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Constructions in contact. Constructional perspectives on contact phenomena in Germanic languages

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Abstract

The last three decades have seen the emergence of Construction Grammar as a major research paradigm in linguistics. At the same time, very few researchers have taken a constructionist perspective on language contact phenomena. This volume brings together, for the first time, a broad range of original contributions providing insights into language contact phenomena from a constructionist perspective. Focusing primarily on Germanic languages, the papers in this volume demonstrate how the notion of construction can be fruitfully applied to investigate how a range of different language contact phenomena can be systematically analyzed from the perspectives of both form and meaning.
... (i) pressupostos teóricos dos modelos baseados no uso(BYBEE, 2008;HILPERT, 2019;GOLDBERG, 2019;HÖDER, 2018) que oferecem explicações sobre fenômenos linguísticos, tais como o da competição entre línguas e o da emergência gradual e pela experiência com o input, e sobre os processos cognitivos envolvidos na emergência de qualquer conhecimento, tais como categorização, analogização e associação transmodal; ...
... no capítulo em que revisa os preceitos da Gramática das Construções Diasistêmica(HÖDER, 2012(HÖDER, , 2014a(HÖDER, , 2014b(HÖDER, , 2018, defendemos que o trabalho estrutural centralizado na Gramática das Construções pode potencializar os resultados do ensino de línguas e, daí a nossa defesa a favor dessa abordagem também para o ensino de PBL2, por tratar-se de um trabalho centrado em uma visão de linguagem epistemologicamente coerente e que permite a elaboração de materiais e aulas, a partir de uma abordagem metodológica eficaz. De fato, as discussões teóricas desenvolvidas em Hilpert (2019) apontam para a vantagem de se levar em conta a perspectiva cognitiva de gramática, no caso aqui a GCBU, para o pensar de metodologias de ensino de L2, tal como aqui preconizamos.Em sua obra, o autor cita, ainda, sete princípios defendidos por Herbst (2016) para orientação de uma abordagem de ensino de L2 à luz da Gramática de Construções. ...
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Dividido em 9 capítulos teóricos e 4 unidades didáticas, Aprendizes surdos e escrita em L2: reflexões teóricas e práticas – volume II complementa o volume I, apresentando ao leitor novas oportunidades para o aprofundamento de questões atinentes à teoria linguística, à educação multilíngue, ao ensino e à aquisição de línguas adicionais na perspectiva dos modelos funcionais baseados no uso. Reiteramos, assim, o comprometimento social de nossa empreitada com a divulgação científica acerca do ensino de PBL2.
... I dag er kognitiv teori en paraplybetegnelse for svaert ulike retninger, som diskuterer så ulike spørsmål som evolusjon (Tomasello, 2013); teoretisk semantikk (Langacker, 2008) synkroni, diakroni, og språkendring (Bybee, 2007), S-2-laering (Ellis, 2002), og som vi skal se i neste avsnitt, anvendt kognitiv teori, knyttet til sosiolingvistikk og lån (Backus, 2014;Geeraerts et al., 2010;Höder & Boas, 2018). Under den kognitive paraplyen faller også bruksbasert teori, som er en radikal, kognitiv teori som postulerer at grammatikk kun er et epifenomen av bruk. ...
