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Handbook of Design Thinking

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Abstract and Figures

Design Thinking is a customer-oriented innovation approach that aims to generate and develop creative business ideas or entire business models. In this book, you'll learn all about Design Thinking from a business perspective. Along the design thinking process you will find countless tips, recommendations, checklists and tools to successfully generate and develop business ideas.
Content may be subject to copyright.
III
Christian Mueller-Roterberg
Handbook of
Design Thinking
Tips & Tools for how to design thinking
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Copyright © 2018 Christian Mueller-Roterberg
All rights reserved
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Preface
Another book about Design Thinking?
Yes, and this book is different in that it presents all the knowledge about Design Thinking
from a business perspective in a comprehensive and straightforward way. In this sense,
this preface is also short and concise.
How can you benefit from this book?
You will find countless tips, recommendations, checklists and tools in this book. If you
can only implement a few of these tips, your time and financial investment in this book
has paid off. And you'll definitely get more than just a few tips, guaranteed!
The symbol
indicates further literature tips following some chapters.
Recommendations for interesting internet pages are marked with the following symbol:
What awaits you in this book?
The contents are structured along the Design Thinking process as shown in the figure
below. This process is described step by step, but it is iterative with many feedback loops.
PS: Results from the Design Thinking are never perfect. This book is not perfect either, but lives
from your feedback, dear readers. With this in mind, give me your feedback and make this book
better with me: feedback@innovationsratgeber.de
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Table of contents
Preface III
1What is Design Thinking? 1
1.1Principles of Design Thinking 3
1.2The process of Design Thinking 4
1.3How to plan a Design Thinking project 7
2How to understand the problem 11
2.1Search field determination 12
2.2Problem clarification 12
2.3Understanding of the problem 15
2.4Problem analysis 16
2.5Reformulation of the problem 28
3How to observe 33
3.1Observation Phase 33
3.2Empathetic design 34
3.3Tips for observing 34
3.4Methods for Empathetic Design 40
4How to define the problem 61
4.1Point-of-View Phase 61
4.2Characterisation of the target group 61
4.3Description of customer needs 64
5How to find and select ideas 79
5.1Ideate Phase 79
5.2The creative process and creative principles 79
5.3Creativity techniques 84
5.4Evaluation of ideas 132
6How to protoype 143
6.1Prototype Phase 143
6.2Lean Startup Method for Prototype Development 144
6.3Visualization and presentation techniques 160
7How to test business ideas 177
7.1Test Phase 177
7.2Tips for interviews 179
7.3Tips for surveys 185
7.4Kano Model 188
7.5Desirability Testing 194
8How to implement Design Thinking 199
8.1How to conduct workshops 199
8.2Requirements for the space 205
8.3Material requirements 206
8.4Agility for Design Thinking 207
9Glossary 209
10Bibliography 213
What is
Design Thinking?
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1 What is Design Thinking?
1.1 Principles of Design Thinking 3
1.2 The process of Design Thinking 4
1.3 How to plan a Design Thinking project
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1 What is Design Thinking?
Design Thinking is a comprehensive customer-oriented innovation approach that aims to generate and
develop creative business ideas or entire business models. Essentially, Design Thinking attempts to
project designers' approaches and methods onto business processes.
The approach is ultimately applicable to all kinds of business ideas – whether they have a product or
service character. The first mouse for the Macintosh computer was created after a similar approach, or
the first toothbrush with a wider ergonomic shaft.
The features of Design Thinking can be summarized as follows:
Design Thinking …
is an integrative approach: This means that for problem solving, the process of problem
solving is considered together with its framework conditions. The problem analysis and
solution development are considered systematically and holistically in the form of a process (see
below). The various experts necessary for problem analysis and solution development (see
below) are involved and enter into exchange with each other.
The working environment for this process is designed to promote creativity. One also speaks
here of the three Ps of Design Thinking (see Curedale (2013)): People (the human being),
Process (the problem solving process) and Place (the working spaces) must be considered for
a successful idea development. A fourth P can be Partnerships, since a large number of
partners must be involved in the development and implementation of ideas.
focuses on early customer orientation: Design Thinking starts with people and not with a
technology or a business goal. Ultimately, the customer should have a decisive influence on the
"go/stop" decisions in the process. It is no longer sufficient to question customers about the
classic market research instruments. Traditional methods of (testing) market research often only
deliver disappointing results in the search for innovations.
emphasizes Empathy: The central element is to put oneself in the position of the
customer/user and to observe him in detail. Empathy can create distance to the innovator's
own person on the one hand and proximity to the customer on the other. In other words, this
approach creates customer orientation. Developments can thus be better aligned with the
customers and, if necessary, prioritized to what extent they can satisfy the needs and wishes of
these customers.
strives to make ideas tangible at an early stage: Prototypes must be created as quickly as
possible – this also applies to immaterial services. It is not a question of testing a quasi-finished
(perfect) product, but quite the opposite: individual functions/features/characteristics or
activities of the product/service offer are to be checked by the customer. The maxim when
creating or selecting a prototype is: as simple as possible, as meaningful as necessary.
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The future has many names.
For the weak it is the unattainable.
For the fearful it is the unknown.
For the brave it is the chance.– Victor Hugo, French poet and novelist
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consists of frequent iteration loops between the development phases. The return to a previous
phase is not a mistake, but shows the learning success in this process. Failure is an integral part
of this approach and should be tolerated, accepted and even expected by all participants. The
motto is: "Fail fast to succeed sooner".
Ȃ Pay attention to the diversity of the participants. Design Thinking combines interdisciplinary
breadth and technical depth: The knowledge, experience and perspectives of a team of
engineers, natural scientists, humanists, social scientists and economists, etc., who have the
ability for multidisciplinary cooperation, are put to good use.
Furthermore, differences in age, gender, affiliation to the company (long-time/for the time
being short in the company), experience with the topic (intensive, little, not at all) and/or
personality type (introverted, extroverted, etc.) should be taken into account.
creates team-oriented, creative working spaces: "Me"-spaces (for individual work) and
"We"-spaces (for group work) are flexible and inspiring to equip for individual, group and
plenary work. It can be advisable to choose different locations, rooms or furniture
arrangements for the different Design Thinking phases in order to create new atmospheres
(suitable for the respective work) again and again.
combines analytical phases (collecting, organizing, evaluating information) and synthetic
phases (developing, testing, improving solutions). In the first part, the problem is analysed in
detail (so-called problem space), where the focus is on what? and why? (what is the problem?
why is it a problem?). Only in the second part concrete solutions are developed and tested (so-
called solution space): Here the question is asked about the "how (something can be solved)".
In addition, one can differentiate between divergent phases, which lead to an expansion of the
perspective by collecting information or generating ideas, and convergent phases, which lead
to a focusing of the field of vision by making decisions between alternatives.
These divergent and convergent phases alternate, so that the Design Thinking process is framed
by a double diamond (Design Council UK (2005)). The description of the procedure in
chapter 1.2 explains this process in more detail.
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1.1 Principles of Design Thinking
When carrying out the Design Thinking process described below, the following principles must be
observed, quasi the "Ten Commandments of Design Thinking”:
X
Leave titles at the door!
There is no hierarchy during a Design Thinking workshop.
Chef and other rolls are hung on the coat hook.
Y Encourage wild ideas!
Let your imagination run wild. Any (supposedly) crazy idea
and every idea should be treated equally.
Z Go for quantity!
Quantity before quality. Selected, analyzed and evaluated later.
[ Build on Ideas of others!
There is no copyright. Ideas from others should be taken up,
supplemented or changed.
\ Think human centered!
Design Thinking is first and foremost thinking about people and not about
technology or business goals.
] Be visual and make it tangible!
Use drawings, illustrations, photos, videos, prototypes, etc.
^ Avoid criticism!
Idea generation and evaluation must be strictly separated.
_ Fail early and often!
Failure means learning. Often failure means that you have learned a lot.
