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Cocoa production and processing

  • Organisation internationale de la Francophonie


A highly nutritious crop, cocoa constitutes a significant source of income for small-scale producers. Attractively presented, with full-colour illustrations, tables and step-by-step guides, the text clearly sets out the procedure to start growing cocoa. In addition to recommending a technical schedule for the production of cocoa plants, the guide stresses the importance of phytosanitary protection and post-harvest operations. Useful advice and economic information on the sector is also given in later chapters.
production and processing
Kokou Edoh Adabe & E. Lionelle Ngo-Samnick
The Pro-Agro Collection is a joint publication by Engineers Without Borders,
Cameroon (ISF Cameroun) and The Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural
Cooperation (CTA).
CTA - P.O. Box 380 - 6700 AJ Wageningen - The Netherlands -
ISF Cameroun - P.O. Box 7105 - Douala-Bassa - Cameroon -
© CTA and ISF 2014
Cover photo: © Saiko3p/
ISBN (CTA): 978-92-9081-566-2
Kokou Edoh Adabe and E. Lionelle Ngo-Samnick
Rodger Obubo
Gerben Martijn ten Hoopen, Ghislaine Fotsing,
Darline S. Ntankeu Yepmou, Victor Mouele Priso,
Samuel Nanga, Aline Haeringer, I. M. Soumaïla Zako,
Pascal Nondjock, Christelle Souriau, T. Simb and
Martial G. Bella
J.M. Christian Bengono, Carolle T. Tsiemi,
Emmanuelle Gaufillier et Didier Gullo
Stéphanie Leroy
The cocoa plant
The nursery
2.1 Setting up ................................................................................................... 06
2.2 Seeding ......................................................................................................... 07
2.3 Maintenance ............................................................................................. 08
4.1 Replacing plants and regulating shade ............................. 15
4.2 Weeding ........................................................................................................ 15
4.3 Pruning, sanitary harvesting and staking ..................... 16
4.4 Fertilisation .............................................................................................. 17
Maintenance of the cocoa tree
3.1 Choice of plot ........................................................................................... 09
3.2 Preparation of the site ...................................................................... 09
3.3 Planting ....................................................................................................... 13
Additional information
9.1 Economic information ...................................................................... 40
9.2 Useful contacts ....................................................................................... 42
5.1 Cocoa diseases ......................................................................................... 18
5.2 Cocoa parasites ....................................................................................... 20
Fighting cocoa diseases and parasites
6.1 Harvest ......................................................................................................... 23
6.2 Breaking the pods ............................................................................... 24
6.3 Fermentation ........................................................................................... 24
6.4 Drying ........................................................................................................... 25
6.5 Storage .......................................................................................................... 27
Harvest and post-harvest operations
7.1 Organic fertiliser .................................................................................. 29
7.2 Livestock feed .......................................................................................... 30
Use of by-products
8.1 Cocoa juice ................................................................................................. 31
8.2 Pure cocoa natural mass or paste ........................................... 31
8.3 Cocoa butter and powder ................................................................ 34
8.4 Chocolate ..................................................................................................... 36
Cocoa processiong methods
The cocoa bean is greatly appreciated for its aroma and its nutrients
(phosphorus, magnesium, iron, zinc, manganese, copper, potassium,
selenium, vitamins B2 and B3). When fermented and dried, it contains
50 - 57 % lipids, 10 % proteins, 12 % fibres, 8 % carbohydrate (starch),
approximately 5 % minerals, etc.
As a cash crop, a cocoa plantation can last between 15 and 40 years.
With the sale price per tonne varying between e 1,000 and e 2,000
(i.e. FCFA 656,000 – 1,312,000), cocoa constitutes a significant
source of income for the small-scale operators who are responsible
for the majority of worldwide production. Cocoa production is also a
source of foreign exchange for producing countries. In 2012, worldwide
production of cocoa reached 4 million tonnes. Chocolate is the most
sought after derived product of cocoa. Its global trading generates a
sum of e 76 billion ($ 105 billion US).
Indigenous to the tropical forests of Latin America, the cocoa tree
needs a tropical climate (hot and humid). The tropical countries situ-
ated around the equator are favourable for growing cocoa.
The three main production regions are:
Cameroon, etc.)
(Brazil, Ecuador, Peru, etc.)
Still called “food of the gods”, the cocoa tree (Theobroma cacao L.), of the Malva-
ceae family, is a tropical plant cultivated for its beans, from which cocoa
and butter are extracted. There are three main varieties of cocoa: “Forastero”,
usually yellow but occasionally red when the pod is ripe, “Criollo”, more
sought after
and more expensive, whose pods are red or red-orange when mature, and “Trini-
tario”, which is a hybrid of the two preceding varieties. “Forastero” is the most
commonly grown variety in West and Central Africa, but its flavour is not as good
as that of the other two varieties.
The cocoa tree measures approximately 4 - 5 m; at 1 – 1.5 m in
height, it subdivides into several branches with a very dense leaf
system. The flowers form directly on the trunk and along the large
branches, producing between 10 and 80 fruits, commonly called
“pods”, containing 20 to 50 white beans.
The cocoa tree, the leaf, the pod and the beans
The nursery produces young cocoa plantlets for the establishment of plan-
tations. It is one of the prerequisites for a successful plantation and it helps
to avoid the high mortality rate encountered when the seeds are sown
directly in a field. There are three methods for propagating the planting
material of the cocoa tree: grafting, taking cuttings and propagation by the
beans, which is the simplest and most widely used method.
approximately 5 m
15-25 cm
7-10 cm
2 cm
The nursery is set up 5 - 8 months before the plantation. It is usually located
near an inexhaustible water source to facilitate watering. It must be as near
as possible to the future plantation, to the village or to humus-bearing soil. It
is also advisable to build it on well-drained land that is flat or only slightly slop-
ing. Low-lying areas should be avoided. If necessary (e.g. if located on a steep
slope), drainage ditches can be dug in the direction of the steepest slope.
The shade house should be made from wood or bamboo to a height of 2.5 m.
It is covered with evenly distributed palm leaves or straw, allowing 50 % of
the light to pass through. It is also necessary to have a cover on those sides
exposed to sunlight.
Prepare the soil to be used to fill the sacks in which the beans will grow
(humus-bearing, sandy-clay) by choosing surface soil, preferably under forest
cover, while avoiding areas containing old cocoa trees or non-decomposed
manure. If the soil is very heavy, mix 1 barrow-load of sand with 3 barrow-
loads of black soil. Sift well.
Fill plastic sacks (polyethylene) with humus-bearing sand-clay soil. The bags
should measure 15 x 25 x 10 cm and the lower half should be perforated
Place the filled sacks onto the boards (10 sacks wide and 50 sacks long),
which will be separated by 60 cm rows and 1 m from the sides of the
nursery to allow easy access. Keep the sacks upright using bamboo sup-
ports attached horizontally to small vertical stakes.
Build a fence around the shade house to protect the young plants from
rodents. For a one hectare plantation, allow 80 - 100 m
for the nursery
(2,000 plants), i.e. 60 or 70 ripe pods.
2.1 Setting up
2.2 Seeding
To obtain good productivity, use seeds from the most productive trees or
pods of improved varieties supplied by research centres. Remove healthy
pods (those displaying no signs of rot, insect damage or spots, etc.) from
the productive trees shortly before their optimum point of maturity (colouring
over three-quarters of the pod).
