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Weighted blankets for insomnia in affective disorder and ADHD – a clinical follow up study

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Abstract

Introduction: Weighted blankets are used for the treatment of insomnia in patients with affective disorders and ADHD, despite the lack of scientific support. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical use of weighted blankets for insomnia in patients with affective disorder and ADHD. Methods: 199 psychiatric patients with affective and ADHD diagnoses and co-occurring insomnia were included consecutively and treated with weighted blankets as a part of a clinical routine. They were evaluated before and after four weeks use of the blanket concerning time to sleep onset and ten sleep-related symptoms, using a self-rating scale, and after one year by a telephone interview.Results: The use of weighted blankets reduced the median time to fall asleep from 70 to 30 minutes (p<0.001) and led to a significant improvement of ten other sleep-related symptoms at the follow up after four weeks. After one year the positive effects on sleep were still maintained.Conclusions: The favourable results the results of this open clinical study should be interpreted with caution. Studies with a controlled design are warranted.

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... This project started with an open clinical follow-up study of weighted blankets in 199 psychiatric patients with affective and ADHD diagnoses and co-occurring insomnia. 31 Due to the beneficial results, we decided to proceed with a controlled study. ...
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Acupressure is a non-invasive treatment in which pressure is applied to specific body points. Following public health concerns about poor sleep quality and increasing interest in alternative treatments, a systematic review and meta-analysis were designed to evaluate the effects of acupressure on the quality of sleep. Ten English (PubMed, CENTRAL, CINAHL etc.) and five Chinese (CNKI, WANFANG etc.) databases were searched and the validity of the eligible studies was critically appraised. Thirty-two eligible randomized controlled trials of moderate to high quality which employed polysomnography, actigraphy, or self-assessment sleep quality tools were included. We conducted a meta-analysis using a random effects model with the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) as the primary outcome measure (968 adult patients, 13 trials) for trials investigating the effects of traditional Chinese medicine acupressure compared with standard and sham treatments. We performed subgroup analyses to detect sources of heterogeneity, identify the use of acupoints in different populations and explore the contributions of PSQI domains to the total score change. Comparison with the sham group (7 trials with 385 patients) yielded low heterogeneity and an overall effect of 13% to 19% improvement in the PSQI score (MD = -3.41, 95% CI -4.08, -2.75; I² =12%). Based on data from four trials (n=250), sleep latency and sleep duration were most affected. No adverse effects were reported in any of the reviewed trials. Within the limitations of clinical heterogeneity, the results showed that even fragile populations such as the elderly and dialysis patients can benefit from acupressure. Standardized treatment protocols involved 3 to 5 kg of pressure for one to five minutes per acupoint, delivered three to seven times a week for three to four weeks with the HT7 (Shenmen) acupoint used in most procedures. A high risk of bias due to absence of blinding of patients and personnel remains a serious methodological challenge for acupressure trials and poses a main limitation to presented results. This review has been registered in PROSPERO (registration number CRD42015025013).
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Chronic insomnia is the most common sleep disorder among adults and is associated with a wide range of negative outcomes. This article reviews the economic consequences of the disorder and the cost effectiveness of insomnia treatments. First, the total costs of insomnia are reviewed; in aggregate these costs exceed $100 billion USD per year, with the majority being spent on indirect costs such as poorer workplace performance, increased health care utilization, and increased accident risk. Next, the deleterious impact of insomnia on quality of life and the impact of treatment on quality of life are briefly considered. Finally, ten published studies evaluating the cost effectiveness of both pharmacological and behavioral treatments for insomnia are reviewed in detail. A significant majority of studies reviewed found that the cost of treating primary and comorbid insomnia is less than the cost of not treating it. Treatments were generally found to be cost-effective using commonly employed standards, with treatment costs being recouped within 6-12 months.