` Stay focused!
Set yourself limits, stick to the concrete tasks in the Design Thinking
process**.
a Let`s have fun!
Developing new ideas in a team should be fun. Creativity needs this fun.
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These rules should be written in large letters on a flipchart in a Design Thinking workshop for all
participants to see all the time. The participants are to be reminded of these rules again and again by a
moderator.
The rule "Stay focused! appears at first contradictory to the rule "Encourage wild ideas! Experience
with creative processes has shown, however, that setting clear boundaries or limitations, in which the
imagination should be given free rein, is a target-oriented approach for the idea generation and, in
particular, development phase ("necessity makes invention!"). Such limits may include, but are not
limited to, the broad direction set by the vision and corporate strategy, specific time and cost objectives
(e.g. product/service offering to be launched within X months), a specific regional focus, number of
new features, compliance with regulatory constraints or limited resources available. Boyd/Goldenberg
(2013) speak here aptly of "Thinking Inside the Box" in order to add a counterpoint to the "Thinking
Out of the Box" mainstream approach (see chapter 5.3.4).
In individual cases, a balance must be struck between, on the one hand, the danger of stifling
unconventional ideas with potential and, on the other, pursuing utopian spinning.
Staying focused also refers to the Design Thinking process described below. Limits here can mean
setting clear time budgets for the individual phases or specifying for whom, how and where the
solution is to be used. Used to the right extent and communicated in a challenging way, these
limitations can promote creativity and have a motivating and inspiring effect on the Design Thinking
team.
1.2 The process of Design Thinking
Some people think design means how it looks. But of course, if you dig deeper, it's really how it works."
– Steve Jobs, Apple
According to Plattner et al. (2009), the Design Thinking process consists of six process steps with
iteration loops: Understanding, observing, defining problems, finding ideas, developing prototypes and
testing. The initial three phases, the so-called problem space (see Lindberg et al. 2010)), describe the
problem and its causes (what is the problem and why is the problem there?). The subsequent three
phases, the so-called solution space, describe which solutions there can be and how these can be
implemented.The process steps are described briefly below and then explained in more detail step by
step (see also Figure 1).
Even if the following process representation is shown sequentially, the process is strongly iterative, i.e.
there are numerous feedbacks to the previous phases in each phase. The individual process steps
should be completed quickly in order to learn fast through iteration loops according to the "fail early
and often" principle or, if necessary, to be able to terminate the process completely. It is helpful to
define concrete time budgets for the individual phases (in agile project management, this is referred to
as Timeboxing, see chapter 8.5).
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Phase 1 “Understand“ (Understanding the Problem):
In the first phase it is first about developing an understanding for the challenge/the problem/the need
or the requirement (problem understanding). It must be clarified who has to be integrated into the
process and, in particular, which technical perspective (process organisation) is necessary Finally, it
must be clarified how the question can best be formulated so that the customer need/problem is
defined in concrete terms.
Phase 2 “Observe“:
In this phase, detailed research and on-site observations are carried out on the customer's
need/problem. Numerous methods can be used for this, such as interviews, written surveys,
observations with recordings through photos or even videos. The results are the clarification of the
general conditions, the exact definition of the target group and a comprehensive understanding of the
customer and his needs and behaviour.
Phase 3 “Point-of-View“ (Define the problem):
After the observations, the findings should next be condensed to a single prototypical user whose
problem/need is to be summarized in a clearly defined question.
Phase 4 “Ideate“ (Finding and selecting ideas):
It is only in this phase that the actual brainstorming process takes place. Here the creativity techniques
mentioned in chapter 5.3 can be used. Strictly separated from this, the ideas can then be analysed in a
customer-oriented manner in order to identify weak points, and a selection decision can be made on
the basis of an idea evaluation.
Phase 5 „Prototype“ (Develop the prototype):
In this very important phase, ideas should be visualized as quickly as possible, made tangible, sketched,
designed, modelled/simulated, etc. Following the technical field one can speak here of "Rapid
Prototyping", whereby the prototype development applies decidedly not only to products, but also to
services. A variety of methods for prototype development are available for this purpose.
Phase 6 “Test“:
In this final phase, the ideas are to be further developed and tested through further experiments and
customer feedback. In addition, important development, production and market issues have to be
clarified.
In the process flow presented here, the actual implementation phase with the development of the idea
to a marketable product/service would only follow afterwards.
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Figure 1: Process of Design Thinking supplemented with the Double-Diamond model
Source: Plattner/Meinel/Weinberg (2009), Lindberg et al. (2010) and Design Council
UK (2005)
Overall, Design Thinking is a very comprehensive, user-oriented approach that systematically applies
methods for observation, questioning and brainstorming as well as other moderation techniques in the
individual phases in a process with numerous iteration loops.
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1.3 How to plan a Design Thinking project
First, the goals for the Design Thinking project are to be defined derived from the
company/innovation strategy and the expectations of all participants are to be clarified:
Should new ideas be found? If so, for what or for which search field (see chapter 2.1)?
Should concrete customer needs and/or certain patterns or trends be found among the
customers in a specific subject area?
Which goal is to be achieved by when?
Which priorities are to be set in terms of content and time for the achievement of the goal?
Which employees or which external participants (experts from practice and research, customers,
suppliers, external parties from outside the industry) are to be involved from which
areas/disciplines?
Who will be responsible for project management or moderation?
Where are the interfaces between the required disciplines?
Which project budget is available for Design Thinking?
Once the goals have been clarified for all those involved, it is certainly necessary to critically review
whether the method is at all suitable for the goals.
A decisive success factor for the Design Thinking project is the project organization. In the vast
majority of cases, Design Thinking is carried out as a project that involves internal staff as well as
external participants from different disciplines. The project team should consist of six to a maximum of
nine representatives from different areas (R&D, production, marketing and sales) or disciplines who
contribute at least 50% of their working time (and are open to external ideas). Different experience
horizons and characters are also helpful to get the diversity necessary for Design Thinking (see chapter
1.1 introductory to the characteristics of Design Thinking).
Not to be neglected is also the internal support in the company for the later implementation of the
results from Design Thinking. The support of top management, which can be a decisive success factor,
is also very helpful here. The support can be seen concretely in the following activities:
Adequate resources for the project
If applicable, taking over patronage for the Design Thinking project
Desire for continuous reporting on the progress of the project
Permanent internal and external communication about the strategic importance of Design
Thinking
Member of the steering committee, if any
Personal participation in workshops
Recognition of the employees involved
In the case of a more extensive project, a steering committee consisting of managers from the above-
mentioned areas must also be set up. Overall, the tasks, competencies and responsibilities must be
defined by all project participants.
For the implementation of the project, the explanations in chapter 8 must be considered.
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Brown, Tim (2009): Change by Design – How Design
Thinking Transforms Organizations and Inspires
Innovation, Harper Collins, New York/USA.
Curedale, Robert (2013): design thinking – process
and methods manual, Design Community College,
Topanga/USA.
Gray, Dave / Brown, Sunni / Macanufo, James
(2010): Gamestorming: A Playbook for Innovators,
Rulebreakers, and Changemakers, O`Reilly Media,
Sebastopol/USA.
Kelley, Tom / Kelley, David (2014): Creative
Confidence: Unleashing the Creative Potential within
us all, HarperCollins, London/UK.
Kelley Tom / Littman, Jonathan (2001): The Art of
Innovation, Random House, New York/USA.
Kumar, Vijay (2012): 101 Design Methods: A
Structured Approach for Driving Innovation in Your
Organization, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken/USA.
Lewrick, Michael / Link, Patrick / Leifer, Larry
(2018): The Design Thinking Playbook: Mindful Digital
Transformation of Teams, Products, Services,
Businesses and Ecosystems, John Wiley & Sons,
Hoboken/USA.
Liedtka, Jeanne / Oglivie, Tim (2011): Designing
for Growth: A Design Thinking Tool Kit for
Managers, Columbia Univers. Press, New York/USA.