After harvesting or receiving the chosen pods, open them carefully without
damaging the beans. Dispose of the 3 sterile beans at the base of the pod.
Clean the extracted beans thoroughly in water then scrub them with fine
sand or sawdust to remove the mucilage (whitish pulp). Rinse them again
in water, removing any beans that are flat, too small, sprouting or that
float in the water.
The beans must be sown within three days of being harvested as the
seed loses its ability to germinate if it stays out of the pod too long.
The day before sowing, water the bags filled with soil. Sow one bean at the
centre of each bag, with the fatter end of the seed pointing down or flat,
so that the root is upright. Push the seed to a depth of 1 cm. Cover it with
soil and press it lightly with the fingers, then water abundantly.
Young cocoa plants
under the shade house
2,5 m
1,70 m
1,70 m
60 cm
nursery for 6 - 8 months.
2.3 Maintenance
Water the nursery every day (early morning or evening) for the first 15 days
after sowing, then every other day – but not excessively – to ensure that
the bags of soil remain moist.
Weed the bags and the rows between the boards to eliminate plants that
will compete for water and nutrition.
Replace missing plants 2 weeks after sowing by repeating the bean selec-
tion process. It is possible to repeat the operation 2 - 3 times.
Ifnecessary,beginfungicidetreatmentwitha“mixtureof Metalaxyland
copper(e.g.:Ridomil GoldPlus66WPataratioofonebagper15litre
spray of water)” when the plants have 2 - 4 leaves, then apply every 21 days.
Protect the plants against insects by spraying insecticide once a month (e.g.:
Deltamethrine [75 ml of Decis 12.5 EC for 15 litres of water] alternating
with Imidaclopride/Lambdacyhalothrine [50 ml of Parastar, Plantima 30 SC,
cao 200 SL, ao-net plus 200 SL, Thiofor-extra 200 SL for 15 l of water]).
reduce the amount of shade one month before the transplantation to allow
the plants to get used to brighter sunlight.
Kept in good conditions, plants aged 5 - 6 months should measure at least
50 cm when they are planted.
Do not water
the plants
for two days after
the treatment.
The plot should have easy access and be located near a water source to
facilitate watering and phytosanitary treatment. The average temperature
of the area must be between 24 and 28 °C and the pluviometry must be
between 1,200 and 2,000 mm distributed relatively evenly throughout the
year, with a dry season no longer than three months.
Ideally, choose soil that is rich, well-drained, deep, loose on the surface,
sand-clay and with a water table more than one metre deep. Cocoa prefers
acidic soil (pH below 6). Use trees as indicators of soil quality, such as
Ceiba pentandra (kapok, Doum), Pycnanthus angolensis (Ilomba, Eteng),
Triplochyton scleroxylon (Ayous), Ficus mucoso(g,Tol).Givepreferenceto
previously forested areas, reforested areas, old coffee or cocoa plantations.
3.1 Choice of plot
Avoid land on hilltops or in lowlands (hydromorphic or marshy) and
stony soil. Avoid steep slopes (more than 10 % gradient). In the
case of uncultivated land, avoid soil that has hosted several cycles
of tubers, such as cassava root, cocoyam or sweet potato, which
will have caused chemical degradation of the soil.
Clear the land three to six months before planting the cocoa trees. To do
3.2 Preparation of the site
>>> For small-scale farmers, prepare 0.5 hectare plots every year.
For greater profitability, operations over at least 1.5 hectares are
trees, at a rate of 35 to 40 trees per hectare.
•Weedandcleartheland,thenremovebrush thatisofnoparticular
use and offers no protection against the sun. Larger trees that can offer
better protection for cocoa trees must be preserved.
Trees such as Piptadeniastrum africanum (Atui, Dabema), Bombax
buonopozense (Kapokier, Essodom), Cola sp. (Garcinia cola, Cola nitida)
are not particularly suitable for cocoa trees. However, they can be
retained if necessary according to the specific needs of the farmer.
to avoid compressing the soil.
•Forfallowland,introduceleguminousshrubs(Gliricidia spp., Albizia spp.,
Leucaena leucocephala) every 4 m to restore the soil or income-generating
plants (plantain, Dacryodes edulis or butter fruit, avocado, etc.) to create
shade for at least 2 years. This shade must be planted between the lines
in staggered rows, taking account of the density of the cocoa trees. Tubers
are not recommended.
For larger operations, create blocks of 4 to 5 hectares. Create
tracks between the blocks and around the plantation for ease of
=Gliricidia x = Cocoa tree
9 m
9 m
3 m
3 m
4 m
3 m
3 m 3 m
3 m
have been cut back or gradual and partial replanting in strips under the
old cocoa trees (followed by the gradual removal of the old trees in three
years) should be given priority.
Year 0
Year 1
Year 4
C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8
x x x x x x x x
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C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8
25,5 m
A = Trees x = Cocoa tree
24 m
C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8
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25,5 m
A = Trees x = Cocoa tree
24 m
C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8
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C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8
25,5 m
A = Trees x = Cocoa tree
24 m
Staking consists of marking out the future position of each cocoa tree with
stakes or posts in order to observe planting densities, use the maximum
capacity of the soil and facilitate maintenance. The “3, 4, 5 process” is
employed by using three lengths of bamboo measuring 3, 4 and 5 m to
form a right-angled triangle, the apex of which will be used as a point of
Right angle staking system: “3, 4, 5 process”
4 m
3 m
5 m
3 m
4 m
5 m
The lines are traced using a length of string following a 3 m x 3 m planting
plan for a density of 1,111 plants per hectare.
The pathways outline planting lines for the cocoa trees on a strip one metre
wide. Establish windrows between the lines of cocoa trees to fa
transplanting, maintenance of the lines of cocoa trees and good crop
Right angle staking system: “3, 4, 5 process”
At the start of the rainy season, make holes measuring 40 x 40 x 40 cm
at the staked-out positions, taking care to separate the surface soil from
the deeper soil. If possible, insert some thoroughly decomposed manure,
compost or humus-bearing soil into the bottom of the hole.
to cooler times of day (before 08.00 hrs and after 16.00 hrs).
•Removetheblacksoil,stones andpiecesofwoodfromtheroots and
place the plant at the bottom of the hole
as well as the first leaves situated just above the clod, while cutting the
bottom of the taproot, often rolled up at this level (plastic and earth)
approximately 2 cm from the base.
3.3 Planting
How to plant young cocoa trees
Deep soil Humus-bearing
Deep soil
Deep soilHumus-bearing
soil Deep soil
It is advisable to diversify with fruit trees to ensure the profitability of the
operation, to allow for on-farm consumption and to reduce risks related
to the volatility of cocoa prices.
Biofertilisers can be used for growing, potting, planting and transplanting
•Packdowntheearth,placethe cocoaplantverticallywiththeclodof
earth in the centre of the hole
care to keep the collar of the young plant above the level of the soil. The
collar designates the point at which the root becomes the aerial stem
could stagnate
plant while keeping the neck free to maintain soil moisture.