Article
Deep pressure stimulation has been used in therapeutic practice because of the assumption that it changes physiological arousal. The purpose of this study was to test the effects of deep pressure stimulation, applied with a Vayu Vest (Therapeutic Systems), on both autonomic arousal and performance in a normative adult sample. A repeated-measures, repeated-baseline design was used with participants completing a performance test before and after deep pressure application. A convenience sample of 50 adults participated in the study. Results showed that wearing the Vayu Vest for even short periods of time reduced sympathetic arousal and non-stimulus-driven electrical occurrences. Concomitant increases in parasympathetic arousal were found. Performance improvements were noted after wearing the Vayu Vest, potentially because of changes in arousal. We conclude that deep pressure stimulation is capable of eliciting changes in autonomic arousal and may be a useful modality in diagnostic groups seen by occupational therapy practitioners. Copyright © 2015 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.
Article
To evaluate the prevalence of severe insomnia symptoms and the extent to which they are associated with daytime impairments in comorbid mood and anxiety disorders. Nationally representative cross-sectional survey. National Comorbidity Survey-Replication (NCS-R). There were 5,692 NCS-R respondents with no mood or anxiety disorder (n = 3,711), mood disorders only (n = 327), anxiety disorders only (n = 1,137), and coexisting mood and anxiety disorders (n = 517). N/A. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition disorders and severe insomnia symptoms in the past year were assessed using the World Health Organization (WHO) Composite International Diagnostic Interview. The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHO-DAS) indexed eight domains of daytime impairment in the past 30 days, which included self-care, mobility, cognition, social functioning, time out of role, and four components of productive role functioning. Respondents with comorbid mood and anxiety disorders had significantly higher rates of severe insomnia complaints (42.1-62.8%) relative to the three other groups. Severe insomnia complaints were also significantly more prevalent in individuals with mood (25.2-45.6%) or anxiety disorders only (24.9-45.5%) relative to those with no disorder (12.4-24.3%). Moreover, endorsing a severe insomnia complaint in the past year was associated with increased days of impairment across all past-month WHO-DAS domains for respondents with mood-anxiety comorbidity. For the remaining groups, severe insomnia complaints were related to increased days of impairment across all domains except self-care, and additionally mobility for the group with mood disorders only. Comorbid mood and anxiety disorders are associated with high rates of severe insomnia complaints, which were independently associated with substantial functional impairment. CITATION: Soehner AM; Harvey AG. Prevalence and functional consequences of severe insomnia symptoms in mood and anxiety disorders: results from a nationally representative sample. SLEEP 2012;35(10):1367-1375.
Article
ABSTRACT– A self-assessment scale has been developed and found to be a reliable instrument for detecting states of depression and anxiety in the setting of an hospital medical outpatient clinic. The anxiety and depressive subscales are also valid measures of severity of the emotional disorder. It is suggested that the introduction of the scales into general hospital practice would facilitate the large task of detection and management of emotional disorder in patients under investigation and treatment in medical and surgical departments.
Article
The understanding that sleep can give rise to, or exacerbate symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and that good sleep hygiene improves attention and concentration tasks has sparked interest in the investigation of possible etiological relationships between sleep disorders and ADHD. Studies indicate that 30% of children and 60-80% of adults with ADHD have symptoms of sleep disorders such as daytime sleepiness, insomnia, delayed sleep phase syndrome, fractured sleep, restless legs syndrome, and sleep disordered breathing. The range and diversity of findings by different researchers have posed challenges in establishing whether sleep disturbances are intrinsic to ADHD or whether disturbances occur due to co-morbid sleep disorders. As a result, understanding of the nature of the relationship between sleep disturbances/disorders and ADHD remains unclear. In this review, we present a comprehensive and critical account of the research that has been carried out to investigate the association between sleep and ADHD, as well as discuss mechanisms that have been proposed to account for the elusive relationship between sleep disturbances, sleep disorders, and ADHD.
