 0.066 ± 0.002
* indicates p<0.05
Fig. 1 Histological section in adipose tissue stained with hematoxilin/eosin (× 100 magnification). aControl groupno changes, bfructose groupadipocyte
hypertrophy and inflammatory infiltrate, cFructose + Cl groupdiscrete inflammatory infiltrate (n= 6 animals/group), dadipocyte area (μm
2
)
Lo et al. Nutrire (2018) 43:25 Page 4 of 8
Curcuma longa. It is a member of the curcuminoid family
and has been used for centuries in traditional medicines.
As a spice, it provides curry with its distinctive color and
flavor. Furthermore, traditional Indian medicine has con-
sidered curcumin a drug effective for many disorders in-
cluding asthma and hepatic diseases. However, evidence
from numerous literatures revealed that the major chal-
lenge about curcumin is to increase the absorption and
bioavailability [37]. Uptake and distribution of curcumin
in body tissues is obviously important for its biological ac-
tivity. Most of curcumin get metabolized in the liver and
intestine; however, a small quantity still remains detectable
in the organs [37]. In order to increase the absorption,
piperine, a constituent of pepper, is an inhibitor of hepatic
and intestinal glucuronidation. Thus, the ingestion of pip-
erine contributes to increase the serum concentration of
curcumin and thereby its bioavailability [38]. In our study,
we used in natura Curcuma longa associated with black
pepper to improve the absorption and the result was the
three main curcuminoids present in plasma of the treated
group. Aiming to increase the bioavailability, longer circu-
lation, better permeability, and resistance to metabolic
processes of curcumin several formulations have been pre-
pared which include nanoparticles, liposomes, micelles,
and phospholipid complexes. All of them show improve-
ment in the bioavailability of curcuminoids [37]. However,
these forms have not gained significant attention in hu-
man since most people find and use to cook in natura
Curcuma longa and studies show health benefits from oral
administration. The dietary treatment with curcumin im-
proved insulin sensitivity, inflammatory disorders, or pre-
vented liver fat accumulation in rodents fed with a HF
diet. It is worth noting that the beneficial effects observed
in those studies were always demonstrated after a long
period of administration (up to 8 weeks) [39]. Other in
vitro studies show that curcumin treatment for 12 weeks
could diminish expansion of adipose tissue and body
weight gain probably through inhibition of angiogenesis
Fig. 2 Adipokine levels in plasma and adipose tissue. aIL-6: interleukin-6 in plasma; bIL-6: interleukin-6 in adipose tissue; cTNF-α: tumoral
necrosis factor alpha in plasma; dTNF-α: tumoral necrosis factor alpha in adipose tissue. Values are mean ± standard deviation (SD), n-6 animals/
group. Comparison by StudentsTtest
Fig. 3 Oxidative stress parameters in adipose tissue. aCarbonylation levels. bMDA: malondialdehyde levels. Values are mean ± standard deviation
(SD), n-6 animals/group. Comparison by StudentsTtest
Lo et al. Nutrire (2018) 43:25 Page 5 of 8
and adipogenesis in adipose tissue [40]. So, to investigate
the effects of Curcuma longa in adipose tissue of animals
and humans is very important.
The adipose tissue becomes dysfunctional when the de-
mand of triglycerides is too high, and the adipocyte needs
to hypertrophy to store this excessive TG. Our results
showed that the group treated with Curcuma longa L. pre-
sented reduction of triglyceride levels. Regarding this ef-
fect, two mechanisms could explain these findings. The
first one is that Curcuma longa L. could impact on TG
synthesis and oxidation in the liver by increasing PPAR-α
expression and activation. It has been demonstrated that
PPAR-αregulates liver enzymes related to lipid synthesis
as well as beta-oxidation enzymes [41,42]. The second is
that Curcuma longa L. can upregulate fatty acid oxidation
in the skeletal muscle and/or adipose tissue in association
to a greater expression and activation of UCP-1 [43,44].
Independent of which mechanism happened in our ani-
mals, the reduced plasma TG concentrations reflected in
lower adipocyte fat deposition with consequent reduction
in adiposity index, in adipocyte area, and in IL-6,
TNF-alpha, and MDA levels in the treated group.
This improvement in adipose tissue dysfunction avoided
the manifestation of some comorbidities, among them in-
sulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, since these diseases are
closely associated with chronic inflammation. Regarding
the association of adipokines and diseases, the literature re-
ports that TNF-αwas the first link among obesity, diabetes,
and chronic inflammation in adipose tissue [45,46]. Later,
IL-6 was discovered to be also increased in obese individ-
uals. In this study, both TNF-αand IL-6 were increased in
fructose group and these animals also presented some
comorbidities, such as insulin resistance and hypertension.