Martin, Bella / Hanington, Bruce (2012): Universal
Methods of Design: 100 Ways to Research Complex
Problems, Develop Innovative Ideas, and Design
Effective Solutions, Rockport Publishers,
Beverly/USA.
Silverstein, David / Samuel, Philip / DeCarlo, Neil
(2012): The Innovator's Toolkit: 50+ Techniques for
Predictable and Sustainable Organic Growth, 2nd
edition, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken/USA.
Stickdorn, Marc / Schneider, Jakob (2013): This
Service Design Thinking, BIS Publishers,
Amsterdam/The Netherlands.
https://hpi-academy.de/design-
thinking/uebersicht.html
https://www.ideo.com/
http://www.designkit.org/
https://dschool.stanford.edu/resources/
https://designthinkingforeducators.com/
How to understand
the problem
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2 How to understand the problem
2.1 Search field determination 12
2.2 Problem clarification 12
2.3 Understanding of the problem 15
2.4 Problem analysis 16
2.4.1 Clarifying the framework conditions 16
2.4.2 PESTEL -Analysis 16
2.4.3 Trend Impact Analysis 20
2.4.4 Delphi method 22
2.4.5 Analyzing the cause of the problem 23
2.4.5.1 Ishikawa Diagram 23
2.4.5.2 Root-Conflict-Analysis (RCA+) 24
2.5 Reformulation of the problem 28
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Table 1: Questionnaire to clarify the problem
Source: According to Andler (2016)
Based on this catalogue of questions, the following problem analysis according to Kepner/Tregoe
compares the problem with a case in which the problem (surprisingly) does not occur. The problem as
well as the comparison case have to be checked systematically for their differences. On this basis,
2 How to understand the problem
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hypotheses are developed and tested that contain the cause of the problem or the cause of the missing
problem in the comparison case.
How to do it:
The following table is filled in systematically. For this purpose, a comparative case is sought in which
the problem (surprisingly) does not occur. This case can be very similar or can come from a foreign
field (other scientific field, foreign industry). Other techniques, such as the fishbone model and root
cause analysis (both see chapter 2.4.2), can also be used to analyse the causes.
Table 2: Problem clarification according to Kepner/Tregoe
Source: According to Andler (2016)
In addition to the description of the problem, initial insights into possible solutions can also be gained.
On the one hand, this includes the clarification of framework conditions: What is permitted? What is
possible? What is available? Also consider what would happen if framework conditions changed, such
as the available or necessary resources, the technical possibilities and/or the political/legal situation.
On the other hand, you should carefully analyse the current state of the art:
Why are the existing solutions not sufficient?
Where are their limitations or shortcomings?
Why are there no adequate solutions so far?
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2.3 Understanding of the problem
There are known knowns; there are things we know we know. We also know there are known
unknowns; that is to say we know there are some things we do not know. But there are also unknown
unknowns – there are things we do not know we don't know.
– Donald Rumsfeld, US Secretary of Defense
After clarifying the problem, it is helpful to reflect again on what we know or don't know about the
problem. According to Gray et al. (2010), the following matrix with the so-called blind spot of
knowledge is helpful for this. The next questions have to be answered in the individual fields:
What do we know about the problem? Which means we're aware that we know it.
(known Knowns)
What do we know that we don't know about the problem?
Which means we're aware that we
don`t know it.
(known Unknowns)
What do we know without even knowing that this knowledge could help us with the problem?
Which means we're not aware that we know it.
(unknown Known)
What do we know that we don't know we don't actually know?
Which means we're not even
aware that we don't know.
(unknown Unknowns)
The unknown Unknown area is, so to speak, the blind spot of our knowledge and awareness, which we
only get out through the exploratory discovery. This is where Design Thinking begins.
Figure 3: The blind spot of knowledge and awareness
Source: According to Gray et al. (2010) (with changes)
How to observe
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3 How to observe
3.1 Observation Phase 33
3.2 Empathetic design 34
3.3 Tips for observing 34
3.4 Methods for Empathetic Design 40
3.4.1 Artifact Analysis 40
3.4.2 Behavioral Mapping and Tracking 40
3.4.3 Empathy Map 41
3.4.4 Cognitive Walkthrough 42
3.4.5 Heuristic Evaluation 43
3.4.6 Mental-Model Diagram 44
3.4.7 Customer Journey 45
3.4.8 Service Blueprinting 51
3.4.9 Mystery Shopping 56
3.4.10 Critical-Incident Technique 57
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3 How to observe
3.1 Observation Phase
In this phase the focus is on the potential customer/user. In order to gain a comprehensive
understanding of the person of the customer/user, a real target group should be selected. Essentially,
one should concentrate on customers/users who have the same needs / problems and are looking for
appropriate solutions. Christensen (2003 and 2016) speaks here of the so-called "Jobs-to-be-done"
concept (see chapter 4.3.1 for details).
If the solution to the problem is based on a radical innovation, it is also helpful not to concentrate on
the "average customer" but first to look for progressive customers, the so-called innovators or early
adopters. They have a concrete awareness of the problem and are actively or urgently looking for a
solution. They will therefore probably be very willing to provide qualified customer feedback. Also
search for extreme users who use products in very specific (extreme) situations (cold, heat, permanent
use, certain regions etc.), or search for so-called lead users who have already developed their own
solutions for the problem. The methods Persona (see chapter 4.2) and Empathy Map (see chapter
3.4.3) are also helpful here.
After selecting the "right" target group, it is advisable to first put yourself in the role of the target
customer in the next step, against the background of your own experiences and views: What are your
own experiences if you put yourself in the role of the customer? What would you as a customer do,
want, wish, expect, be able to do, etc.? How could the customer be? Appearance, age, gender, special
behavioural characteristics, etc.
Next, various methods can be used to directly or indirectly obtain information from the customer
about himself or his behaviour and emotions: Analysis of secondary data, written surveys, interviews,
observing future users and taking photographs or even shooting videos.
Secondary data about the customer can be very diverse: Search online and offline for studies, news
articles, newspaper reports about your target group and collect statements in social networks
(Facebook, Twitter, Instagram etc.), contact data or other relevant information. Search for blogs from
or about your target customers. Also use internal knowledge sources from marketing/sales and in
particular from customer service.
On this basis, you will consider what information you have or still need and how you can best research
it through written surveys, interviews and/or observations. For all methods, the two basic questions are
the following: What do the customers do and what do they not do? What do they say and what do they
not say?
You will find detailed information and numerous tips on the methods of written surveys and especially
interviews in chapter 7.
How to observe
See what everyone is seeing, but think differently!” – Buddha
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In the following, there are some tips on how to carry out an observation. It's about putting yourself in
the customer's shoes, so that one also speaks of empathic design. Subsequently, in chapter 3.4 some
methods of empathic design are presented in detail.
3.2 Empathetic design
Innovation begins with an eye.“ – Kelley (2001), S. 23
Empathic design means that the (potential) customer is observed during his activities (e.g. the use of a
product/service but also during his daily work/service on site), so that the observer can "empathize"
with the role of the customer and the situation and thus better understand it. This is in contrast to so-
called product clinics or usability tests in which an artificial observation situation is created in a kind of
laboratory. If the observer takes part in the situation himself, this is also referred to as "shadowing".
In addition to the use of a product/service, the situation to be observed can also include the use of
prototypes ("Minimum Viable Products", see chapter 6.2) by the customer. The observation does not
only concern the use of a product or prototype, but also the situation and environment of the
customer, the general conditions or his daily routine. Also, knowledge about the customer's motivation
and behaviour should be gained.
This approach offers numerous inspirations for innovations (observation of usage errors or hand-
knitted solutions as well as latent or inarticulate customer needs) and is unfortunately too rarely used in
practice. Observations are often only used in the context of usability tests, which, however, take place
in a very late phase of the innovation process. Already in a very early phase – as described here in the
Design Thinking Process – valuable customer-relevant information for problem solving and new ideas
can be found.