Article
Despite advances in the treatment of bipolar disorder, a significant proportion of patients experience disabling symptoms between episodes, and relapse rates are high. These circumstances suggest that there is a critical need to achieve a mechanistic understanding of triggers of relapse and to target them with specific, empirically derived treatments. Sleep disturbances are among the most prominent correlates of mood episodes and inadequate recovery, yet sleep has been minimally studied in ways that integrate mechanistic understanding and treatment. In this article, the author seeks to define the limits of current knowledge and to specify preliminary clinical implications. Sleep disturbance is important because it impairs quality of life, contributes to relapse, and has adverse consequences for affective functioning. While sleep disturbance and circadian dysregulation are critical pathophysiological elements in bipolar disorder, many questions about the mechanisms that underpin the association remain. The author presents a model that recognizes a role for genetic vulnerability and suggests that there is a bidirectional relationship between daytime affect regulation and nighttime sleep such that an escalating vicious circle of disturbance in affect regulation during the day interferes with nighttime sleep/circadian functioning, and the effects of sleep deprivation contribute to difficulty in affect regulation the following day.
Article
Chronic insomnia, a public health crisis affecting 10-15% of the U.S. population and costing billions of dollars annually, typically presents with one or more comorbid psychiatric or organic conditions. Historical classification of chronic insomnia as "secondary" to a presenting comorbid condition has resulted in under-recognition and under-treatment of both the insomnia and comorbid condition(s). Though critical in any model of comorbid disease management, chronic insomnia receives little, if any, public policy attention. We conducted a systematic review of recent empirical studies, review papers, books, government documents, press releases, advertisements, and articles pertaining to the classification, epidemiology, treatment, and physiology of sleep, insomnia, and comorbid conditions. Data were located primarily through MEDLINE, PsycINFO, SCOPUS, and PUBMED databases. Our goal was to provide an overview of the systems for classifying insomnia and available epidemiological data, and to review theoretical models regarding the etiology and maintaining factors of chronic insomnia along with research on the complex, bidirectional associations between chronic insomnia and various affective (and other) conditions. After thorough review of the literature, we propose several public policy measures as an initial step in managing chronic insomnia in the United States. These include introducing a nation-wide multi-modal educational and awareness campaign titled "Sleep America;" increasing the availability and demand for behavioral sleep medicine - the initially preferred treatment approach; and increasing the use of monitoring and enforcement activities by regulatory authorities to curtail false and misleading claims by sponsors of supplements or treatments for insomnia. Through the adoption of such measures, we hope to galvanize a national interest in healthy sleep and the evidence-based treatment of chronic insomnia.
Article
We aimed to assess the effectiveness of massage as a treatment option for autism. We searched the following electronic databases using the time of their inception through March 2010: MEDLINE, AMED, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Health Technology Assessment, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, 6 Korean medical databases (KSI, DBpia, KISTEP, RISS, KoreaMed, and National Digital Library), China Academic Journal (through China National Knowledge Infrastructure), and 3 Japanese medical databases (Journal@rchive, Science Links Japan, and Japan Science & Technology link). The search phrase used was "(massage OR touch OR acupressure) AND (autistic OR autism OR Asperger's syndrome OR pervasive developmental disorder)." The references in all located articles were also searched. No language restrictions were imposed. Prospective controlled clinical studies of any type of massage therapy for autistic patients were included. Trials in which massage was part of a complex intervention were also included. Case studies, case series, qualitative studies, uncontrolled trials, studies that failed to provide detailed results, and trials that compared one type of massage with another were excluded. All articles were read by 2 independent reviewers (M.S.L. and J-I.K.), who extracted data from the articles according to predefined criteria. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane classification. Of 132 articles, only 6 studies met our inclusion criteria. One randomized clinical trial found that massage plus conventional language therapy was superior to conventional language therapy alone for symptom severity (P < .05) and communication attitude (P < .01). Two randomized clinical trials reported a significant benefit of massage for sensory profile (P < .01), adaptive behavior (P < .05), and language and social abilities (P < .01) as compared with a special education program. The fourth randomized clinical trial showed beneficial effects of massage for social communication (P < .05). Two nonrandomized controlled clinical trials suggested that massage therapy is effective. However, all of the included trials have high risk of bias. The main limitations of the included studies were small sample sizes, predefined primary outcome measures, inadequate control for nonspecific effects, and a lack of power calculations or adequate follow-up. Limited evidence exists for the effectiveness of massage as a symptomatic treatment of autism. Because the risk of bias was high, firm conclusions cannot be drawn. Future, more rigorous randomized clinical trials seem to be warranted.
