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Quality of Reduced-Fat Dairy Coffee Creamer: Affected by Different Fat Replacer and Drying Methods

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Chapter 6
Quality of Reduced-Fat Dairy Coffee Creamer: Affected
by Different Fat Replacer and Drying Methods
Simin Hedayatnia and Hamed Mirhosseini
Additional information is available at the end of the chapter
http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.76367
© 2016 The Author(s). Licensee InTech. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons
Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0), which permits unrestricted use,
distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Quality of Reduced-Fat Dairy Coee Creamer: Aected
by Dierent Fat Replacer and Drying Methods
SiminHedayatnia and HamedMirhosseini
Additional information is available at the end of the chapter
Abstract
This work aims to investigate the eects of inulin (0, 2.5, 5 and 7.5%, w/w) and maltodex-
trin (0, 15, 20 and 25%, w/w) as wall materials and fat replacers and drying techniques
(i.e. spray drying and uidized-bed drying) on physicochemical properties of regular and
instant reduced-fat dairy creamers. The regular reduced-fat dairy creamer was produced
by one-stage drying (i.e. spray drying), while the instant reduced-fat dairy creamer was
produced by two-stage drying (i.e. spray drying followed by uidized-bed drying). In
this study, control (0% inulin and 0% maltodextrin) and two commercial regular and
instant coee creamers (A and B) were also considered for comparison purposes. The
results showed that the regular creamer containing 25% maltodextrin and 7.5% inulin
had the largest particle size, highest viscosity and most desirable weability among all
formulated regular creamers. The yield of reduced-fat coee creamer was signicantly
increased from 43.55 to 94.60% by increasing the amount of fat replacers to the maximum
level (25% maltodextrin and 7.5% inulin). The current study revealed that the applica-
tion of uidized-bed drying for agglomeration led to signicantly improve the weabil-
ity and instant properties of the instant creamer. In this study, the formulated instant
creamer containing 25% maltodextrin and 7.5% inulin was the most desirable product as
compared to all creamers.
Keywords: reduced-fat dairy creamer, inulin, maltodextrin, spray drying, uidized-bed
drying
1. Introduction
Coee is one of the most vastly consumed beverages. Coee drink is usually consumed in black
or white form, depending on the taste of the consumer. Coee creamers, also known as “coee
whitener” or “coee sweetener”, are liquid or granular substances intended to substitute for
© 2018 The Author(s). Licensee IntechOpen. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0), which permits unrestricted use,
distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
milk or cream as an additive to coee or other beverages [18, 28]. As stated by Tuot et al. [51],
a desired coee creamer should have specic physicochemical and functional characteristics
particularly in terms of solubility, viscosity and stability. In addition, it should provide a good
whitening eect after adding to hot coee or similar hot beverages [41]. During the past few
years, the demand of consumers for healthier products has signicantly increased, lowering
the tendency for consumption of high-fat foods. Hence, one of the main health issues for cof-
fee drinkers is the presence of high percentage of fat in creamer formulation. As reported by
Lambert [33], coee creamer mainly contains high amount of vegetable fat (37–51%) and corn
syrup (41–46%). Sudha et al. [47] suggested that the replacement of fat with various fat replac-
ers led to the reduction of fat content and calories in food products.
There are some diculties for the drying of coee creamer due to the low glass transition
temperatures (Tg) of the components such as high sugar and caseinate that leads to stickiness
problems. In order to prevent stickiness and caking issue during storage, specic drying aids
or wall materials (such as gum arabic, xanthan gum, maltodextrin, inulin, etc.) with high glass
transition temperature (Tg) are used [21]. Maltodextrin is a carbohydrate polymer made up of
D-glucose units with dextrose-equivalent (DE) of under 20 [40, 52]. Maltodextrin is used as a
dispersing aid, avor carrier, bulking agent, fat replacer, volume enhancer, texture modier,
encapsulating agent and wall material [12]. It has many advantages such as highly soluble,
relatively low cost, neutral aroma, taste, mouth feel and good protection of avors against
oxidation as compared to other drying aids [50].
Inulin is a non-digestible prebiotic soluble carbohydrate with very low energy value [17]. It
is used as a sweetener component, especially in combination with high-intensity sweeteners,
texture modier and fat replacer [23]. Dietary bers such as inulin are functional ingredients
which are commonly used in dierent food products in order to modify physical and struc-
tural properties of hydration, viscosity, texture, sensory characteristics and oil holding capac-
ity and also prolong the shelf life of products [30, 37].
The nal characteristics of the dried products are broadly aected by the drying type and
condition. The spray drying techniques are one of the most commonly applied techniques for
manufacturing creamer [4]. Spray drying involves the transformation of feed from a liquid
or slurry form to dry powder [34]. Spray-dried powders may have small particles with low
bulk density, leading to inadequate owability and poor reconstitution properties, thus caus-
ing diculties in handling, transportation and storage. Manufacturers require free-owing
powders without any dust, and these requirements are met just by applying agglomeration
process [42]. Agglomeration is a combination of weing and nucleation, consolidation and
growth and arition and breakage [25]. Fluidization is a promising alternative technology,
which allows the simultaneous drying, encapsulation and agglomeration in a single stream,
reducing operation costs, saving time, simultaneously reducing the caking issue and improv-
ing the physicochemical properties (i.e. owability, density, dissolution and dispersion char-
acteristics) of the powder [2, 5, 11, 39].