Plant without biofertiliser Plant with biofertiliser
C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8
x x x x x x x x
x x x x x x
x x x x x x x x
x x x x x x x x
x x x x x x x x
x x x x x x x x
x x x x x x
x x x x x x x x
C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8
25,5 m
A = Trees x = Cocoa tree b = Banana tree
24 m
bb bb bbb
bb bb bbb
bb bb bbb
bb bb bbb
Replace plants that are dead, damaged or have not transplanted well to
ensure uniformity of the plantation.
During the first year, allow 50 % of the total light to pass through. From
the third year, gradually increase the amount of light from 50 to 75 % by
removing leaves and branches from surrounding trees.
4.1 Replacing plants and regulating shade
At least three weeding operations per year are required to ensure proper
flowering and a good harvest. Ideally, follow the weeding by hand with a
chemical weed killer. Chemical weeding should be done when the weeds
rate of 100 - 130 ml per 15-litre sprayer can of water).
4.2 Weeding
Certain types of soil preparation, particularly ploughing or digging,
must be prohibited to protect the roots.
Well established adult plantation
Weeding by hand Chemical weeding Well established adult plantation
Maintenance involves weeding, pruning, regulating the shade, fertilising
and plant health care.
Do not use a
chemical weed
killer during the
rainy season
To maximise production of the cocoa tree, cut the trunk of the tree at
approximately 1.50 m above ground to obtain a crown with 5 branches,
which improves flowering.
Every 2 to 3 months, use pruning shears to remove the suckers and any
secondary offshoots growing from the trunk. Also remove any parts affected
by insects, disease or parasitic plants.
4.3 Pruning, sanitary harvesting and
Remove dry branches, rotten or dried out pods (cutting the stem of the pod
without damaging the trunk); collect all of the debris (pods or husks on the
ground) and cover it with a pile of dead leaves, so that it can decompose
on the spot without spreading diseases.
Provide stakes for certain plants so that they do not give way under the
weight of the pods. Drain the water if there is stagnation in the plantation.
Before pruning Select branches
to prune, then prune up to
4 metres high
for better lighting
The effect of the fertilisers depends on the soil conditions and the age of
the plantation. Chemical fertilisers are effective and their use is profitable
in well-run plantations. One month after pruning, spread it in a circular band
between 5 and 30 cm from the base of the plant in the first year of the
plantation, then in a band between 30 and 60 cm after 2 to 3 years and
between 60 cm and 1 m from the fourth year. Cover the fertiliser with a
thin layer of soil to avoid it being lost through water run-off.
4.4 Fertilisation
Changes in the spread of fertiliser around the
cocoa tree
The cocoa tree rarely needs nitrogen (N), but requires a lot of phosphorus,
potassium and boron.
Initial planting Planted 2 – 3 years Planted 4 years +
Super triple phosphate –
100 g per tree twice a year 0-23-19+10 Cao+5 Mgo –
150 to 200 per tree per year
60 cm - 1 m
30 - 60 cm
5 - 30 cm
The solutions recommended here integrate chemical control, agricul-
tural or agronomic practices and the use of resistant planting material
to provide the cocoa crop with effective protection.
The most dangerous diseases are viral diseases such as swollen shoot
virus and fungal diseases such as brown rot.
5.1 Cocoa diseases
Summary of principal diseases encountered and
proposed solutions
• Pods with
brown spots
hard to the
touch, covered
with a whitish
layer of spores
• Cankers on
the plant body
(trunk, branch-
es, twigs).
Diseases and
Chemical treatment
Brown pod
rot, caused by
Phytophthora sp.
(P. palmivora and
P. megakarya).
Virulent in poorly
aerated planta-
tions, it appears
during the rainy
• Sanitary
harvesting of
damaged young
• Regulating the
shade by pruning
the crown and
• Regular main-
tenance of the
plantation and
breaking the pods
outside of the
In the rainy season, spray the pods
• a mixture of Metalaxyl and copper
(Ridomil Gold Plus 66 WP with a
dose of 1 sachet per spray of
15 litres of water) once every
3 weeks (i.e. 4 - 6 applications
per year) or
• copper (Cacaobre 50 WG, Nordox
75 WG, Funguran-OH 50 WP or
Kocide 2000 with a dose of
1 sachet per spray of 15 litres of
water) once every 2 weeks
(i.e. 6 - 8 applications per year).
N. B. For each application,
15 - 25 sprays of 15 litres are
applied per hectare.
• Swollen stems
• Reddish stripes on the
yellow leaves
• Yellowing along and
between the veins
• Deformation and
reduced size of the
Diseases and
Badnavirus – a viral
disease transmitted
by insects hosting the
• Planting tolerant
• Isolate healthy plants
using plants that are
immune to the virus
• Rapid removal and
destruction of diseased
plants and their
immediate neighbours.
Possible use
of insecticides
to eliminate the
• Pods with brown
bruises soft to the touch
• Pods turning black or
• Black rot caused
by Botryodiplodia
Mealy pod rot,
anthracnose caused
by Lasiodiplodia spp,
Colletotrichum, etc.
Prune and sanitary
harvest of diseased
• Rapid drying of the
tree due to the attack
on the roots; the leaves
remain attached
• No living suckers at
the base of the tree
• Appearance of vertical
cracks and splits in the
bark of the collar
• Extension of the
disease in spots.
Rot caused by Armil-
lariella mellea and
Fomes sp. Particularly
affects plantations in
which the stumps of
old forest trees and/
or those used for
shade have been left.
• Carefully uproot the
affected trees. Take
them away from the
plantation and burn them
• Remove or poison the
No chemical
• Drying of several
branches and lack of
• Living suckers at the
base of the tree
• Deterioration and
drying up of the foliage
from top to bottom.
• Tracheomycosis to
calonectria (Calonec-
tria sp., Colletrichum
• Appears after mirid
• Removal of diseased
• Eventual replacement
of the tree with a
healthy plant.
No chemical
N. B. Fungicidal treatment must begin as soon as the first signs of rot appear.
Cocoa diseases caused by parasites
The main harmful parasites are mirids and borers of stems and branches.
There are also leaf-eating caterpillars, psyllids, scales, bathycoelia Thalassina
(cocoa shield bug) and Helopeltis.
Treatment against insects is often applied by spraying. Although expensive,
the use of a fogger makes the treatment more effective, as it enables the
whole tree to be treated easily, requires less chemical, less time and less
water than the spray gun (10 l with a fogger against 15 l with a spray gun).
5.2 Cocoa parasites
Summary of harmful parasites and proposed
• Blackish marks on
the pods
• Dried up leaves
attached to the
• Formation of
cankers, young pods
drying up and falling
• Splits in lignied
Parasites Cultural control Chemical treatment
Mirids or capsids
are bugs (pentato-
midae), the most
active of which
are Distantiella
theobroma, Sahlber-
gella singularis and
• Prune suckers;
• Prune the crown to
maintain good shade
• Sanitary pruning of
branches attacked
by insects (cankers,
Treat with insecticides
Imidacloprid/ Lambda-
cyhalothrine (50 ml of
Parastar or Plantima
30 SC for 15 l of water)
at a rate of 2 applications
per year in intervals of
2 months (June/July and
August/September for
Cameroon). Alternating
with a treatment in No-
vember of Thiamethoxam
(4 g of Actara 25 WG for
15 litres of water).