Article
Insomnia is the most common sleeping disorder and has been recognized as a major public health issue, associated with a high societal cost. The aim of this review is firstly to understand how the socio-demographic and career characteristics of insomniacs may influence the economical consequences of this disease. Secondly, it also tries to explain how patients seek help to cope with their insomnia. The review aims to carefully describe the possible links between insomnia and public health concerns as to point out what are the certitudes and the missing data on the consequences of insomnia on work, economics, accidents, costs and health related quality of life (HrQol).
Article
As part of the National Institute of Mental Health Epidemiologic Catchment Area study, 7954 respondents were questioned at baseline and 1 year later about sleep complaints and psychiatric symptoms using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule. Of this community sample, 10.2% and 3.2% noted insomnia and hypersomnia, respectively, at the first interview. Forty percent of those with insomnia and 46.5% of those with hypersomnia had a psychiatric disorder compared with 16.4% of those with no sleep complaints. The risk of developing new major depression was much higher in those who had insomnia at both interviews compared with those without insomnia (odds ratio, 39.8; 95% confidence interval, 19.8 to 80.0). The risk of developing new major depression was much less for those who had insomnia that had resolved by the second visit (odds ratio, 1.6; 95% confidence interval, 0.5 to 5.3). Further research is needed to determine if early recognition and treatment of sleep disturbances can prevent future psychiatric disorders.
Article
Subjects from a family study who had panic disorder and generalized anxiety disorder were compared on the pattern of their symptoms, age and type of onset, personality characteristics, course of illness, and outcome. Subjects with generalized anxiety disorder were shown to have fewer autonomic symptoms and an earlier, more gradual onset. Their illness was also observed to have a more chronic course and a more favorable outcome, although these differences were not statistically significant. The validity of generalized anxiety disorder and panic disorder as discrete diagnostic entities is supported.
Article
The Johns Hopkins Precursors Study, a long-term prospective study, was used to study the relation between self-reported sleep disturbances and subsequent clinical depression and psychiatric distress. A total of 1,053 men provided information on sleep habits during medical school at The Johns Hopkins University (classes of 1948-1964) and have been followed since graduation. During a median follow-up period of 34 years (range 1-45), 101 men developed clinical depression (cumulative incidence at 40 years, 12.2%), including 13 suicides. In Cox proportional hazards analysis adjusted for age at graduation, class year, parental history of clinical depression, coffee drinking, and measures of temperament, the relative risk of clinical depression was greater in those who reported insomnia in medical school (relative risk (RR) 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-3.3) compared with those who did not and greater in those with difficulty sleeping under stress in medical school (RR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2-2.7) compared with those who did not report difficulty. There were weaker associations for those who reported poor quality of sleep (RR 1.6, 95% CI 0.9-2.9) and sleep duration of 7 hours or less (RR 1.5, 95% CI 0.9-2.3) with development of clinical depression. Similar associations were observed between reports of sleep disturbances in medical school and psychiatric distress assessed in 1988 by the General Health Questionnaire. These findings suggest that insomnia in young men is indicative of a greater risk for subsequent clinical depression and psychiatric distress that persists for at least 30 years.
Article
Repeated oxytocin injections cause lowered blood pressure, decreased cortisol levels, increased withdrawal latency, increased release of vagally controlled gastrointestinal hormones, and increased weight gain. Together, these effects form an antistress pattern. Nonnoxious sensory stimuli release oxytocin and induce an effect spectrum similar to the one caused by oxytocin injections.