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Norsk romani og andre nasjonale minoritetsspråk representerer en historisk norsk flerspråklighet, en form for flerspråklighet som er mindre synlig i norsk offentlighet og i norske lærerutdanninger enn annen simultan bruk av flere språk. I denne artikkelen tar jeg for meg hva vi vet om norsk romani i dag, gjennom en omfattende metastudie, ispedd observasjoner fra eget feltarbeid. Videre analyserer jeg disse observasjonene i et bruksbasert lys. Bruksbasert og annen kognitiv teori er gjerne bakteppet i profesjonsorienterte tilnærminger til språk og skole i Norge i dag, men en eksplisitt bruk av det som postuleres i denne teorien er ikke vanlig, til tross for at denne teorien har svært gode verktøy for å møte et vell av ulike former for flerspråklighet. Jeg diskuterer hvordan læreren kan benytte seg av disse innsiktene i møtet med flerspråklige elever med varierende språklig kompetanse, slik som talere av norsk romani. Nøkkelord: Romani, nasjonale minoritetsspråk, bruksbasert teori, lærerutdanning “A language as any other”. On Norwegian Romani in society and education. Abstract Norwegian Romani and other national minority languages represent the historical Norwegian multilingualism, a form of multilingualism that is less visible in contemporary Norway than the one represented by speakers of new immigrant languages. In this article, I discuss the current state of Norwegian Romani, through a metastudy of current research, combined with observations from many years of contact with the community. Furthermore, I discuss these observations in the light of usage-based theory. Usage-based and other cognitive theories form the basis of most approaches to professional linguistic practice in Norway, but seldom explicitly use it in their approach to language contact. I discuss how the teacher can use these insights in her approach to speakers with variable competence in the minority language, such as speakers of Norwegian Romani. Keywords: Romani, national minority languages, usage-based theory, teacher education
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Steffen Höder is a Full Professor of Scandinavian Linguistics at the Institute of Scandinavian Studies, Frisian Studies and General Linguistics at Kiel University. He has a PhD from University of Hamburg (Scandinavian Studies) and his main research interest regards Language contact, Areal linguistics, Language change and variation, Construction grammar. Professor Höder is the author of several articles in international peer-reviewed journals and some of his current researches are about the Diasystematic Construction Grammar model. The present interview offers explanations that reveal mature reflections on the cognitive representation of grammar in a diasystematic perspective, contributing to interpretations of acquisition and descriptive phenomena of languages.
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The paper follows the history of the Swedish verb bli "remain" from a lexical loan from Middle Low German in the 14 th century to its establishment as a passive auxiliary replacing the original varþa "become" in the 17 th century. It argues that the impulse for the grammaticalization of bli was the rise of polysemy of the verb and its subsequent coalescence with varþa. The study is based on original diachronic data and advances a model of grammaticalization of the lexical verb into a passive auxiliary.
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Mainstream grammatical theory and traditional grammaticography concentrate on single languages or varieties, which are conceptualised as pre-existing, distinct entities and analysed in terms of coherent, static, ideally variation-free language systems. This is in stark contrast to actual language usage, where various kinds of structural contact phenomena are the rule rather than the exception. In line with recent insights from contact linguistics, Diasystematic Construction Grammar assumes that multilingual speakers and communities organise their grammatical knowledge on the basis of the available input via processes of interlingual identification, abstraction, generalisation, and categorisation, regardless of language boundaries. This results in a community-specific multilingual constructicon, comprising both language-specific constructions (restricted to certain communicative contexts associated with a particular language) and constructions unspecified for language.
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DOWNLOAD HERE: https://www.glossa-journal.org/articles/10.5334/gjgl.444/ — Ideophones (also known as expressives, mimetics or onomatopoeia) have been systematically studied in linguistics since the 1850s, when they were first described as a lexical class of vivid sensory words in West-African languages. This paper surveys the research history of ideophones, from its roots in African linguistics to its fruits in language description and linguistic theory around the globe. It shows that despite a recurrent narrative of marginalization, scholars working on ideophones have made important advances in our understanding of sensory language, iconicity, lexical typology, and morphosyntax. Due to their dual nature as vocal gestures that grow roots in linguistic systems, ideophones provide opportunities to reframe typological questions, reconsider the role of language ideology in linguistic scholarship, and rethink the margins of language. With ideophones increasingly being brought into the fold of the language sciences, this review synthesizes past theoretical insights and empirical findings in order to enable future work to build on them.