Brown rot Black rot Root rot Badnavirus
in cocoa
Swollen stems Reddening of
Drying up of
tree caused by
root rot
Cracks in the trunk
of the cocoa tree caused by
root rot
Summary of harmful parasites and proposed
Parasites Cultural control Chemical treatment
White marks on the
extremities of young
shoots, on flowers and
flower pads.
Psylles (Tyora
Very evident in
young plantations.
During the 1
a monthly application
of the insecticide
Thiamethoxam (4 g
of Actara 25 WG for
15 litres of water)
alternating with the
insecticide Imidacloprid/
(50 ml of Parastar or
Plantima 30 SC for 15 l
of water).
From the 2
year, the
treatments against
mirids will be enough to
control these defoliating
Thrips (Solenothrips
Frequent during
period of water
• Discolouring of leaves
then yellowing and stain
• General rusty appear-
ance before falling.
Shredded or damaged
leaves leading to rapid
Remove the
insects by hand.
No chemical
No chemical
On request, treat the
soil around the foot
of each tree within a
radius of 50 cm with
(100 ml of Dursban 4E,
Pyrical 480 EC).
• During the low
production season,
remove pods measur-
ing more than 5 cm
• Burn the pods to
break the insect
• Prune dead
• Plantation
Pod borers
encouraged by
host plants such
as the kola tree
(Cola nitida) or
the rambutan tree
(Mephelium sp.)
Borers and wood
(Tragocephapa sp.)
• Small perforations in
the pods
• Early yellowing of the
• Dried up leaves,
branches and stems
leading to the rapid
ageing and death of the
cocoa tree
• Presence of round
holes with sawdust.
If mistletoes are found on the cocoa tree, remove them immediately.
Insects harmful to the cocoa tree
Thrips Mirids Mirid waste
on pod Psylles Anomis Leona
Leaf-eating moth
Operational calendar for a cocoa plantation in the
forest region of Cameroon (with two rainy seasons)
January February March April May June July August Sept. October Nov. Dec.
Setting up
the nursery
Developing the site
(clearing, etc.)
Staking out • clearing paths
• digging holes
Planting (in the rainy
Weeding (by hand, the
chemical treatment with
100 ml of Roundup 300 SL
per spray gun)
Sanitary harvest
Treatment against insects
Maintenance pruning
Fertilisation (after the onset
of the rainy season)
Treatment of brown
rot (rainy season)
Treatment for mirids
(50 ml of Parastar
for 15 L of water)
Harvest (depending
on appearance
of pods)
Setting upSetting up
If mistletoes are found on the cocoa tree, remove them immediately.
These are determinant factors for obtaining marketable cocoa of
high quality.
The first harvest takes place after approximately three years (hybrid/improved
variety) or 4 – 5 years (traditional variety coming from the nursery) after plant-
ing. The cocoa tree can produce twice a year for more than 30 years. Harvest
the pods at regular intervals of 10 - 15 days (do not go over three weeks).
Harvest the pods at optimum
maturity (when the fruit turns
three quarters yellow, vermilion,
orange or red, depending on the
pod colour of the variety).
6.1 Harvest
Harvesting is done by cutting the stalk with a machete, a pruning pole,
pruning shears or a sickle. Avoid damaging the flower cushions which will
produce the flowers and fruits of the subsequent harvests.
Next, remove the pods from the plantation and transport them to the
pod-breaking site.
Vermilion Orange or red Yellow
Machete Pruning shears Pruning pole Sickle Never harvest by
Harvesting the pods
6.2 Breaking the pods
The pods are broken no more than 5 days after harvesting. Separate the
healthy pods from the damaged pods to differentiate between the grades.
Open the pods with sticks that have no sharp edges so as to extract the
seeds without damaging them.
Breaking the pods
When breaking the pods, any defective beans, the rachis and cortex debris
must be removed.
6.3 Fermentation
nate and to develop the flavour and aroma precursors of the chocolate.
The freshly extracted beans are placed on banana leaves (or cocoyam
leaves) inside baskets, wooden boxes, clean fermentation tanks or on the
ground in the fermentation area and under shelter. The beans are then
covered with leaves and left to ferment for 4 – 7 days. Every other day
(2nd and 4th day), stir them around and check the humidity.
Fermentation depends on the quality of the pulp. Pulp from unripe
or overripe pods will not ferment well.
The beans then change colour (from white/mauve to brown). The inside
is light brown or reddish. Well-fermented beans have a shiny appearance,
without mould and their cotyledons break easily. They release a chocolate
6.4 Drying
After fermentation, remove the remains of the pulp by washing the beans
or mixing them with sawdust and dry banana leaves.
The beans are then dried naturally or artificially. Natural or solar drying is
the simplest and most popular method and takes 8 – 15 days.
In small operations, the beans are often spread out on bamboo or straw
mats placed in the sunlight, on sheets of black plastic, etc. Stir them
around frequently for 5 days. Sort them to remove defective or flat beans.
Once dry, their average weight is one gram with a moisture content of
approximately 7 %. Place them in a dry, sheltered and well-aerated spot
to protect them from damp (rain, humid nocturnal air) and avoid the risk
of mould developing.
Mixing the beans on a screen during traditional
Natural drying can be optimised by using improved driers that give better
results. Depending on the model, the beans can easily be sheltered from
rain or protected by different structures.
In particular, do
not dry the beans
at the side of
asphalt roads.
The autobus drier
has a fixed frame with rails on
which the drying screens slide.
The mobile roof drier
has a fixed drying area with
a roof that can be removed
depending on the weather.
To reduce drying time, it is possible to use artificial driers, with hot air for
between 15 and 48 hours. The heat is produced by a wood- or gas-fired
or with the heating plate. There must be a system for ventilation and control-
ling the parameters, particularly the temperature, as the taste qualities of
the cocoa beans change above 55 °C.
To be avoided:
kiln drying
(contact with
the smoke).
The tent drier is covered by
a transparent sheet of plas-
tic, and the drying area is
black to conserve the energy
that is gradually expended
during the night.
The greenhouse drier
reduces the need for han-
dling and enables large
quantities of beans to be
dried. However, it requires
a significant investment and
it is necessary to provide a
ventilation system (based
on the convection principle)
and a system for controlling
the drying parameters.
Improved hot air driers
(air heated by furnace)
insulated from the
smoke by a flue are
A heat-conducting mate-
rial is heated, the ventila-
tors capture the heat
from this material and
convey it to the cocoa
beans, which are placed
on a sort of screen or
Regardless of the drying method used:
•sortthebeanstoremovedirt,impurities andany beansthatareat
or sprouting
natural drying and 5 - 10 cm for artificial drying
the end of the drying process. Crack them with your hand and split some
of them to ensure that the cocoa is completely dry both inside and outside.
Hot air duct
Joint between the 2 ducts
Grid support
Ash grid
Furnace duct
Length 1 m
Diameter 0,60 m
Thickness 3 mm
Resists to 560°
Length 3,5 m
Diameter 0,60 m
Thickness 2 - 3 mm
Resists to 350°
Internal dryer
6.5 Storage
Storage involves keeping the cocoa completely dry to
avoid mould, insect damage and the formation of free
fatty acids.
The dried cocoa beans are placed in jute bags on a pallet
to avoid contact with the ground and walls. The storage
location must be dry, clean, well-aerated and protected
from rodents and humidity to ensure the quality of the
In the case of insect attacks, fumigate the storage area.