Article
Epidemiologists have published more than 50 studies of insomnia based on data collected in various representative community-dwelling samples or populations. These surveys provide estimates of the prevalence of insomnia according to four definitions: insomnia symptoms, insomnia symptoms with daytime consequences, sleep dissatisfaction and insomnia diagnoses. The first definition, based on insomnia criteria as defined by the DSM-IV, recognizes that about one-third of a general population presents at least one of them. The second definition shows that, when daytime consequences of insomnia are taken into account, the prevalence is between 9% and 15%. The third definition represents 8-18% of the general population. The last definition, more precise and corresponding to a decision-making diagnosis, sets the prevalence at 6% of insomnia diagnoses according to the DSM-IV classification. These four definitions of insomnia have higher prevalence rates in women than in men. The prevalence of insomnia symptoms generally increases with age, while the rates of sleep dissatisfaction and diagnoses have little variation with age. Numerous factors can initiate or maintain insomnia. Mental disorders and organic diseases are the factors that have been the most frequently studied. The association between insomnia and major depressive episodes has been constantly reported: individuals with insomnia are more likely to have a major depressive illness. Longitudinal studies have shown that the persistence of insomnia is associated with the appearance of a new depressive episode. Future epidemiological studies should focus on the natural evolution of insomnia. Epidemiological genetic links of insomnia are yet to be studied.
Article
The national initiative to decrease the use of seclusion and restraint in psychiatric inpatient settings requires innovative methods to facilitate the processes of consumer self-organization, self-care, and positive change. Sensory-based approaches and multisensory rooms are valuable resources as cultures of care shift to become more responsive and collaborative. This article explores the importance and efficacy of trauma-informed approaches that are sensory supportive, address the individual needs of the person, and strengthen the therapeutic relationship.
Article
To estimate the prevalence of insomnia symptoms and syndrome in the general population, describe the types of self-help treatments and consultations initiated for insomnia, and examine help-seeking determinants. A randomly selected sample of 2001 French-speaking adults from the province of Quebec (Canada) responded to a telephone survey about sleep, insomnia, and its treatments. Of the total sample, 25.3% were dissatisfied with their sleep, 29.9% reported insomnia symptoms, and 9.5% met criteria for an insomnia syndrome. Thirteen percent of the respondents had consulted a healthcare provider specifically for insomnia in their lifetime, with general practitioners being the most frequently consulted. Daytime fatigue (48%), psychological distress (40%), and physical discomfort (22%) were the main determinants prompting individuals with insomnia to seek treatment. Of the total sample, 15% had used at least once herbal/dietary products to facilitate sleep and 11% had used prescribed sleep medications in the year preceding the survey. Other self-help strategies employed to facilitate sleep included reading, listening to music, and relaxation. These findings confirm the high prevalence of insomnia in the general population. While few insomnia sufferers seek professional consultations, many individuals initiate self-help treatments, particularly when daytime impairments such as fatigue become more noticeable. Improved knowledge of the determinants of help-seeking behaviors could guide the development of effective public health prevention and intervention programs to promote healthy sleep.
Article
The Fatigue Symptom Inventory has been used extensively to assess and measure fatigue in a number of clinical populations. The purpose of the present study was to further establish its utility by examining its operating characteristics and determining the optimal cutoff score for identifying clinically meaningful fatigue. The MOS 36-Item Short Form Vitality scale, a measure widely used to identify individuals with significant fatigue-related disability, was used to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the Fatigue Symptom Inventory. Results indicate that a score of 3 or greater on those items assessing fatigue in the past week is the optimal cutoff score for identifying clinically meaningful fatigue. Individuals who scored at or above the cutoff also reported significantly greater fatigue interference, more days of fatigue on average, and fatigue a greater proportion of each day in the past week. Findings suggest that the Fatigue Symptom Inventory can be used to discriminate effectively between individuals with and without clinically meaningful fatigue.
The validity of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. An updated literature review
  • I Bjelland
  • A A Dahl
  • T T Haug
  • D Neckelmann
Bjelland I, Dahl AA, Haug TT, Neckelmann D. The validity of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. An updated literature review. J Psychosom Res. 2002;52(2):69-77.
Identifying the best sleep measure to screen clinical insomnia in a psychiatric population
  • Lse Seow
  • E Abdin
  • S Chang
  • S A Chong
  • M Subramaniam
Seow LSE, Abdin E, Chang S, Chong SA, Subramaniam M. Identifying the best sleep measure to screen clinical insomnia in a psychiatric population. Sleep Med. 2018;41:86-93.