In the following, we will first explain how to observe correctly. Subsequently, numerous methods of
empathic design are presented in order to carry out observations or to systematically evaluate the
observation results.
3.3 Tips for observing
Basically, it should be clarified in advance:
Who should be observed?
Who should carry out the observation?
Which behaviour should be observed?
How are the observations recorded?
In detail, the following further information should be observed:
During the observation one should become clear before about the place and the time of the
observation, whom and what one will see there, which influence one exerts as an observer if necessary
on the customers and/or environment. In this context, it is also necessary to clarify in advance how
one behaves in the situation itself, where and how one sits, moves, what gestures and facial expressions
one has, what and how one says something, how one wants to register the actions, etc. Recordings in
the form of videos, photos or audio require the prior consent of the persons observed (preferably in
written form). You should also always be aware of what expectations you have of the situation and the
people involved. So one should try to let one's own prejudices become clear.
In this context, one should become aware of the numerous possible observation/perception and
assessment errors. Above all, the interviewer effect ("observer effect" or also "Hawthorne Effect", see
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below) must be taken into account here, that a change in the customer's behaviour can be determined
by observation alone. The individual observation/perception and assessment errors are explained
below. These can falsify the results and their analysis.
It would be helpful if different persons with different knowledge were to carry out the observation or
evaluate the recordings. So psychologists, engineers/computer scientists or design experts can pay
attention to very different aspects of the customer.
The observations can be supplemented with a survey of the customer before, during or after the
observation situation. For example, this serves to clarify why a customer is doing something or what
feelings he feels during this activity. In particular contradictions and discrepancies between the answers
and the observations are particularly interesting to investigate further. For this purpose, you should
observe the recommendations described in chapter 7.2 or 7.3 for conducting oral or written surveys.
In preparation, you should ask yourself the following questions (you should also be aware of your own
bias/prejudices or the possible observation/perception/judgement errors listed below):
What do you think the customer is doing?
Why do you believe that?
Where do you think you will find the customer?
What will the customer do?
How often do you think the customer acts like that?
When do you think the customer will do that?
Situations are very informative when a customer wants to use something for the first time. What
problems do the customers have? What do the customers do?
What is observed at all and how this information is to be evaluated must also be clarified in detail in
advance. There are numerous schemes ("frameworks") to structure the observations and not disregard
any essential aspects. In the following the concepts "nine dimensions of descriptive observation" of
Spradley (1980), the "AEIOU-" as well as the "POEMS-" schemes are presented.
The very differentiated scheme of Spradley (1980) comprises the following nine dimensions, which one
should pay attention to during observations and make corresponding notes:
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Table 8: Nine dimensions of descriptive observation
Source: Spradley (1980)
observation
dimensions Explanation
SPACE Describe in detail the premises or outdoor area in which the
customer is staying.
ACTORS Write down the names and the relevant information about the
persons observed.
ACTIVITIES Summarize the activities performed by the persons.
OBJECTS Write down the objects that the persons use or find in the
situation (furniture, PC, special equipment, etc.).
ACTS Emphasize special individual actions of the customers.
EVENTS Describe the events or situations in which the customers find
themselves (meetings, small talk, customer talks, etc.).
TIME Make a note of the order in which the individual
activities/actions take place.
GOALS Describe which goals the customers want to pursue concretely
with their actions.
FEELINGS In particular, write down the emotions of the customers in the
various contexts.
The observation scheme AEIOU of the Doblin Group (see Martin/Hanington (2012): 10) is structured
in a similar way, with which, as an extension, the interactions between the individual observation
aspects can also be visualized in the form of a matrix (see below).
3 How to observe
46
Figure 14: Phases of the Customer Journey with an example of a hotel stay
How to do it:
c
First a persona must be created (see chapter 4.2) or selected and supplemented with an empathy
map (see chapter 3.4.3). As already mentioned with the persona, different persona can also be used
to work out differences and peculiarities in the Customer Journey. Possible persona could be:
Persona of a certain target segment, first-time buyers, extreme users (who frequently or under
special conditions use products), non-buyers (negative persona), customers vs. user persona,
decision-makers, influencers, possible saboteurs in the sales process, etc.
d
With the help of information from surveys (see chapter 7.2 or 7.3 and the Lean Startup method in
chapter 6.2), observations (see chapter 3), sales records or own experiences, customer satisfaction
analyses or a brainstorming session (see chapter 5.3.1.1), the following phases of a Customer
Journey can be summarised in key words (on Post-Its). At first, the phases can be described very
roughly in order to describe them – especially the consumption phase – in more detail later.
In addition, there may be different customer journeys for a persona or different persona may have
individually different customer journeys.
Phases of the Customer Journey:
Phase 1 – Attention:
How does the customer become aware of his need, his problem or an offer?
Phase 2 – Informing:
How does the customer inform himself about his wishes, a solution to his problem or an offer? How
does he compare the offers?
Phase 3 – Decision:
How and by whom or by what is the customer influenced positively or negatively in his purchase
decision? Why do customers make a choice?
3 How to observe
47

Phase 4 – Consumption:
What does a potential customer experience step by step when he uses a service or a product? This
phase should be described as concretely and in detail as possible. Virtually every step, every activity,
every movement and every thought can be considered individually.
Phase 5 – After Sales:
What requirements/tasks/expectations does the customer have in the after-sales phase? How and by
whom or what can the customer be encouraged to make another purchase? How and by whom or what
can the customer be animated to report on his positive buying experiences or where can he report on
them?
e In each phase the following questions are asked:
 What does the persona want? What does she really want to achieve?
 What does he/she do/what does he/she not do (surprisingly)? How does she try to achieve
her goals/wishes?
 What does she use for it and in what order? Who is the persona in contact with? Where are the
contact points (points of contact) with the company? How long do the touches with the
company last in each case? How long do the individual phases of the Customer Journey last in
total?
Of particular importance here are the contact points – the so-called "touchpoints" – which
represent places/opportunities/moments where people come into contact with the product or
the brand or the company in the broadest sense. Touchpoints can be controlled by the
company, e.g. advertisements, TV or radio spots, brochures/catalogues, flyers, trade fairs and
events, customer hotline/call centres, mailings, personal consultation/sales, point of sale, shop
fittings (see chapter 3.4 as well as chapter 3.4.8 on Service Blueprinting, chapter 3.4.9 on
Mystery Shopping or chapter 3.4.10 on Critical Incident Technology), Internet presence, online
advertising (e-mail/newsletters, banners, e-shops, landing pages, company/product blogs), etc.
In addition, touchpoints that cannot yet be influenced or only indirectly, such as family
members, acquaintances, friends of the target group person, social media networks, reports in
newspapers/magazines, forums, blogs, comparison/evaluation portals, etc., must be taken into
account.
The touchpoints should be as consistent as possible throughout the entire customer journey
(by means of so-called customer touchpoint management). This means that everything the
customer perceives (see, hear etc., see also the Empathy Map in chapter 3.4.3) should be
coordinated with each other. This includes, for example, the visual and linguistic information
presented to the customer at the touchpoints. The uniform and harmonious use of logos,
images, fonts, messages with their tonalities etc. is part of this. In practice, this is by no means
a trivial task, as various internal and (in part uncontrollable) external
persons/departments/partners are responsible for the individual touchpoints.
Each touchpoint (in particular the controllable touchpoints) must be analysed in more detail
with the following questions, for example:
3 How to observe
48
Which touchpoints are particularly effective from the customer's point of view – which are
not?
To what extent does each touchpoint contribute to positively influencing the customer's
experience?
Are the possible touchpoints along the customer journey coordinated with each other?
How do your employees evaluate the individual touchpoints in terms of effort vs. benefits?
Are there touchpoints that offer little customer benefit but are very complex? Are there too
many touchpoints that tend to confuse the customer?