TNF-αisapro-inflammatorycytokineabletoactivatesig-
nal transduction cascades, including insulin action inhib-
ition pathways. In physiological conditions, insulin
stimulates tyrosine phosphorylation by insulin-receptor
substrate(IRS),whichisacrucial event in mediating insulin
action. However, TNF-αalso targets this element of
insulin-receptor signaling through inhibitory serine phos-
phorylation of IRS-1, which interferes with the ability of
thisproteintoengageininsulin-receptor signaling and re-
sults in alterations in insulin action [45]. Hypertension in
fructose group can be explained by increased IL-6, a cyto-
kine that acts under the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) ac-
tivity leading to angiotensin II (ANGII)-mediated
hypertension [47]. On the other hand, fructose + Cl group
presented a reduction of TNF-αand IL-6 levels which can
explain insulin resistance improvement and the reduction
in systolic blood pressure.
Together with the anti-inflammatory results above de-
scribed, other studies have already showed the
anti-inflammatory and also the antioxidant effect of Cur-
cuma longa L. [4850].The treated group presented re-
duction in MDA levels compared to untreated group,
and no difference in carbonylation was found. Protein
carbonylation is an irreversible protein oxidation pro-
moted by reactive oxygen species, which leads to the loss
of protein function and considered a marker of severe
oxidative damage. This reaction can happens via the
addition of aldehydes such as those generated from lipid
peroxidation. Oxidative decomposition of polyunsatur-
ated fatty acids initiates chain reactions that lead to the
formation of a variety of carbonyl species, among them
Fig. 4 Plasma biochemical parameters and systolic blood pressure. aTG: triglycerides. bHOMA-IR: homeostasis model assessment. cSBP: systolic
blood pressure. Values are mean ± standard deviation (SD), n-6 animals/group. Comparison by StudentsTtest
Lo et al. Nutrire (2018) 43:25 Page 6 of 8
malondialdehyde [51]. Although fructose + Cl group
presented reduction in MDA levels, protein oxidation
did not present difference from fructose group. Since
the group started the treatment with Curcuma longa L.
after 16 weeks receiving fructose, protein carbonylation
have already happened, even with a reduction in MDA
levels. This reduction in MDA levels corroborates the
antioxidant effect of Curcuma longa L.; however, a pre-
ventive consumption of this food should have more
interest to avoid protein oxidation.
Conclusion
In summary, in obese condition, Curcuma longa L.
reduced adiposity index and adipocyte hypertrophy,
improved insulin resistance and systolic blood pressure,
and reduced inflammation and oxidative stress in the adi-
pose tissue. These results can be attributed to the modula-
tion of adipose tissue dysfunction after treatment with this
functional food. So, it is possible to conclude that
Curcuma longa L. in natura is able to modulate adipose
tissue dysfunction, avoiding the development of comor-
bidities. It can be considered a phytochemical treatment
strategy against obesity-related chronic diseases.
Abbreviations
AI: Adiposity index; ANGII: Angiotensin II; APCs: Adipocyte precursor cells;
Cl:Curcuma longa L.; DNPH : 2,4-Dinitrophenyl hydrazine; ELISA : Enzyme-
linked immunosorbent assay; HOMA-IR: Homeostatic model of insulin
resistance; IL-6: Interleukin-6; IRS: Insulin receptor substrate;
MDA: Malondialdehyde; PC: Protein carbonylation; PPAR-α: Peroxisome
proliferator-activated receptor alpha; RAS : Renin-angiotensin system;
ROS: Reactive oxygen species; SBP: Systolic blood pressure; SD: Standard
deviation; TBA: Thiobarbituric acid; TG: Triglycerides; TNF-α: Tumoral necrose
factor-alpha; UCP1: Uncoupling protein 1; WAT: White adipose tissue
Acknowledgements
The authors thank Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo
(2014/03503-6).
Funding
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP-process
2014/03503-6).
Availability of data and materials
The datasets used and/or analyzed during the current study are available
from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
Authorscontributions
ATCL contributed to the experimental design and data analysis. FVF
contributed to the experimental design and data analysis, and wrote and
reviewed the manuscript. FKH contributed to the experimental design and
data analysis. APCRF contributed to the experimental design. IOM
contributed to the data analysis and wrote and reviewed the manuscript.
JLG and KCS contributed to the data analysis of the manuscript. PHRA
contributed to the experimental design and data analysis. GPPL, FM and
AJTF wrote and reviewed the manuscript. CRC contributed to the
experimental design and data analysis, and wrote and reviewed the
manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Ethics approval
This study was approved by the Animal Ethics Committee of Botucatu
Medical School (1065/2013).
Consent for publication
Not applicable.
Competing interests
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
PublishersNote
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in
published maps and institutional affiliations.
Author details
1
Medical School, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Avenida Professor
Montenegro, s/n- Rubião Júnior, Botucatu, SP 18618-970, Brazil.
2
Bioscience
Institute, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Botucatu, Brazil.
Received: 19 August 2018 Accepted: 31 October 2018
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