Article

Early Adolescents’ Attitudes and Academic Achievement: The Mediating Role of Academic Self-concept

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Abstract

This study was designed to examine academic self-concept as a potential mediator to better understand the relations between academic attitudes and academic achievement in early adolescence. A total of 1398 high school students from Alicante, Spain (47% female, M = 12.5 years), participated in the study. Multilevel mediation analyses with Monte Carlo confidence intervals were used to measure within-subject effects at the student level (L1) and between-subject effects at the class level (L2). Academic attitudes (attitudes towards teachers and attitudes towards school) and academic self-concept were measured with validated scales, whereas academic achievement was assessed using the end-of-term grades obtained by the students in nine subjects. The results show, first, significant effects of the academic attitude constructs on the mediational and dependent variables at both the within and between levels. Second, academic self-concept was an important mediator for all academic attitude constructs at both levels of analysis. These results highlight the importance of academic self-concept during early adolescence and suggest that academic attitudes are crucial for the future development of educational models.

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... The role of academic self-concept as a mediator in relation to certain cognitive variables and academic achievement has also been identified. Academic self-concept has been reported as mediating the relation between academic attitudes and academic achievement (Veas, Castejón, Miñano, & Gilar-Corbí, 2019), between parent-child discrepancies in educational aspiration and child academic achievement (Lv et al., 2018), and between students' level of perceived challenge (being over-or underchallenged) and their career aspirations (Krannich et al., 2019). ...
... Also, higher academic self-concept has been reported to be directly associated with lower test anxiety and higher intrinsic motivation, both of which impact achievement (Khalaila, 2015). Domain-specific academic self-concepts were also found to mediate the relations between achievement and test anxiety (Arens, Becker, & Möller, 2017), and academic self-concept was found to mediate the relations between academic attitudes toward teachers and school and academic achievement (Veas et al., 2019). ...
... The direct effect of academic self-concept on school adjustment Our study showed that academic self-concept has a direct effect on school adjustment. Links between academic self-concept and students' involvement with studying, academic attitudes and academic achievement have been reported in previous research (Szumski & Karwowski, 2019;Veas et al., 2019). This implies that a student's academic self-concept may impact their motivation to learn, their ability to handle academic demands, and ultimately, their adjustment to school. ...
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Previous research has supported the importance of the interaction between family and school contexts for student adjustment to school. This study aimed to investigate the mediating role of school engagement and academic self-concept in relation to family adaptability/cohesion, social acceptability and school adjustment. A sample of 268 5th- and 6th-grade students aged 11–13 years (131 males, 137 females) from elementary schools in Iran participated in this study. Results showed that school adjustment was positively related to family adaptability/cohesion, social acceptability, school engagement, and academic self-concept. Family adaptability/cohesion and social acceptability also positively correlated with school engagement and academic self-concept. In addition, the data provided a good fit for the hypothesised model of the mediating role of school engagement and academic self-concept in relation to family adaptability/cohesion, social acceptability, and school adjustment. The results showed that coherent and adaptable family systems and high social acceptability of students can affect school adjustment both directly and indirectly through school engagement and academic self-concept.
... For example, they are willing to learn and openness to experience related to achievement (Hattie, 2008). Besides, self-concept can also act as a mediator variable (Ahn & Lee, 2016;Chen et al., 2020;Veas et al., 2019) about the educational context. ...
... If students have a high level of understanding by a high self-concept, it will also reduce psychological exposure. In education, self-concept has a vital role as a mediating variable for school adjustment and academic achievement and is related to self-esteem (Ahn & Lee, 2016;Chen et al., 2020;Veas et al., 2019). Therefore, the self-concept in this study can act as a partial mediator of the school climate on students' academic optimism and be a contribution to positive psychology research. ...