Which touchpoints does the competitor not have? Why?
Are the touchpoints along the customer journey enough? Where are there gaps? Which
additional contact points can be created for the customer?
What can be automated and how?
The touchpoints must be analysed more closely, especially in connection with the moments of
truth mentioned below.
 Which consciously/unconsciously/not (yet) perceived problems or negative emotions
are/could there be?
¾ Customer is annoyed.
¾ Customer is unpleasantly surprised about price/cost.
¾ Customer does not know what to do.
¾ Customer performs activity incorrectly.
¾ Customer tries to solve the problem himself.
¾ Customer has to wait and loses time.
¾ Customer performs useless activities (waste).
¾ Customer is disappointed about the quality.
¾ Customer perceives situation/activity as too complex.
¾ Customer perceives situation/activity as too user-unfriendly.
¾ Customer fears risks/feels insecurities.
¾ Customer embarrasses himself in front of others.
These problems/negative emotions could be evaluated in their significance (extent, frequency of
occurrence), selected and analysed with regard to their cause. Various techniques are available for
cause-effect analysis (see chapter 2.4.5) or the critical incident technique (see chapter 3.4.10). The
assumptions behind the causes could also be investigated in more detail (see chapter 6.2 on the
Lean Startup Method).
f For each phase and each step in a phase, the satisfaction of the customer is assessed (so-called
Customer Experience Map). How does the persona feel? It is possible to work with simple
symbols (- . /).
g Furthermore, the so-called Key Moments of Truth (Carlzon (1989)) can also be identified for each
phase/step, i.e. moments/situations that are of particularly high relevance for the customer.
Various "Moments of Truth" can be located along the customer journey:
First Moment of Truth", if the customer perceives the product/service at all.
Second Moment of Truth", if the customer is currently using the product or service and
during this time evaluates the product/service on the basis of its quality requirements.
Third Moment of Truth" if the customer has a positive, neutral or negative
perception/service after using the product/service.
3 How to observe
49

You can also add more:
Zero Moment of Truth", when the customer perceives his problem/need for the first
time through a stimulus (e.g. advertising) and seeks or compares information about
possible problem solutions.
Ultimate moment of truth", when the customer reports on his experiences/sensations
with the product/service to others (e.g. via social networks, opinion portals, virtual
communities, etc.).
h The Customer Journey combines very well with the Customer Benefit Matrix, developed by
Kim/Mauborgne (2015), a methodology to develop improvement opportunities for each
phase/step. Answer ideas for the following questions need to be developed:
¾ Where can something be simplified for customers?
¾ How can you create more benefits for your customers?
¾ Where can their risks be reduced/minimized?
¾ Is it possible to add more fun and entertainment?
¾ What would inspire customers?
3 How to observe
50
Figure 15: Customer Journey in combination with the customer benefit matrix
One variant of the Customer Journey is to outline a day in the life of a customer ("A Day in the Life").
In steps of 15 or 30 minutes, the following questions, for example, can be asked using the example of a
concrete persona:
How/where does the persona spend the day?
What products/services does she use?
How much time does she spend using the product?
How would the persona's life change after receiving her product?
How often is the persona online? Does she use a PC, laptop, tablet or smartphone?
4 How to define the problem
62
Persona
With the Persona method, the user is placed in a hypothetical customer/user who represents members
of a real customer/user group. This method is universally applicable both in the development of ideas
and business models and in the design of marketing activities.
The selected person represents a fictitious person with individual characteristics that represent the
target group (or part of it) of the innovation. However, one should not put together an average
persona, but rather concretize different personas with actual data. It is recommended to represent
different persona with different functions in the buying process. For example: persona of a certain
target segment, first-time buyer, extreme user (who frequently or under special conditions use
products), non-buyer (negative persona) or customer vs. user persona. The method can also be used in
the business-to-business area (so-called buyer persona), in which decision-makers, influencers, possible
saboteurs etc. are differentiated between companies in the sales process.
On a DIN A4/3 page, the person with a concrete name should be described in the form of a profile
with keywords or short sentences (on post-it). The persona should not be reduced to a single
characteristic, as is often the case in classical market research in the context of customer segmentation,
but should be described holistically in its entire lifeworld. A (fictitious) quotation or motto of this
persona can introduce the description.
The following biographical information can describe this person, for example:
Gender, age, origin, marital status (married/disabled; children? How many? How old? What
style of parenting?)
Occupation (job, position), educational background, special knowledge, expert on a specific
topic
Friends and social environment, Pets
Living conditions, own house / condominium / rented apartment / industry / type, design,
quality and equipment of the apartment
Asset status
Attitudes (values, interests, preferences), frustration tolerance, health awareness, life goals
Hobbies and leisure activities, sporting? Which sport? How often?
How much time does the persona have for certain topics/activities?
Which media/information sources does she use for which topics?
Attitude towards digital media, users of social networks or rather loners, sharing information
generously with others?
Consumption habits or factors that influence purchasing decisions: How quickly does the
decision to buy take place? Is it a spontaneous buyer or more planned? Which information
channels does it use? Price, quality or service-oriented? Brand conscious?
It would also be useful to analyse the problems ("Pains") and wishes ("Gains") associated with
innovation: For example with the following questions:
What annoys/frustrates the persona? What problems does she have? What challenges in life
does she face? What does the persona find too expensive, too uncomfortable, too time-
consuming, too inferior, too user-unfriendly, too complex? What makes them angry? What risks
does she fear? Why would she be ashamed of friends? What mistakes does she often make?
What can the persona not do? What resistance is she confronted with?
What needs does she have? What does she want? Where does she dream of? What goals in life
does she pursue? What (buying) motives does she have? What offers does this persona need?
What would she expect from an offer? What will make her life easier? What would make her
happy? What would inspire them? How would she be admired by others?
4 How to define the problem
63

These questions can be specifically adapted to the problem at hand and extended if necessary.
Nevertheless, one should really sketch the answers on one page. It is also helpful to describe the
persona and her problems or wishes in a personal form and in an ego form. The persona should also be
updated again and again, because needs and desires are variable in the course of an innovation project.
The Jobs-to-be-done method described in chapter 4.3.1 is recommended to deepen these "Pains" and
"Gains".
Benefits of the Persona technique:
Persona can be used to create distance to the innovator's own person on the one hand and proximity to
the customer on the other. This means that this approach creates customer orientation. Developments
can thus be better aligned with the person and, if necessary, prioritised to what extent they can satisfy
the needs and wishes of this persona. In addition, persona enables employees in the company who do
not have frequent customer contact (e.g. employees in research, development and production) to
become more sensitive to the needs of customers. Everyone understands the descriptions of the
persona. Everybody can better understand the person. Furthermore, the customer is no longer seen as
an anonymous something in an undefined mass, but gets a real character and is "brought to life".
Furthermore, this method is cost-effective and can be combined with the following other approaches.
Figure 18: Example for the use of the Persona method
4 How to define the problem
65

4.3.1 Jobs-to-be-done
People don’t want to buy a quarter-inch drill. They want a quarter-inch hole.“ – Theodore Levitt (1986),
Harvard Business School
The Jobs-to-be-done concept, which was essentially developed by Christensen/Raynor (2003) and
Ulwick (2005), focuses on the tasks/activities – the so-called jobs – of or for customers in order to
solve a specific problem for the customer, satisfy needs and/or realise wishes. In general Christensen et
al. (2016) understands a job as a task that has to be completed in a certain situation or context in order
to achieve progress from the customer's point of view. The task is not so much the result ("event") as
the process. This job must always take the specific situation or context into account. This means that
jobs are always dependent on a specific situation, which may have limitations, specifics, etc. This can be
a particular stage in the customer's life, family status, financial or personal situation, local environment
or other situational factors. Christensen (2003, 2016) speaks of customers not simply buying products
and services, but "hiring" them to do certain jobs (tasks/activities). This concentration on the task and
less on the product is also expressed in the above quote from Levitt (1986). Ultimately, customers do
not want products, they want solutions for their tasks (problems, needs, wishes).