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This chapter argues against a view according to which pragmatics, as opposed to semantics, is completely outside grammar. It suggests that, on the contrary, speakers strongly associate various pragmatic aspects of information with constructions. I here give an overview of a wide range of pragmatic phenomena as they have been dealt with in Construction Grammar, a linguistic framework which, as a matter of principle, accommodates pragmatic information in the description of stored form-function units. Such information includes Gricean maxims, information structure, illocutionary force and larger discourse structure. However, Construction Grammarians have been rather vague on what kind of (presumably) pragmatic data should and should not be included in a construction and whether or not, within a given construction, pragmatics and semantics constitute separate layers of information. I demonstrate a heuristic based on cross-linguistic or intra-linguistic comparison of functionally similar constructions (e.g. Can you…? and Are you able to…?) to decide whether we should explicitly specify ‘short-circuited’ usage information (e.g. the request use of Can you…?) that could in principle be obtained purely on the basis of sound reasoning. I also propose that semantics and pragmatics should be treated as distinct levels of functional information in constructions.
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Quotes “An important book, clarifying the concept of productivity, which is often used in the language sciences but is seldom clearly defined. Apart from providing an illuminating meta-analysis, Barðdal develops an original theory of the productivity of case and argument structure constructions.” — Jordan Zlatev, Lund University & Copenhagen Business School “A 'two-for-one' package, containing both an original and realistic approach to productivity in terms of Construction Grammar and, simultaneously, a penetrating study of case and argument structure in Icelandic. On both accounts the book is a novel and, in my view, a highly successful contribution to theoretical and empirical linguistics.” — Thórhallur Eythórsson, University of Iceland
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The phenomenon of language contact, and how it affects the structure of languages, has been of great interest to linguists. This study looks at how grammatical forms and structures evolve when speakers of two languages come into contact, and offers an interesting insight into the mechanism that induces people to transfer grammatical structures from one language to another. Drawing on findings from languages all over the world, Language Contact and Grammatical Change shows that the transfer of linguistic material across languages is quite regular and follows universal patterns of grammaticalization - contrary to previous claims that it is a fairly irregular process - and argues that internal and external explanations of language structure and change are in no way mutually exclusive. Engaging and informative, this book will be of great interest to sociolinguists, linguistic anthropologists, and all those working on grammaticalization, language contact, and language change.
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Language contact phenomena are often described with reference to their effect on the monolingual systems of the varieties involved, both in historical and in contact linguistics. This contribution argues that an essentially multilingual perspective on these phenomena is more adequate. Bilingual speakers in stable bilingual groups create a common system for all their languages, incorporating both interlingual links and language -unspecified elements along with language-specific structures. In a construction grammar analysis, such systems as well as changes within this type of system can be conceptualised as interlingual constructional networks, which are established, stored, and processed in exactly the same way as monolingual grammars.
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From a global and historical perspective, multilingualism or at least multilectalism is the rule rather than the exception. However, linguistic theory continues to focus on the idea of a prototypically coherent, static, and monolingual language system. A more realistic approach can set out from the notion of ‘diasystems’, i.e. linguistic systems including more than one variety. Apart from being theoretical constructs, diasystems are also an important component of multilectal speakers’ linguistic knowledge. Within a usage-based construction grammar approach, this paper argues that multilectal speakers (re-)organise their grammars by generalisation over individual constructions and across language boundaries. Therefore, the multilectal system can be modelled as an inventory of constructions that are partly language-specific and partly unspecified for language.
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Usage-based CxG approaches share the central assumption that any grammar has to be acquired and organised through input-based abstraction and categorisation. Diasystematic Construction Grammar (DCxG) is based on the idea that these processes are not sensitive to language boundaries. Multilingual input thus results in multilingual grammars which are conceived of as constructicons containing language-specific as well as language-unspecific constructions. Within such systems, phonological structures play an important part in the identification of schematic constructions. However, the status of phonology in DCxG, as in CxG in general, yet remains unclear. This paper presents some arguments for including phonological elements systematically in the construction-based analysis of (multilingual) constructional systems.