Storage in jute bags
Model of a small
cooperative for
local cocoa
(Multiple wooden boxes covered
with banana leaves)
Cocoa pod inlet
- Storage
- Roasting
- Winnowing
- Mixer/Moulding
- Press
- Tempering/moulder
1.4 SHOP
- Sales area
- Storage
”Autobus” sliding
wooden driers
1 m
2 m
The cocoa bean is composed of two parts: the non-edible part (tegument
or shell) and the edible part (cotyledons or seeds).
In total, 70 % of the weight of the pod is made up of the shell. Shells
can be used as fertiliser, animal feed or even fuel.
After breaking the pods, collect the empty shells and crush them:
household waste (preferably livestock waste)
•coverthepilestomaintain ahightemperatureandahighpercentage
of relative humidity required for the decomposition of the shells and the
destruction of brown rot pathogens
7.1 Organic fertiliser
The feed produced can be enriched with mineral salts and vitamins.
7.2 Livestock feed
1/3 shell
2/3 corn
After three months, the material becomes dark. The compost is then
ready and can be used as an organic fertiliser rich in mineral elements.
For animal feed, this flour can replace one third of the amount of corn.
Apart from chocolate, other products such as butter and beverages
can be obtained from cocoa beans.
Wash the harvested pods, then open them with sticks without sharp edges
in order to collect the seeds without damaging them.
Put the beans in clean containers with small holes (e.g. sieves or rattan
baskets). Place a cooking pot under the containers to receive the cocoa
juice. To facilitate the extraction of the juice, stir the beans occasionally.
After 24 hours, collect the juice. Approximately 1 litre of cocoa juice can
be obtained from 35 kg of fresh beans.
Once the liquid has been collected, the beans can then begin the fermen-
tation process.
8.1 Cocoa juice
This cocoa juice can be consumed fresh as a non-alcoholic beverage or
fermented to obtain alcoholic drinks.
There are two types of cocoa mass: natural mass and alkaline mass. Water
is added during roasting of the natural mass, while an alkaline solution
8.2 Pure cocoa natural mass or paste
Semi-industrial process
To remove any impurities from the
cocoa beans, they must be sorted. The
sorting is intended to remove all plant
debris, pebbles, particles, as well as
beans that are mouldy, moth-damaged
or smoked, as these contribute to
giving the cocoa butter an unpleasant
taste and odour.
Shelling or crushing
The sorted beans are crushed, then
the shells are removed by fans and only
the seed (pure core) is retained. The
separation of the shells and the seeds
must be optimal, as the more pieces of
shell there are in the seed, the more
difficult the grinding process will be.
The seeds obtained are roasted, i.e.
their surface is heated to reduce the
rate of humidity, eliminate the acidity
formed during fermentation, facilitate
shelling and crushing and enable the
savours (“chocolate” flavour and aroma)
to develop. The roasting process, which
also sterilises the beans, is carried out
at 98 - 120 °C for 90 - 95 minutes.
The roasted seeds are ground using a
ball mill crusher or a grinding machine
to obtain a cocoa mass or paste used
to make cocoa butter or chocolate.
100 kg quantity of cocoa beans pro-
duces 80 kg of cocoa paste.
(potassium carbonate) is added for the alkaline mass. The process described
below is that for natural cocoa mass.
The key steps of cocoa processing are outlined
in the following chart:
The pure cocoa paste obtained is pressed to extract
cocoa butter and cocoa cakes. 1 kg of cocoa paste
produces on average 46 g of butter and 54 g of cake.
The butter obtained is filtered, centrifuged and deodor-
ised by steam distillation. The cocoa butter is used to
produce chocolate or cosmetics.
8.3 Cocoa butter and powder
The cocoa cake obtained on completion of pressing is
crushed and ground to make cocoa powder. This powder
is tempered and stabilised between 18 and 20 °C.
The cocoa powder is used to produce chocolate, pastries,
milk-based drinks or cosmetics.
Small cocoa butter press
Cocoa powder
• 10 litres of water (7.5 + 2.5 l)
• 5 kg of good quality dried cocoa beans
• A gas stove or an improved oven (as heat
• A mill grinder
• An aluminium pan or bowl
• A transparent sheet of plastic
• A wooden or stainless steel spatula
• A 10-litre stainless steel cooking pot or
casserole dish
• A 15-litre plastic bucket
• A glass
bodies (pebbles, debris, particles).
tion to the size of the pan so that each bean is in contact with the pan.
high, the beans will burn (which will spoil the aroma of the butter) or release
butter (which will reduce the amount of butter obtained when the cooking
is completed). The beans are considered to be well-roasted when the shell
crumbles easily.
winnow them. Seeds and bean shells are obtained.
obtained is soft.
is done in two stages:
is brought to the boil in another pot to remove the water in it. The oil can
be filtered and bottled.
in the first stage, put the paste (5 kg of beans) into 7.5 litres
of boiling water. Always stir the mixture in the same direction and
bring it to the boil on a medium heat (to bring out the oil). When the
mixture begins to thicken, reduce the heat. Do not allow the paste
to burn or stick to the base of the pot to avoid having an unpleasant
odour. The oil will gradually rise to the surface after 40 - 50 minutes.
After boiling, collect the floating oil
next add 2.5 litres of boiling water to the pot containing the
cocoa mass, stir it in the same direction and bring it to the boil for
approximately 20 - 30 minutes.
7,5 l
•Itshouldbe notedthattheoilobtained solidiesveryquickly atroom
temperature, so once it has been filtered it must be bottled immediately.
Handled skilfully, 5 kg of beans produce 1 kg of cocoa butter. After extracting
the cocoa butter, the cake obtained can be used to make chocolate or live-
stock feed. It could also be turned into cocoa powder for better preservation.
8.4 Chocolate
Chocolate is made from 4 principal ingredients: cocoa paste, cocoa butter,
sugar and powdered milk (if required). Soy lecithin as an emulsifier (0 – 0.5 %)
and some vanilla for flavour can be added, as well as a preservative (citric
acid) to extend the life of the product.
• A gas stove or an improved oven (as
heat source)
• A grindstone
• A cooking pot
• A spatula
• Moulds (ice cube trays)
• 400 g of sugar
• 230 ml of cocoa butter
• 220 ml liquid cow’s milk
• 150 g of cocoa cake
• 1 teaspoon of juice from a small
• 1/2 teaspoon of cooking salt
• Flavour (vanilla or nutmeg)
Ingredients: For 1 kg of chocolate
is homogenous. If necessary, remove the pot from the heat occasionally, to
make sure that the paste does not burn.
5 mins.
for 8 - 10 hrs.
preserve it for several months.
•Tip:Topreventthechocolatefromburning,bringalarge cookingpotof
water to the boil and then place a smaller stainless steel pan into the pot
(bain-marie). The different ingredients are placed in the smaller pan, not in
the cooking pot of water.
Ingredients: For 1 kg of chocolate
Follow the same operating method as
for milk chocolate.
Ingredients: For 1 kg of chocolate spread
Follow the same operating method as for milk chocolate. Incorporate
the hazelnuts after adding the milk.
well-aerated place.
strong odours (cheese, fish,
meat, lemons, etc.).