Jobs can be further differentiated according to Christensen/Raynor (2003) and Ulwick (2005):
¾ Functional Jobs:
Certain functions / characteristics / activities / process steps must / should (from the customer's
point of view) be available / executed / completed.
¾ Social Jobs:
With the completion of the task/activity the attainment of prestige, power/influence, status or a
certain (desirable) image for the customer is achieved. This means that the question is answered
how the customer wants to be perceived by others (family members, friends, acquaintances, other
organizations).
¾ Personal Jobs:
The customer enjoys it, finds it interesting, exciting, stimulating, entertaining, "cool", aesthetically
pleasing, feels secure or then feels pride or personal satisfaction that the job has been done. This
means that the question of how the customer wants to feel after the job is done is answered.
The social and personal jobs (= emotional jobs) thus represent a psychological benefit for the
customer. With this differentiation it is possible to analyse why customers want certain tasks (jobs)
done. The information and answers to the questions mentioned above and below (see following
description of the procedure) can again be obtained using various methods. In connection with the
development of innovations, personal surveys, observations of customers and workshops with certain
customers are to be mentioned here. Tips for the systematic observation of customers can be found in
chapter 3. Information on conducting customer interviews can be found in chapter 7.2.
4 How to define the problem
66
In the following, a concrete procedure for the application of the Jobs-to-be-done concept will be
explained.
How to do it:
Based on Osterwalder et al. (2014) (modified and extended)
n Identify customer segment
First create or select a persona (see chapter 4.2) and add an empathy map (see chapter 3.4.3). As
already mentioned with Persona, different Persona can be used to work out differences and
peculiarities of customer problems or customer needs and wishes. Of course, customers can not
only be individuals, but also organizations (companies).
Tip:
It is advisable to consciously also take current non-customers (Christensen (2016): 65) and
analyse them according to the jobs-to-be-done concept. This will generate interesting new
search fields for innovations. Instead of customers, each stakeholder can also be taken in the
broadest sense and analysed in this way.
o Identify jobs
A possible method for identifying potentially interesting jobs is the so-called job mapping by
Bettencourt/Ulrick (2008). Job mapping does not analyse what a customer is actually doing or how
he interacts with a product/service, but what and why he wants to achieve something in a certain
situation/situation. This is also the main difference to the concept of the Customer Journey, which
focuses on the activities actually carried out and is explained in chapter 3.4.7. The jobs should
therefore be as detached as possible from certain products and services. They are not
characteristics, functions or process steps of products and services.
According to Bettencourt/Ulrick (2008), job mapping consists of the following eight steps:
c Define
What aspects does the customer need to clarify/what steps does the customer need to take
before completing the task/activity? This can include the following: What are the customer's
objectives for the task/activity? How does he plan to perform these tasks? How does the
customer rate the resources he needs to complete the tasks and how does he select these
resources?
N Search:
Which necessary resources or aids must the customer look for in order to complete the task?
These can be material (tools, materials) or immaterial (information, knowledge) resources.
How difficult is it for customers to locate these resources?
4 How to define the problem
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O Preparing:
How must the customer prepare/organize the resources and resources or the situation so that
the task can be completed?
P Confirm:
What does the customer have to check before the concrete task so that he can actually start
with it? Does the customer have to confirm the functionality of the resources and tools?
Q Execute:
What must the customer do to ensure that the task is completed successfully?
R Monitor:
How does the customer check the success after completion of the task?
S Adaption:
What does the customer need to adjust if the task is to be completed successfully?
T Closing:
What must the customer do to complete the task? What are the steps that follow or must be
completed after this task?
These steps of job mapping must always be analysed against the background of the specific situation.
One challenge is to identify the jobs at the right level of abstraction. It must not be too abstract, as this
will result in the loss of important detailed information. It must also not be too small, in order not to
limit the search space too much for the later generation of ideas. The evaluation of the jobs below can
provide information on the correct level of abstraction.
In addition to job mapping, the following checklist should be used to identify (relevant) jobs.
9 Glossary
209

9 Glossary
5
5R rule ................................................................ 183
9
9-field thinking .................................................... 27
A
A Day in the Life ................................................ 50
A/B-Testing ...................................................... 159
AEIOU ................................................................. 35
affinity diagram ................................................. 164
agile project management ................................ 207
analogy ............................................. 81, 87, 99, 100
artifact analysis .................................................... 40
attribute listing ................................................... 105
B
barcamps ............................................................ 204
behavioral mapping ............................................ 40
biomimicry ................................................ see bionics
bionics ................................................................ 100
blind spot ............................................................. 15
bodystorming..................................................... 172
brainstorming ...................................................... 85
brainwriting .......................................................... 90
business model .................................................. 148
business model canvas ..................................... 160
C
card sorting ........................................................ 200
cognitive walkthrough ........................................ 42
collective notebook ............................................ 91
concierge-MVP ................................................. 160
Concierge-MVP ................................................ 178
convergent phase .................................................. 2
Cornell notes ..................................................... 183
creativity ............................................................... 79
Critical-Incident technique .......................... 56, 57
cross-industry innovations ................................. 92
crowdfunding .................................................... 160
cultural probes ................................................... 173
customer benefit matrix ..................................... 49
customer experience map .................................. 48
customer journey .......................................... 45, 51
customer orientation ............................................ 1
customer scorecard ............ see opportunity algorithm
customer touchpoint management .................. 47
D
Dark Horse prototypes .................................... 178
Delphi method .............................................. 22, 96
design scenarios ................................................ 172
desirability toolkit ............................................. 194
diary method ...................................................... 173
disruptive innovations ........................................ 71
divergent phase ..................................................... 2
diversity .................................................................. 2
dot voting ........................................................... 132
double diamond .................................................... 2
E
early evangelists ........................................ 147, 179
Elevator Pitch .................................................... 165
Empathic design ................................................. 34
empathy map .......................................... 41, 53, 68
experience sampling ......................................... 173
eye-tracking system ........................................... 157
F
fish bone diagram ................... see Ishikawa diagram
force field analysis ............................................. 164
forced relationship .............................................. 93
G
graffiti wall ......................................................... 173
H
Halo effect ........................................................... 39
Hawthorne Effect ...................... see interviewer effect
heuristic evaluation ............................................. 43
Heuristic Ideation Technique (HIT) .............. 105
I
ideation ................................................................. 79
illumination .......................................................... 79
9 Glossary
210
image boards ..................................... see moodboards
innovation checklist .......................................... 114
innovation principles ........................................ 120
interviewer effect ................................... 35, 39, 40
Ishikawa diagram ................................................ 23
J
job mapping ......................................................... 66
Jobs-to-be-done ................................... 33, 65, 146
K
Kano model ................................................ 71, 188
KJ method ........................................................... 86
L
laddering ......................................................... 28, 75
landing Page ....................................................... 159
lead users .............................................................. 33
Lean Startup....................................................... 144
Lego Serious Games ......................................... 158
Lotus Blossom .................................................. 106
M
means-end ...................................................... 74, 87
mental models ..................................................... 44
Me-Spaces .......................................................... 205
method 635 ....................................... see brainwriting
Microsoft Reaction Card Method ... see desirability
toolkit
mind mapping ............................................ 98, 163
Minimum Viable Product (MVP) .......... 152, 157
mockups ............................................................. 159
moments of truth .......................................... 48, 52
moodboards ......................................................... 64
morphological box ............................................ 103
mystery shopping ................................................ 56
N
NABC ................................................................. 165
Net Promotor Score (NPS) ............................. 154
Not-Invented-Here-Syndrom ........................... 83
O
observation .......................................................... 33
observer effect ............................ see interviewer effect
open source ........................................................ 160
open space ......................................................... 202
Operator Time-Size-Cost ................................ 115
opportunity algorithm ........................................ 72
opus method ...................................................... 132
Osborn checklist ................................................. 96
P
pair comparison ................................................ 136
Pecha Kucha ...................................................... 165
persona .............................................. 46, 53, 62, 66
personal inventory ...................... see artifact analysis
PESTEL ......................................................... 16, 22
pivots .................................................................. 144
POEMS ................................................................ 35
Power-of-Ten ...................................................... 29
prefix method ...................................................... 92
primary effect ...................................................... 39
problem space ................................................... 2, 4
process .................................................................... 4
provocation technique ....................................... 93
R
random word technique ..................................... 92
rapid prototyping .............................................. 160
recency effect ....................................................... 39
resource analysis ................................................ 115
Root Conflict Analysis ....................................... 24
Rosenthal effect .................................................. 39
S
SCAMPER ................................. see Osborn checklist
scoring model .................................................... 137
scrum .................................................................. 207
Sean Ellis test .................................................... 154
semantic differential ......................................... 164
semantic intuition ............................................... 92
separation principles ......................................... 119
sequential morphology ..................................... 104
service blueprinting ...................................... 51, 56
shadowing ............................................................ 34
silent shopping .......................... see mystery shopping
Six Thinking Hats ............................................... 95
solution space .................................................... 2, 4
split testing ................................ Siehe A/B-Testing
sprints ................................................................. 207
storyboarding ..................................................... 166
storytelling ................................................. 158, 169
SWOT analysis .................................................. 135
synectics ............................................................... 99
9 Glossary
211

Systematic Inventive Thinking (SIT) ............. 128
T
think-aloud ........................................................... 38
timeboxing ..................................................... 4, 208
touchpoints .................................................... 47, 54
trends .................................................................... 20
TRIZ ............................................................ 81, 107
U
user story ..................................................... 64, 151
V
Venn diagram .................................................... 162
viral coefficient .................................................. 155
VUCA ................................................................. 134
W
Walt Disney method .......................................... 94
We-Spaces .......................................................... 205
wireframe ........................................................... 158
Wizard-of-Oz .................................................... 160
world café ........................................................... 202
Y
Yes, and ................................................................ 85
10 Bibliography
213

10 Bibliography
A
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Andler, Nicolai (2016):Tools for Project Management, Workshops and Consulting: A Must-Have
Compendium of Essential Tools and Techniques, 3rd edition, Publicis Publishing, Erlangen/Germany.