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Mixture of Spanish and English, whether in isolated loan words or in code-switching of clauses and sentences, while socially motivated, is subject to clear linguistic constraints. Quantitative analysis of mixing in conversations of Mexican-Americans suggests specific functional constraints to express tense/aspect/mood and subject/object relationships, as well as structural constraints which permit only surface structures which are grammatical in both languages. Resolution of structural conflict plays a key role, so that lexical cores trigger longer phrasal switches if they govern rules which create non-shared surface structures. The relative frequency of mixes without structural conflict is constrained by discourse function.
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Without even considering the 150 Aboriginal languages still spoken, Australia has an unparalleled mix of languages other than English in common usage, languages often described by the term 'community'. Drawing on census data and other statistics, this book addresses the current suitation of community languages in Australia, analysing which are spoken, by whom, and whereabouts. It focuses on three main issues: how languages other than English are maintained in an English speaking environment, how the structure of the languages themselves changes over time, and how the government has responded to such ethnolinguistic diversity. At a time of unprecedented awareness of these languages within society and a realisation of the importance of mutlilingualism in business, this book makes a significant contribution to understanding the role of community languages in shaping the future of Australian society.
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The grammatical literature on Dutch generally distinguishes two “passive” alternatives to the active double object construction, one of which, the so-called krijgen-passive is a fairly recent addition to the grammar, the earliest reported examples dating from around 1900. The present paper addresses the early and subsequent history of this construction from a diachronic constructionist perspective. The first part of the paper uses data from the 1900-1935 volumes of the Dutch periodical De Gids to reconstruct the lexical and semantic range of the krijgen-passive in its very first decades of life, in order to investigate which (semantic and/or morphological) subclasses of ditransitive verbs played a pathbreaking role in the development of this new construction from other krijgen + participle constructions, i.e. in the constructionalization of the krijgen-passive. The second part of the paper looks into post-constructionalization semantic change, i.e. into the subsequent expansion of the newly emerged construction towards more sub-classes of ditransitive verbs, on the basis of data from the diachronic CONDIV-corpus (1950s to 1990s). Contra recent non-constructionist proposals, it will be argued that the krijgen-passive is an argument structure construction in its own right, with a semantic dynamics of its own, and that the apparently random constraints on its present-day distribution are less puzzling when viewed against the background of the construction’s genesis and subsequent semantic expansion.
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The book contains 30 descriptive chapters dealing with a specific language contact situation. The chapters follow a uniform organisation format, being the narrative version of a standard comprehensive questionnaire previously distributed to all authors. The questionnaire targets systematically the possibility of contact influence / grammatical borrowing in a full range of categories. The uniform structure facilitates a comparison among the chapters and the languages covered. The introduction describes the setup of the questionnaire and the methodology of the approach, along with a survey of the difficulties of sampling in contact linguistics. Two evaluative chapters, each authored by one of the co-editors, draws general conclusions from the volume as a whole (one in relation to borrowed grammatical categories and meaningful hierarchies, the other in relation to the distribution of Matter and Pattern replication). © 2007 by Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co. KG,. All rights reserved.
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This article discusses word order of dependent clauses in Texas German, a German speech island on the brink of language death. The focus lies on dependent clauses that are introduced by sub-ordinating conjunctions. The question is whether the verb placement differs from the Standard German word order, and, if such a difference can be established, whether the change is due to language internal or external factors. To answer this question, various theories from the general research on language contact are used to interpret the Texas German data, and to connect it to the larger discussion of language change in German speech islands in the US. © 2017 Franz Steiner Verlag Wiesbaden GmbH. All rights reserved.
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A multimodal construction is said to be a conventional pairing of a complex form, comprising at least a verbal and a kinetic element, with a specific meaning or a specific function. Do we need a new constructional approach to account for such multimodal constructions? What are the challenges to account for multimodality? The aim of this contribution is to provide a precise notion ‘multimodal construction’ and, on this basis, to indicate possible pathways for future investigations. The paper opts for cautiously extending the scope of existing constructional approaches in order to include non-linguistic meaningful behavior. In particular, it is argued that even though Construction Grammar invites for treating multimodal on a par with linguistic constructions, there is a huge lack of substantial empirical support to arrive at a more detailed and data-based understanding of the nature of multimodal constructions.