The dried beans are placed in 65-kg jute bags and then sold. On average,
10 - 15 pods are harvested per plant, i.e. 4 - 6 kg, giving 1 – 1.5 kg of
fresh beans which, after 7 % drying, represent approximately 0.5 kg of
marketable dried beans. Therefore, for 1,000 healthy and productive trees
per hectare, it is possible to obtain a yield of 300 – 750 kg/ha. Sold at
800 FCFA/kg, this generates a gross income of 400,000 – 600,000
FCFA/ha. After subtracting expenses (55 %), there is a net profit of FCFA
225,000 (e 343) per hectare.
Below is the operating account over 6 years of a farmer practicing an agro-
forestry system (cocoa, banana and fruit trees) over an area of 2 hectares.
9.1 Economic information
200 000
222 200
333 300
207 000
69 000
100 000
460 000
100 000
200 000
1 891 500
Site development
Purchase of banana
Purchase of cocoa
Purchase of fruit tree
Cutting posts
Staking (banana +
cocoa + fruit trees)
Transplanting (banana +
cocoa + fruit trees)
Phytosanitary treatment
Annual cost
Description Year 1
100 000
200 000
300 000
100 000
300 000
400 000
300 000
600 000
900 000
300 000
600 000
900 000
300 000
600 000
900 000
Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6
Processing 5 kg of dried beans produces approximately 1 litre of cocoa
butter that can be sold for FCFA 10,000. With small-scale processing and
without great human effort or financial cost, cocoa butter is by far the most
profitable product.
1 891 500
Sale of brunches of
Sale of banana
Sale of cocoa
Sale of fruits (from
fruit trees)
Annual income
Annual margin
Description Année 1
Année 2 Année 3 Année 4 Année 5 Année 6
2 000 000
200 000
2 200 000
1 900 000
8 500
2 000 000
200 000
2 200 000
1 800 000
1 808 500
2 000 000
200 000
480 000
2 680 000
1 780 000
3 588 500
640 000
690 000
1 330 000
430 000
4 018 500
800 000
1 380 000
2 180 000
1 280 000
5 298 500
10 - 15 pods =
4 - 6 kg of beans
1 - 1.5 kg of
fresh beans
52 000
Togolese Institute for Agronomic Research (ITRA)
P.O. Box 1163 Lomé (Togo)
Tel.: (228) 22 25 21 48
Fax: (228) 22 25 15 59
National Centre for Agronomic Research (CNRA) - Côte d’Ivoire
Tel.: (+225) 22 48 96 24
Fax: (+225) 22 48 96 11
Society for the Development of Cocoa (SODECAO)
P.O. Box 1651 Yaoundé (Cameroon)
Tel.: (+237) 22 30 45 44/22 30 35 08
Fax: (+237) 22 30 33 95
Sic Cacaos - Cameroon
P.O. Box 570 Route de Deïdo, Douala (Cameroon)
Cameroon Cocoa Horizons
Tel.: (+237) 33 40 88 10/ (+237) 33 40 37 95
International Cooperation Centre in Agronomic Research for
Development (CIRAD)
CIRAD Regional Directorate for Central Africa
P.O. Box 2572 Yaoundé (Cameroon)
Tel.: (+237) 22 21 25 41
World Cocoa Foundation
II Plateaux 7e Tranche
Tel.: (+225) 22 52 37 32
9.2 Useful contacts
Improved plantain production
E. Lionelle Ngo-Samnick
Rearing grasscutters
E. Lionelle Ngo-Samnick
Rattan production and processing
E. Lionelle Ngo-Samnick
How to make a hand pump
Thomas Simb Simb
Maize production and processing
Maybelline Escalante-Ten Hoopen & Abdou Maïga
Raising geese
Irénée Modeste Bidima
Improved technique for hand-crafted
soaps and detergents production
Martial Gervais Oden Bella
Construction of solar cookers and
Christelle Souriau & David Amelin
In the same collection…
Pro-Agro is a collection of practical, illustrated guides that are jointly published by CTA and
ISF Cameroun. They are an ideal source of information for farmers, rural communities
and extension workers in tropical and subtropical regions.
This practical guide sets out the procedure for the production and processing of cocoa
as well as a recommended technical schedule for the production of cocoa plants. It
stresses the importance of phytosanitary protection and post-harvest operations. It
also provides useful advice and economic information on this agricultural sector.
The Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA)
is a joint
internationalinstitutionoftheAfrican, Caribbeanand Pacic(ACP) GroupofStates
and the European Union (EU). Its mission is to
advance food and nutritional secu-
rity, increase prosperity and encourage sound natural resource management in ACP
countries. It provides access to information and knowledge, facilitates policy dialogue
and strengthens
the capacity of agricultural and rural development institutions and
communities. CTA operates under the framework of the Cotonou Agreement and is
funded by the EU.
Engineers without Borders (ISF) is a network of professionals in more than
52 countries to promote human development through improved access to scien-
tific and technical knowledge. In Cameroon, ISF works together with local people
to improve their livelihoods and strengthen their technical capacity by sharing and
diffusing information adapted to their needs.
production and processing
9789290 815662
ISBN 978-92-9081-566-2
... All these constraints make it difficult to access water resources in the dry season, while nursery monitoring activities during this period depend heavily on it. So, mulching is an agricultural practice that conserves moisture, limits evapotranspiration, provides organic matter and limits soil erosion [11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27]. This practice is most often observed in the field, but hardly practiced in the nursery. ...
... During the follow-up of this trial, the plants were treated by drenching using water containing Ridomil Gold Plus 66 WP at the rate of one 50 g sachet per 15 litres of water [16], and at an frequency of one treatment per month. The application of this fungicide took into account the watering frequency and the volume of water to be given to each plant. ...
Full-text available
This study was carried out at Nkoemvone Agricultural Research Station in southern Cameroon, to help cocoa farmers monitor their cocoa nurseries during periods of drought or in areas where water resources are scarce and difficult to access. The objective of this work was to find the production methods for cocoa plants that could use the lowest watering frequencies through straw to ensure optimal growth and development of these plants in the nursery. It was carried out between September 2020 and June 2021 in a randomized complete block design. It comprised eighteen elementary plots, i.e. six treatments repeated three times. The number of cocoa plants tested was 360. That is, 20 plants per treatment. The treatments applied were NMWF1/2 days (control treatment); NMWF1/4 days; NMWF1/6 days; MWF1/2 days; MWF1/4 days and MWF1/6 days. At the end of work, three out of six treatments resulted in better agronomic performance. Firstly, MWF 1/2 days, which had a pH-water of 5.1, 7.97% organic matter, 25.34 cm mean cocoa plant height, 5.63 mm mean stem diameter, 10.97 mean leaf number, 9.26±0. 55 as the average length of the main roots, 52.13±5.70 as the average number of secondary roots, 45.97±2.04 % organic matter content of stems + leaves and 37.86±6.62 % organic matter content of roots at the end of the experiment. Then, there is MWF 1/4 days with 5.8, 6.44 %, 23.42 cm, 5.07 mm, 9.35 cm, 10.45±0.82 cm, 47.32±3.21 cm, 58.41±6.54 %, 47.62± 4.12 % respectively. Finally, NMWF 1/2 days showed 5.6, 5.21 %, 23.30 cm, 4.9 mm, 9.55, 10.15±0.58 cm, 51.75±5.11, 44.63±4.74 % and 28.41±7.67 % respectively in the same period. Although these three treatments resulted in more satisfactory growth and development than the others, we only recommend MWF 1/4 days treatment to the farmers for the purpose of this work.