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B
Baumeister, Dayna (2014): Biomimicry Resource Handbook, Biomimicry 3.8, Missoula/USA.
Benedek, Joey / Miner, Trish (2010): Measuring desirability: New methods for evaluating desirability in a
usability lab setting, in: Proceedings of Usability Professionals Association 2002 Conference, Orlando/USA.
Blank, Steve (2006): The Four Steps to the Epiphany: Successful Strategies for Products That Win, K&S Ranch
Press, Palo Alto/USA.
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Company, K&S RANCH, Pescadero/USA.
Boyd, Drew / Goldenberg, Jacob (2013): Inside the Box: A Proven System of Creativity for Breakthrough
Results, Simon & Schuster, New York/USA.
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Buzan, Tony (2013): Mind Map Handbook: The ultimate thinking tool, HarperCollins, New York/USA.
C
Carlzon, Jan (1989): Moments of Truth, HarperBusiness, New York/USA.
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D
Day, George S. (2007): Is it real? Can we win? Is it worth it? Managing risk and reward in an innovation
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Flanagan, John C. (1954): The critical incident technique. Psychological Bulletin, 51, 4: 327 - 358.
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... In the Human-computer Interaction (HCI) field, several techniques and methods have been developed, aiming to be applied to achieve the development of usable systems for people (Ogunyemi et al., 2019). There is a multitude of design methods that have been developed and documented (Hanington and Martin, 2012;Mueller-Roterberg, 2018;Ogunyemi et al., 2019), such as personas, mind mapping, Wizard of Oz, among many others. The terms "techniques" and "methods" are used interchangeably by HCI researchers in the literature because of the similar meanings of the two terms (Ogunyemi et al., 2019). ...
... The resulting outcome of such collaborative events are new ideas, early prototypes, and even business plans (Pe-Than et al., 2018). From a perspective of the participating (Mueller-Roterberg, 2018) audience (i.e., the "crowd"), corporate hackathons can be either internal or external to an organization. Once internal, the hackathon stimulates the creative thinking of the organization staff to reflect on those challenges and raise new ideas. ...
... The Design Council proposes a 4-phase framework (discover-define-develop-deliver) with a set of design methods for each phase, however we only take the 4 phases and enumerate the design methods in the corresponding phases based on our analysis. In particular, a large range of methods (Hanington and Martin, 2012;Mueller-Roterberg, 2018) is suited for different phases of the design process. Hence, some of them may be applicable to more than one phase or be usable in other contexts. ...
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Hackathons are time-bounded collaborative events of intense teamwork to build prototypes usually in the form of software, aiming to specific challenges proposed by the organizers. These events became a widespread practice in the IT industry, universities and many other scenarios, as a result of a growing open-innovation trend in the last decade. Since the main deliverable of these events is a demonstrable version of an idea, such as early hardware or software prototypes, the short time frame requires participants to quickly understand the proposed challenge or even identify issues related to a given domain. To create solutions, teams follow an ad-hoc but effective design approach, that many times seems informal since the background of the participants is rather centered on technical aspects (e.g., web and mobile programming) and does not involve any training in Design Thinking. To understand this creative process, we conducted 37 interviews (32 hackathons winners and 5 hackathon organizers) with people from 16 countries. We aimed to identify the design processes and recurring design methods applied by winners in these events. Also, we conducted a focus group with 8 people experienced in hackathons (participants and organizers) to discuss our findings. Our analysis revealed that although hackathon winners with IT background have no formal training on Design Thinking, they are aware of many design methods, typically following a sequence of phases that involve divergent and convergent thinking to explore the problem space and propose alternatives in a solution space, which is the rationale behind Design Thinking. We derived a set of recommendations based on design strategies that seem to lead to successful hackathon participation. These recommendations can also be useful to organizers who intend to enhance the experience of newcomers in hackathons.
... In the Human-computer Interaction (HCI) field, several techniques and methods have been developed, aiming to be applied to achieve the development of usable systems for people (Ogunyemi et al., 2019). There is a multitude of design methods that have been developed and documented (Hanington & Martin, 2012;Mueller-Roterberg, 2018;Ogunyemi et al., 2019), such as personas, mind mapping, Wizard of Oz, among many others. The terms "techniques" and "methods" are used interchangeably by HCI researchers in the literature because of the similar meanings of the two terms (Ogunyemi et al., 2019). ...
... The Design Council proposes a 4-phase framework (discover-define-develop-deliver) with a set of design methods for each phase, however, we only take the 4 phases and enumerate the design methods in the corresponding phases based on our analysis. In particular, a large range of methods (Hanington & Martin, 2012;Mueller-Roterberg, 2018) is suited for different phases of the design process. Hence, some of them may be applicable to more than one phase or be usable in other contexts. ...
... Participants may deliberately choose to fake some features-although being explicit about not having implemented it-just to illustrate them. Going in this direction, we found some interviewees (P18, P19, and P22) reporting on adapted usages of the Wizard of Oz method (Hanington & Martin, 2012;Mueller-Roterberg, 2018), which consists of simulating system responses from behind the scenes. For instance, one interviewee stated that while some action was confirmed in the system, another group member sent a text message to the phone being used in the demo and a fake confirmation message popped up, simulating a push notification that was not implemented. ...
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... Multidisciplinary Design was evidenced through the global, systemic approach concerning design for sustainability since there were sustainability aspects to consider regarding the design of the artifact itself [34]. This is because the design activity seeks not only to understand and address the "what is it" of a situation, but also seeks "what it can be" or "what it should be" in a given situation, in order to improve it-the design rationale [35]. ...