The question whether there is a natural connection between sound and meaning or if they are related only by convention has been debated since antiquity. In linguistics, it is usually taken for granted that ‘the linguistic sign is arbitrary,’ and exceptions like onomatopoeia have been regarded as marginal phenomena. However, it is becoming more and more clear that motivated relations between sound and meaning are more common and important than has been thought. There is now a large and rapidly growing literature on subjects as ideophones (or expressives), words that describe how a speaker perceives a situation with the senses, and phonaesthemes, units like English gl‐, which occur in many words that share a meaning component (in this case ‘light’: gleam, glitter, etc.). Furthermore, psychological experiments have shown that sound symbolism in one language can be understood by speakers of other languages, suggesting that some kinds of sound symbolism are universal. WIREs Cogn Sci 2017, 8:e1441. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1441 This article is categorized under: • Linguistics > Language in Mind and Brain • Linguistics > Linguistic Theory
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The Handbook of Language Contact offers systematic coverage of the major issues in this field - ranging from the value of contact explanations in linguistics, to the impact of immigration, to dialectology - combining new research from a team of globally renowned scholars, with case studies of numerous languages. An authoritative reference work exploring the major issues in the field of language contact: the study of how language changes when speakers of distinct speech varieties interact. Brings together 40 specially-commissioned essays by an international team of scholars. Examines language contact in societies which have significant immigration populations, and includes a fascinating cross-section of case studies drawing on languages across the world. Accessibly structured into sections exploring the place of contact studies within linguistics as a whole; the value of contact studies for research into language change; and language contact in the context of work on language and society. Explores a broad range of topics, making it an excellent resource for both faculty and students across a variety of fields within linguistics. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd except for editorial material and organization
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This chapter contrasts a broad use of the term frame in cognitive science with its related use in a type of linguistic analysis, describing the principles and data structure of a particular research project (FrameNet) as a model for representing frame-based analyses of lexical meanings. It introduces an extension of the project to include the semantic contributions of grammatical constructions and concludes by surveying the implications of a frames perspective on some familiar issues in linguistic semantics. © 2010 editorial matter and organization Bernd Heine and Heiko Narrog. All rights reserved.
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It is quite commonplace for bilingual speakers to use two or more languages, dialects or varieties in the same conversation, without any apparent effort. The phenomenon, known as code-switching, has become a major focus of attention in linguistics. This concise and original study explores how, when and where code-switching occurs. Drawing on a diverse range of examples from medieval manuscripts to rap music, novels to advertisements, emails to political speeches, and above all everyday conversation, it argues that code-switching can only be properly understood if we study it from a variety of perspectives. It shows how sociolinguistic, psycholinguistic, grammatical and developmental aspects of code-switching are all interdependent, and findings in each area are crucial to others. Breaking down barriers across the discipline of linguistics, this pioneering book confronts fundamental questions about what a & #x2018;native language & #x2019; is, and whether languages can be meaningfully studied outside of the individuals who use them. © Penelope Gardner-Chloros 2009 and Cambridge University Press, 2010.
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The past decade has seen an unprecedented growth in the study of language contact, associated partly with the linguistic effects of globalization and increased migration all over the world. Written by a leading expert in the field, this much-needed account brings together disparate findings to examine the dynamics of contact between languages in an immigrant context. Using data from a wide range of languages, including German, Dutch, Hungarian, Italian, Spanish, Croatian and Vietnamese, Michael Clyne discusses the dynamics of their contact with English. Clyne analyzes how and why these languages change in an immigration country like Australia, and asks why some languages survive longer than others. The book contains useful comparisons between immigrant vintages, generations, and between bilinguals and trilinguals. An outstanding contribution to the study of language contact, this book will be welcomed by students and researchers in linguistics, bilingualism, the sociology of language and education.