The present study was conducted to investigate the eect of inulin (0, 2.5, 5 and 7.5%, w/w)
and maltodextrin (0, 15, 20 and 25%, w/w) and uidized-bed drying on the characteristics of
Descriptive Food Science116
the reduced-fat creamers. Inulin and maltodextrin have been used as a proper drying agent,
fat replacer and wall material in powder technology and processing. It was hypothesized
that there is a possibility to produce the reduced-fat coee creamer with more nutritional
benet by partial replacement of its fat with proper fat replacer (like inulin and maltodextrin).
In this study, water activity (aw), weability, apparent viscosity, solubility, particle size and
color of dierently formulated regular and instant reduced-fat creamers were examined. The
one-stage drying (i.e. spray drying) was applied to produce the regular reduced-fat dairy
creamer (RRDC), while two-stage drying (i.e. spray drying followed by uidized-bed drying)
was employed to manufacture the instant reduced-fat dairy creamer (IRDC). All formulated
creamers were compared with the properties of control (0% inulin and 0% maltodextrin) and
commercial creamers (A and B). To the best of our knowledge, non-data of the dierent dry-
ing process and components were reported about reduced-fat dairy creamer.
2. Materials and methods
2.1. Materials
The following components were used in creamer formulation: Maltodextrin (DE = 10, Roquee
Freres Co, Lestrem, France), long-chain inulin (Fibruline Xl, Warcoing, Warcoing, Belgium),
silicon dioxide (Sigma Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA), dipotassium hydrogen phosphate
(Nacalai Tesque Co, Kyoto, Japan) and soy lecithin (Kordel’s Co, CA, USA). Other ingredi-
ents such as commercial skim milk powder, an instant coee (Brazilian freeze-dried Gold
Bon CAFÉ), regular commercial coee creamer (A) and instant commercial coee creamer
(B), hydrogenated palm kernel oil, sugar and vanilla were purchased from the supermarket
(Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia). Table 1 shows the composition of regular and instant commercial
creamers applied for comparison purposes.
2.2. Creamer preparation
Reduced-fat creamer emulsions were produced according to a method described by
Hedayatnia et al. [22] with minor modication (Figure 1). Initially, the dispersed phase (A)
containing the hydrogenated palm kernel oil (8% w/w) and soy lecithin (emulsier, 0.5% w/w)
was mixed in a 100-mL beaker and kept in a thermo-controlled water bath (70°C and rotated
at 100 rpm for 20 min). The aqueous phase (B) which consists of sodium caseinate (2.5% w/w),
Composition Regular commercial creamer A Instant commercial creamer B
Fat (%) 34.0 34.6
Carbohydrate (%) 57.1 56.9
Protein (%) 2.0 1.3
Table 1. The composition of regular and instant commercial creamers applied for comparison purposes.
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silicon dioxide (1.0% w/w), dipotassium hydrogen phosphate (2.5% w/w), skim milk powder
7% (w/w) and corn syrup solid (15% w/w) was prepared by gradually dispersing them into
100-mL hot distilled water (70 ± 5°C) and stirred consequently with a magnetic at 100 rpm for
5 min. Subsequently, dierent concentrations of inulin (0.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5% w/w) and malto-
dextrin (0, 15, 20 and 25%) (C) were gradually added to the aqueous phase (B) to prepare the
emulsion continuous phase. Hot distilled water (70 ± 5°C) was added to each creamer formu-
lation up to 100%. In the nal stage, upon mixing the ingredients, dispersed phase (A) was
gradually added to the premix and gently stirred for 10 min. Subsequently, the coarse creamer
emulsion was homogenized by a high-pressure homogenizer (at 200- and 180-MPa pressure
for 2 cycles) prior to the drying process. All formulated reduced-fat creamers and control were
prepared under the same drying condition depending on the regular or instant case.
2.3. Spray drying procedure
After homogenization, the creamer emulsion was fed into a lab scale mini spray dryer (BÜCHI
model B-290, Flawil, Swierland). The samples were atomized with a rotary atomizer into the
Figure 1. Schematic description of the preparation of reduced-fat creamer.
Descriptive Food Science118
drying chamber. In the present study, spray drying procedure was set at the following condi-
tion: inlet temperature, 180 ± 5°C; outlet temperature, 80 ± 5°C; pressure, 552 kPa; and feed
rate, 10 mL/min.