... In developing countries Nigeria agricultural practices still rely heavily on agrochemicals to prevent and/or control the crops threatening diseases (Emoghene and Futughe, 2016). 288 E.I. Atuanya and W.T. Aborisade Cocoa plants (Theobroma cacao) are tropical plant, belonging to the family Malvaceae and are usually cultivated for their beans, from which cocoa powder and butter are extracted (Adabe and Ngo-Samnick, 2014). It is one of the major cash crops in Nigeria and most especially the backbone of the economy of South-Western part of the country. ...
... It is one of the major cash crops in Nigeria and most especially the backbone of the economy of South-Western part of the country. The cocoa production is usually threatened by a number of problems which range from diseases (viral and fungal diseases), pest infestation to parasite invasion (Olujide and Adeogun;Adabe and Ngo-Samnick, 2014). Hence, the successful management and prevention of cocoa pests and diseases rely heavily on the use of pesticides (Asogwa and Dongo, 2009). ...
Full-text available
Management of cocoa plantation field relied on the use of pesticides over the years; hence, the fate of such chemicals is one of the most debated issues among the stakeholders. Young and old cocoa plantation fields from 4 major cocoa producing States in Nigeria were selected as the study area. Eight composites soil samples collected from 3 portions of 6 transect measured area (100 x 50m) of the field were transported to the laboratory in sterile glass jar for analysis. A total of 19 organochlorine pesticides residues; (aldrin, α-hexachlorohexane, β-hexachlorohexane, γ-hexachlorohexane, δ-hexachlorohexane, α-chlordane, γ-chlordane, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, p,p'-dichlorodi phenyltrichloroethane, dieldrin, endosulfan I, endosulfan-II, endosulfan sulfate, endrin, endrin aldehydes, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide and metoxychlor) were analyzed with gas chromatography equipped with electron capture detector. The results revealed the variation in the number of residues detected among the study fields. Endosulfan-I had the highest value g organochlorine pesticides residue detected. Most of the residue concentrations were within the European Union regulatory standard of Czech Republic. Othercyclodine group had the highest concentration value among the evaluated organochlorine pesticides groups. The significant (P < 0.05) higher concentration of total organochlorine pesticides were observed in old fields. Composition quotients values indicate that most of the observed organochlorine pesticides residues were products of historical usage. There were strong correlations among the total organic carbon contents of soils and the total organochlorine pesticides compounds. Government regulatory agencies are encouraged to vigorously embark in further monitoring and ensuring the safety compliance of farmers towards the use of pesticides in Nigeria farms.
... W dalszych etapach całość zostaje schłodzona w kontrolowanych warunkach, w procesie temperowania. Następnie czekolada jest ponownie ogrzewana i rozlewana do form [6]. ...
Full-text available
Nasiona kakaowca (Cacao semen) to znany od starożytności surowiec roślinny, szeroko wykorzystywany w celach spożywczych i farmaceutycznych. Przetwory nasion kakaowca, takie jak czekolada i wyroby czekoladowe są jednymi z najchętniej spożywanych rodzajów słodyczy. Rosnąca świadomość zdrowotna konsumentów sprawia, że coraz większą popularność zyskują czekolady gorzkie oraz inne produkty z wysoką zawartością kakao. Ich efekty prozdrowotne, wynikające ze zwyczajowego spożycia, warunkowane są zawartością miazgi (masy) kakaowej, w której występują związki biologicznie aktywne. W nasionach kakao i jego przetworach zidentyfikowano liczne polifenole, jak procyjanidyny, flawanole i flawonole; metyloksantyny, a także aminy, amidy i in. Wykazują one korzystny wpływ na układ sercowo-naczyniowy, obniżając ryzyko występowania incydentów kardiologicznych poprzez działanie antyoksydacyjne, przeciwzapalne, naczyniorozszerzające, poprawę funkcjonowania śródbłonka naczyniowego, obniżenie aktywności płytek krwi i ciśnienia tętniczego oraz regulację gospodarki lipidowej. Umiarkowane spożycie czekolady związane jest także z mniejszym ryzykiem zachorowania na cukrzycę, w wyniku zwiększenia wrażliwości tkanek na insulinę, poprawę glikemii i profilu lipidowego. W ostatnich latach pojawił się nowy kierunek badań nad wpływem czekolady i kakao na nastrój, funkcje poznawcze i pamięć epizodyczną. Wskazuje się również na zależność między spożyciem czekolady, a obniżoną śmiertelnością z powodu choroby Alzheimera. Ze względu na obecność metyloksantyn i działanie poprawiające nastrój czekolada zaliczana jest do produktów typu „mood food”. Obecnie sugeruje się, że czekolada, wcześniej kojarzona z nadwagą i otyłością, może wykazywać korzystne działanie w regulacji apetytu, a regularna konsumpcja gorzkiej czekolady w umiarkowanych ilościach związana jest z obniżeniem masy ciała i wskaźnika BMI. Przytoczone prozdrowotne efekty składników nasion kakaowca, kakao oraz czekolady mogą potencjalnie znaleźć zastosowanie w prewencji oraz wspomaganiu terapii pacjentów z chorobami kardiometabolicznymi i zaburzeniami funkcji kognitywnych.
... Elles sont parfois francophones mais généralement anciennes (et dès lors peu accessibles) et/ ou peu adaptées aux contextes pédoclimatiques locaux (Braudeau, 1969 ;Mossu, 1990 ;Conseil du Café-Cacao, 2015). Elles sont également lusophones (Mello & Gross, 2013 ;Sodré et al., 2017), anglophones ou hispanophones (Batista, 2009 ;Adabe & Ngo-Samnick, 2014). Même lorsqu'elles sont adaptées aux contextes pédoclimatiques ou aux types de systèmes de culture mis en place dans les Outre-Mer, leurs modèles économiques de production de cacao marchand ne sont pas directement transposables. ...
Full-text available
Viability of cocoa cultivation in French Guiana – a modeling approach Description of the subject. The cultivation of cocoa trees in French Guiana is currently experiencing a renewed level of interest and activity. A suitable framework is therefore needed to study the viability of this emerging area of cultivation. Objectives. To carry out an assessment of the technico-economic viability of cocoa cultivation and the processing of its products. Method. The costs and benefits of two different cropping systems and three types of end products were modeled. Results. The cropping system installed after partial forest clearing requires less labor and cash flow than the system based on association with banana, which allows a return on investment before the maturity of cocoa production. In order to be viable, cropping systems whose sole purpose is the production of fermented and dried beans would require yields of approximately 1 ton ha-1 and floor prices often above € 10,000 t-1. Such a result questions the feasibility of these systems. If beans were processed into cocoa sticks or chocolate, economic viability would be more easily acquired, but this would require investments that are not necessarily compatible with the cash flow of farms currently involved in cocoa farming. Conclusions. These results highlight the need to (re)consider in French overseas regions: (i) the nature and use of species associated with cocoa trees; (ii) the status of the cocoa tree as the main crop (or not) on farms; (iii) the diversification of cocoa products making it possible to feed several markets; (iv) the collective organization of the emerging sector to support production and processing; (v) technical and financial support (e.g.: CAP aid) for farmers embarking on cocoa farming.