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Cognitive Grammar is a radical alternative to the formalist theories that have dominated linguistic theory during the last half century. Instead of an objectivist semantics based on truth conditions or logical deduction, it adopts a conceptualist semantics based on human experience, our capacity to construe situations in alternate ways, and processes of imagination and mental construction. A conceptualist semantics makes possible an account of grammar which views it as being inherently meaningful (rather than an autonomous formal system). Grammar forms a continuum with lexicon, residing in assemblies of symbolic structures, i.e. pairings of conceptual structures and symbolizing phonological structures. Thus all grammatical elements are meaningful. It is shown in detail how Cognitive Grammar handles the major problems a theory of grammar has to deal with: grammatical classes, constructions, the relationship of grammar and lexicon, the capturing of regularities, and imposition of the proper restrictions. It is further shown how the framework applies to central domains of language structure: deixis, nominal structure, clausal structure, and complex sentences. Consideration is also given to discourse, the temporal dimension of grammar, and what it reveals about cognitive processes and the construction of our mental world.
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Aims and objectives This article investigates whether learners are able to quickly discover simple, systematic graphemic correspondence rules between their L1 and an unknown but closely related language in a setting of receptive multilingualism. Design Eighty L1 German speakers participated in a translation task with written Dutch words, most of which had a German cognate. In the first part of the translation task, participants were shown 48 Dutch words, among which either 10 cognates containing the digraph ‹oe› (always corresponding to a German word with ‹u›) or 10 cognates with the digraph ‹ij› (corresponding to German ‹ei›). During this part, participants were given feedback in the form of the correct translation. In the second (feedback-free) part of the task, participants were shown another 150 Dutch words, among which 21 cognates with ‹oe› and 21 cognates with ‹ij›. Data and analysis The participants’ German translations of ‹oe› and ‹ij› cognates in the second part were coded for the presence of ‹u› and ‹ei›, respectively. The data were then analyzed in generalized linear mixed models. Data and R code are available online. Findings Participants who encountered ‹oe› or ‹ij› cognates in the first part were more likely to translate ‹oe› or ‹ij› cognates using German words containing ‹u› or ‹ei›, respectively, in the second part compared to their respective controls, suggesting that correspondence rule learning had taken place. Learning effects during the second part, i.e. in the absence of explicit feedback, were more modest. Originality This study provides the first direct experimental evidence of interlingual correspondence rule learning during a receptive multilingualism task. Significance These findings pave the way towards investigations of the learning of more complex, less systematic correspondence rules that are nonetheless of great importance in receptive multilingualism.
Book
This book investigates the nature of generalizations in language, drawing parallels between our linguistic knowledge and more general conceptual knowledge. The book combines theoretical, corpus, and experimental methodology to provide a constructionist account of how linguistic generalizations are learned, and how cross-linguistic and language-internal generalizations can be explained. Part I argues that broad generalizations involve the surface forms in language, and that much of our knowledge of language consists of a delicate balance of specific items and generalizations over those items. Part II addresses issues surrounding how and why generalizations are learned and how they are constrained. Part III demonstrates how independently needed pragmatic and cognitive processes can account for language-internal and cross-linguistic generalizations, without appeal to stipulations that are specific to language.
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This chapter outlines a view of Construction Grammar in which the mental grammar of speakers is shaped by the repeated exposure to specific utterances, and in which domain-general cognitive processes such as categorization and cross-modal association play a crucial role in the entrenchment of constructions. Under this view, all linguistic knowledge is viewed as emergent and constantly changing. The chapter emphasizes that the process of chunking along with categorization leads to the creation of constructions. It also provides semantic/pragmatic and phonetic arguments for exemplar representation and a discussion of the role of type and token frequency in determining the structure of the schematic slots in constructions, as well as the productivity of constructions.