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... According to this model, design thinking process comprises six stages. Referring back to our research aim, we reviewed the stages described in (Hasso Plattnet Institut; Carroll et al., 2010;Müller-Roterberg, 2018) and we understand them as following: » "Understand" is about developing an understanding of the challenge, the problem, the need or the requirement; » "Observe" is the phase of detailed research and on-site observations that are carried out on the customer's need or problem; » "Point of View" is the step to consider information about users' needs and to create so-called "persona" to see the problem from users' perspective; » "Ideate" is the stage to practice brainstorming to generate as many ideas as possible, then to structure the ideas and to vote to choose the one for realization; » "Prototype" is used to create a simple model to visualize the idea of problem solution; » "Test" is the final stage where the model we created should be tested with the people it was designed for to learn if it works. The aim of this stage is to get the feedback and to improve the solution. ...
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Cultural competence, as the ability to interact effectively with the culturally diverse others, is a key component to your success in the globalized world. Developing cultural competence gives us an insight how to benefit from the diversity within intercultural interactions. Everyone may misinterpret the cultural differences due to the low level of cultural competence. That can influence further cooperation with different cultures. Therefore, it is very important to foster students’ intercultural skills, in particular by using different learning techniques and implementing new ideas into the traditional teaching methods. One of them is design thinking as a practice that encourages collaboration and can help students to manage intercultural challenges. Hence, the research problem for this study is to reveal the correlation between the development of students’ intercultural competence and design thinking method application. The purpose of the study is to summarize and synthesize the research on cross-cultural interactions and design thinking to build a framework that shows how the implementation of the design thinking method into the learning process facilitates the development of students’ intercultural competence. The tasks of the research are:a) to review the main contributions to the field of design thinking by analysing multidisciplinary studies on how design thinking fosters development of variety competences including intercultural competence;b) to design the framework to reveal the correlation between the components of intercultural competence and the stages of design thinking process;c) to observe the changes in the students’ intercultural competence level by analysing learners’ responses to the case of intercultural misunderstanding at the beginning of studying the cross-cultural communication classes and after finishing the course.d) The study uses mixed approaches such as quantitative and qualitative methods, scientific literature studies, intercultural competence assessment, grouping, comparative analysis, synthesis, inductive and deductive methods.The key results are presented in the framework that demonstrates the ways how design thinking method supports the development of intercultural competence. This framework can be used by educators to teach intercultural competence and everyone involved in cross-cultural interactions, and who would like to benefit from the diversity.
... The design thinking process goes through a cycle of generative flaring and selective focusing. Empathy is the central element, which is to put oneself in the position of the customer/user and to observe them in detail (Roterberg, 2018). The define phase aims to define the problem along the extracted insight, the unique approach, design goal with originality to the solution (Sakama, Mori, & Iba, 2018 Example of iterative process in upcycled clothing design 복식문화연구 Therefore, design process is rarely linear. ...
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This study proposed a base framework for creating sustainable designs with textile production waste and unused neckties with the “design thinking” approach, which is an iterative process. It aimed to set an example of how fashion designers can plan and manage their clothing design processes in a more sustainable way by recycling textile production scraps and unused neckties into unique clothing pieces with the upcycling method. Unused neckties and upholstery scraps were turned into skirts, blouses, and dresses by using creative techniques in line with current fashion trends. In addition, the five-stage iterative design process followed was explained, and the way in which the waste textile materials gained value by being converted into unique garments was discussed in terms of the user and the designer. Through the study, it was observed that the smallest amount of textile waste can be transformed into upcycled clothing via the iterative process, and original, value-added products enjoyed by consumers can be created. In addition, it was observed that the design thinking approach improves the understanding of the context of the problem, creativity in the generation of insights and solutions, skills to materialize those solutions through iterative prototyping, and the ability to combine these factors. Promising ideas to help designers develop recycling strategies were also provided. Keywords: upcycling, design thinking, iterative process, textile wastes, unused neckties
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Problem and goal. The theoretical approaches and main stages of work from the point of view of design thinking, as well as the experience of choosing topics and developing IT projects by students in grades 10-11, are presented. Methodology. The methodological basis of the work was the analysis of the design thinking method, which is presented in the works of R. Kyudale, O. Kempkens, G. Andreev, A.S. Krotova and A.A. Barkov. Approaches to the use of the design thinking method in the development of an IT project by a schoolchild are formulated, their brief characteristics and the tools used are given. As tools of the design thinking method at different stages of project development, the following are used: analysis of existing solutions, similar situations, insights from opinion leaders, analysis of artifacts, interviews, swot analysis, five Why?, the method of focal objects, scamper, etc. Results. In the process of working on the project, students in grades 10-11 use the tools of design thinking in their activities. The result of the work is an IT project of students Smart Pomodoro Timer. Conclusion. In order to introduce the method of design thinking into the joint work of a teacher and a student on an IT project into practice, it is necessary to develop a system of advanced training for teachers in terms of developing practical skills in using design thinking tools for effective process management. In addition, develop the creative potential of teachers and students in the context of the digital transformation of education and attract specialists from different fields (designers, software developers, data analysts, etc.).
Research
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For many decades, the world is struggling to provide quality education and thousands of students/youth in Malaysia failed to complete their education. The trend of dropout among school students is a concern in Malaysia yet resulted in a decrease of graduate employability. The challenge of school dropouts raises even more concerns in the current world situation, Covid-19. In this pandemic, most business and educational activities are forced to be conducted online. The B40 community should not be left behind to access education and jobs. The design and system thinking approach has been adapted in this paper to address the wellbeing issues including dropout and unemployment of B40 youth in Malaysia through understanding their needs, and then followed by building conceptual business models using modelling tools, i.e. Business model canvas(BMC) and Value proposition design canvas(VPC). The approach includes conducting literature reviews of similar programs implemented in other countries and also interviews to understand the needs, key problems and to formulate the initial BMC. Results of the Cash Conditional Transfer program implemented in Cambodia, Philippine and Brazil shows the positive result in addressing school dropout issues. This paper offers validated conceptual Malaysian UotF business models with focus on community engagement programmes. The value proposition of the conceptual business model is to enhance the wellbeing of B40 youth including reducing dropout and unemployment rate in Malaysia through humanising digital entrepreneurship education activities and harnessing the digital capability in implementing a Monetary-Transfer Program (MTP) in Malaysia.
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The authors propose to modify the basic confirmation/disconfirmation paradigm in two ways. First, expectations are replaced with experience-based norms as the standard for comparison of a brand's performance. Second, a zone of indifference is postulated as a mediator between confirmation/disconfirmation and satisfaction. Implications for future research are also presented.
Conference Paper
Several published sets of usability heuristics were compared with a database of existing usability problems drawn from a variety of projects in order to determine what heuristics best explain actual usability problems. Based on a factor analysis of the explanations as well as an analysis of the heuristics providing the broadest explanatory coverage of the problems, a new set of nine heuristics were derived: visibility of system status, match between system and the real world, user control and freedom, consistency and standards, error prevention, recognition rather than recall, flexibility and efficiency of use, aesthetic and minimalist design, and helping users recognize, diagnose, and recover from errors.
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Discusses the contributions that the means-end chain research model (the linking of attributes to consequences and to personal values) can make to creating images for products/services. Once researchers understand the types of cognitive representations that consumers have for particular products, the linkages between the personal lives of the consumers and those products can be exploited to maximize the product's image. Researchers must also tap into consumers' networks of meaning and identify common images that different consumers may hold about particular products. The components of the advertising strategy must then be coordinated with the levels of the means-end chain. These levels are driving force, leverage point, executional framework, consumer benefit, and message elements. This model allows for the creation of advertising that identifies important aspects of self and relates these to consequences associated with product use and, in turn, with key product attributes that produce these consequences. This model is applied to airlines to determine their consumer image. Hierarchical-value-structure maps are constructed to indicate the importance of certain descriptors. (28 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)