... Thus in 2013, around 700,368 tonnes of cocoa hulls were produced and around 2,900,000 tonnes will be produced by 2022 [16]. Only a small part has been used as fertilizer and animal feed [17] which poses environmental problems, because these cocoa shells therefore pollute the soil and the rivers. This research aims to use the powder from the cocoa shell to strengthen recycled PET. ...
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The need to protect our environment by eliminating plastic waste as much as possible and by recycling waste from agricultural residue, has led us to formulate composites based on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) loaded with powder from the cocoa shell. The cocoa hulls were prior treated with organosolv process to improve the fiber-matrix interaction. This research is aimed at manufacturing composite wall tiles from recycled PET reinforced with cocoa hull powder (CCP). The composites were manufactured by the melt-mixing method followed by compression molding. The mechanical, physico-chemical properties and the stability to environmental conditions were evaluated. The results showed that the incorporation of cocoa powder at a content of 20-30% in the matrix consisting of PET gave rise to a composite material with good physico-mechanical and chemical properties suitable for use in several sectors. In the construction industry, in particular as wall covering as a replacement for tiles, these x from an economic point of view cost less and compared to clays which consumes enormous amount of energy for the elaboration of ceramics. The study showed that the optimum powder weight proportion for the optimal properties of the composite were achieved at 30% powder weight proportion. The maximum tensile strength of 60.3 MPa, flexural strength of 19.5 MPa, impact strength of 10.3 MPa and water absorption 1.34% were obtained. Water absorption of the tiles increased with the cocoa powder weight. Compare to the ceramic tile this value of water absorption test is in range and show that this composite tile is suitable for use as bathroom tile.
... Author(s) agree that this article remain permanently open access under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 International License pesticides in the management and prevention of cocoa pests and diseases. Copper-based fungicide is the most important component of pest and disease control programs in cocoa production systems (Olujide and Adeogun, 2006;Adabe and Ngo-Samnick, 2014). ...
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The status of heavy metal contamination of surface soils in two cocoa plantations of approximately 30 years in Cameroon was evaluated. The bioavailable fractions of Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and Cr were used to assess the extent of heavy metal contamination using a selection of contamination indices. In addition, other physicochemical properties including organic matter, particle size, CEC and pH were assessed. One of the farms was dominated by sand (64.56-73.46% sand) in contrast to the other (2.56 to 37.51%) and the latter had a higher clay content. The order of abundance of heavy metals, as expressed by the mean values, is as follows: Fe > Cu > Zn > Cr > Cd in soils from the two areas. Contamination factors of Cu-, Zn-and Cd are considerable for clay-dominated soil. The potential ecological risk of the metals in both soils was low with the exception of Cd in the clayey soil. Results for hazard assessment showed Cu levels were within the low ISQC sediment criteria in the clay-dominated soil; possibly linked to the long-term application of Cu-fungicide.
... Cocoa bean pass through various stages of equipment to form a product from harvesting, cleaning, fermentation, drying roasting, and grinding to liquor which is then squeezed into cake and butter and can as well be grounded into powder [12]. The flow chart in Figure 1, shows the gradual process involved in processing cocoa bean to cocoa butter, cocoa cake and cocoa powder. ...
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Cocoa (theobroma cacao) is cultivated mainly for the cocoa beans which can undergo further treatment into various products which includes cocoa powder, liquor, butter and cake. The major challenges experienced by cocoa industries are inconsistency in production, low yield, pest and disease infestation, high cost of acquiring equipment, increase in production sustainability when considering modified varieties, cost of managing crop, organizing chain and cost of quality. This research aim at studying the process of cocoa beans production in other to provide suitable solution for sustainability of the production process. An evaluation method was applied to the analyzed the various processing steps involved in production stage and the plant layout before assessing the marketing risk factors. The result from the evaluation shows that price fluctuation has the highest ranked followed by processing risk factors, due to negligence of majority of cocoa farmers in maintenance and scheduling operation on their machines using kruskal-wallis test. This study identified risk factors, made comparison and proffer solutions to majority of uncertainties common with processing and marketing of cocoa in Nigeria, as well as the detailed steps and the plant layout in other to boost the standard and morale of every individuals considering cocoa processing across any part of the country. Structuring and developing cocoa beans market will help to reduce global prices fluctuation on the international markets and which will enhance the marketing framework.
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Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) contributes significantly to Ghana’s GDP and has made Ghana a recognized leader in the cocoa industry. However, there are myriad problems associated with Ghana’s cocoa bean quality. One such problems stems from farmers paying less attention to the required postharvest activities (fermentation and drying) which contributes significantly to bean quality losses. This study investigated the effect of the duration of the traditional heap fermentation period and different drying methods: solar biomass hybrid dryer (SBHD) and traditional sun drying method (TSDM) on the bean quality of two cocoa varieties (hybrid cocoa and Amazonia). Quality attributes of cocoa beans such as pH, moisture content, fat content, crude protein, free fatty acids, phenolic contents, colour, and bean size were examined. The statgraphics statistical tool was used to analyse data and the least significant difference (LSD) was used to compare treatment means. Purple beans incidence was observed to be lower in hybrid with a value of 21.90% in the solar biomass hybrid dryer after 5 days of fermentation. Hybrid recorded the highest flavonoid value of 6069.74 mg QE/g DW in the traditional sun drying after 7 days of fermentation. Hybrid as well recorded the highest total phenolic value of 711.44 mg GAE/g DW in the solar biomass hybrid dryer under 5 days of fermentation. Results also indicated that using the solar biomass hybrid dryer resulted in the best moisture content removal and was very efficient compared with the traditional sun drying method in ensuring high-quality beans per international market standards. Cocoa beans dried under SBHD had the overall highest purity and were of better quality compared to those dried directly in the sun. There were no significant differences (p≤0.24) in percentage purity among the cocoa samples studied.
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The recovery of plastic waste and agricultural residues has led us to develop composites based on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) filled with cocoa shell powder. These shells have been previously treated with the organosolv process to improve the fiber-matrix interaction. The objective of this work is to develop wall covering materials to replace tiles which require a lot of energy and from PET. The composites were made by the method of melt mixing followed by compression molding. The mechanical, physico-chemical properties and stability to environmental conditions were evaluated. The results showed that the incorporation of 20–30% of powder in the matrix made of PET gave rise to a composite material with good properties for application in construction, as a wall covering replacing the tile. The study showed that the optimum powder weight ratio for optimum composite properties was achieved at a powder weight ratio of 30%. The maximum tensile strength of 60.3 MPa, bending strength of 19.5 MPa, impact strength of 10.3 MPa and water absorption of 1.34% were obtained. Compared with ceramic tile, this water absorption test value is within the range and shows that this composite tile is suitable for use as a bathroom tile.
Box 570 Route de Deïdo, Douala (Cameroon) Cameroon Cocoa Horizons
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n Sic Cacaos -Cameroon P.O. Box 570 Route de Deïdo, Douala (Cameroon) Cameroon Cocoa Horizons Tel.: (+237) 33 40 88 10/ (+237) 33 40 37 95 Email: n international Cooperation Centre in Agronomic Research for Development (CiRAD)