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p style="text-align: justify;">Academic optimism has an essential role in the adjustment of students in school. This study aimed to examine a model of academic optimism formed from democratic parenting, school climate, internal locus of control, and students’ self-concept. This a cross-sectional non-experimental design research design involved 335 Junior High School students in Kediri. The data collection tool was a scale while the data analysis technique was Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) analysis. The results showed that the theoretical model for developing academic optimism in Junior High School students was in line with the research data and obtained empirical support (X2 = 246.056 < 255.6018; p = 0.110 > 0.05), so this model is feasible and can be used in samples that have been studied. In general, this study adds knowledge about positive psychology studies and supports democratic parenting, school climate, self-concept, and internal locus of control as ultimate factors for creating students’ academic optimism.</p
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... Supporting literature shows that individual differences, classroom perceptions, and goals predicted motivation for learning and achievement (Hardre et al., 2006). Moreover, academic self-concept and academic attributes are crucial in developing educational motivations and models (Veas et al., 2019). ...
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PHilippine Social Science Journal Volume 4 Number 2 April-June 2021 Issue
... Disruptive behaviour typically leads to low academic performance, which influences the student's risk of failure at school in some way or another. Due to the low academic levels of Spanish students documented in certain international studies (e.g., the PISA report), there has been increasing interest over recent years to study the factors affecting academic/school performance and students' personal growth [1,19,20]. ...
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The objectives of this work were twofold: Firstly, to identify the profiles of disruptive behaviours and motivation in secondary school physical education students using cluster analysis; and secondly, to analyse the interaction of the profiles with school satisfaction and perceived teaching competence. A group of 758 secondary school students (54.2% female) between the ages of 13 and 18 (M = 15.22, DT = 1.27) participated in the study by responding to the following scales: The Disruptive Behaviours in Physical Education Questionnaire, The School Satisfaction Scale, The Sport Motivation Scale adapted to Physical Education, and the Evaluation of Teaching Competencies Scale in Physical Education. The cluster analysis established two distinct profiles: High levels of disruptive behaviours and low levels of disruptive behaviours. The results showed that the students with the high disruptive behaviours profile were mostly boys, having low levels of intrinsic motivation and high levels of amotivation and misbehaviour in the classroom. In contrast, those students with the low disruptive behaviours profile were mostly girls, having the highest levels of intrinsic motivation and the lowest levels in all the disruptive behaviours. It was shown that students exhibiting the worse classroom behaviours were more bored in school, while those students with better behaviour perceived greater teaching competence.
... Regarding gender differences, it has been observed that girls display a more positive attitude towards schoolwork and spend more time doing these tasks than boys [70][71][72]. In addition, girls are more oriented towards the fulfilment of tasks and goals [73,74], which has important repercussions on their academic results [75][76][77]. Girls have also been observed to build more positive interpersonal relationships in the classroom, which is associated with better school adjustment [78,79]. As regards cyber-aggression, available empirical evidence offers inconclusive results. ...
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The objective of the present study is to analyse the relationships between parental socialization styles-indulgent, authoritarian, authoritative and negligent, school adjustment (social integration, academic competence and family involvement) and cyber-aggression (direct and indirect) in adolescents. Participating in this study were 1304 Spanish students of both sexes (53.1% girls), aged between 12 and 18 years (M = 13.87, SD = 1.33). Multivariate analyses of variance were performed. The results showed significant relationships between parental socialization styles, school adjustment and cyber-aggression. It was observed that adolescents from indulgent and authoritative families showed greater academic competence and greater family involvement. Additionally, the children from authoritarian families displayed greater involvement in direct and indirect cyber-aggression behaviours. The results obtained and their implications are discussed in the final section.
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It is well known that young people from more advantaged socio‐economic backgrounds have, on average, higher levels of academic achievement than their disadvantaged peers. Yet rather less is known about how the relative socio‐economic position of students might be related to their academic progression at school. This is the issue considered in this paper, using longitudinal administrative data covering the largest region within Spain. We find evidence that the relative socio‐economic position of students within their school is associated with grade retention, performance in standardized tests and attitudes towards school, even after controlling for the absolute level of their socio‐economic status. Our primary conclusion is that both absolute and relative social position matters for young people’s academic development.
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