2.4. Fluidized-bed drying
In this study, a laboratory scale uidized-bed dryer (Aeromatic-Fielder AG, GEA Co,
Copenhagen, Denmark) was used for agglomeration process under the following experimen-
tal condition: 50°C (inlet uidizing air temperature), 5 mL/min (solution feed rate) and 1.5 m/s
(atomizing air pressure) for 30 min. In this study, the creamer powder (150 g) was placed
in a container. Then, 30-mL aqueous solution of lecithin concentration (2%, w/w) was fed
by a peristaltic pump and sprayed from a spray nozzle, which was located at the top of the
chamber. The lecithin solution acts as a binder during the drying process as recommended
for uidization process by Dhanalakshmi et al. [13]. The solution droplets fell down on the
creamer powders, while the ltrated hot air from the boom of the chamber owed through-
out the chamber to reduce the moisture content and dustiness of particles. The atomization
of the feed solution was stopped for 5 min every 10 min during uidization, and the gas
ow rate was increased steadily to ensure the proper ow paern of the solids, and the bal-
ance between the coating and agglomeration mechanisms (layering and particle coalescence)
could be reached. This helps to compensate the moisture and prevent further stickiness in
the drying chamber. Vanilla (5% w/w) was added at the nal drying stage because of thermal
sensitivity of aromatic compounds. Additional avors could be added to enhance the overall
avor of the reduced-fat products [53].
3. Analytical tests
3.1. Water activity (aw)
Water activity (aw) of all regular and instant creamers was measured in triplicate by using an
AquaLab water activity metre (Series 3TE, Decagon Devices Inc., Pullman, WA, USA) with
±0.001 sensitivity at 21°C.
3.2. Average particle size
Average particle size (D[4,3]) was determined by measuring the volume-weighted mean diam-
eter (de Brouckere mean diameter, D4,3) in triplicate for each sample. The experiments was
performed by means of a particle size analyzer with powder feeder unit (Model 2000 hydro
S, Malvern Instrument, Worcestershire, UK) equipped with a Mastersizer software 2000
(Version 5.13). The volume-weighted mean diameter is estimated by the following equation:
where ni is the number of particles with diameter Di[15].
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3.3. Weability determination
The weability of creamers was determined according to the method described by Gong et al.
[19] with minor modication. In this experiment, 100-mL hot distilled water (70 ± 5°C) was
poured into a 250-mL glass beaker; then 10 g of creamer powder was poured into the beaker.
The time required for the powder to completely become wet was recorded as weing time.
This measurement was carried out in triplicate for each sample.
3.4. Apparent viscosity measurement
The apparent viscosity of all creamers was measured with a rheometer (RheolabQC Rheometer,
Anton Paar Co, Österreich, Austria) at room temperature (25 ± 1°C). The experiment was
conducted by reconstituting 20-g creamer with100-mL hot distilled water (70 ± 5°C). Then,
25 ml of prepared solution (20%, w/w) was shaken prior to analysis. Prior to shearing test, all
samples were left 5 min to reach the equilibrium condition. Apparent viscosity was measured
in triplicate for each sample.
3.5. Color evaluation
The color intensity of all creamers was measured by a Hunter Lab colorimeter (Model A60–
1012-402, Fairfax County, VA, USA). The color intensity was expressed in the CIELAB space
as L* (lightness; 0 = black, 100 = white) and b* (+b = yellowness, −b = blueness) values [24].
For color measurement, 10 mg of sample was placed in a transparent polypropylene bag for
analysis. The color measurement was done in triplicate for each sample.
3.6. Yield determination
The drying yield was measured according to the method described by Koocheki et al. [31].
The averages of three individual measurements were considered for each sample:
Y = 100 × (
M
1
M
2
 )
M1 = mass of initial ingredients (g); M2 = mass of nal powders (g).
3.7. Experimental design and statistical analysis
A full factorial design technique was considered to prepare dierent samples (Table 2). One-
way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Fisher’s multiple comparison tests were used to nd
out the signicant (p < 0.05) or insignicant (p > 0.05) dierence among all samples. Then,
the data were subjected to two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) to determine the main
and interaction eects of inulin and maltodextrin on the creamer characteristics. The degree
of signicance of all independent variables could be determined with F-ratio. The factor or
independent variable with higher F-ratio represents the factor with more signicant power-
ful eect and vice versa [38]. Also, the t-test was applied to analyze the signicant (p < 0.05)
dierence among mean values of samples before and after agglomeration process. Minitab
Descriptive Food Science120
Components Formulations
CS A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
Maltodextrin (%) 0 0 0 0 15 15 15 15 20 20 20 20 25 25 25 25
Inulin (%) 0 2.5 5.0 7.5 0 2.5 5.0 7.5 0 2.5 5.0 7.5 0 2.5 5.0 7.5
HPKO (%) 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0
Sodium caseinate (%) 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5
Skim milk powder (%) 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.0
DPHP (%) 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5
Silicon dioxide (%) 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Lecithin (%) 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5
Solid corn (%) 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0
Vanilla (%) 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0
HPKO, hydrogenated palm kernel oil; DPHP, dipotassium hydrogen phosphate; nal volume was adjusted up to 100 ml by distilled water.
Table 2. The compositions of dierent reduced-fat creamer slurries.
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Figure 2. Water activity of dierently formulated regular creamers (a) and instant creamers (b) as compared to the
control (CS) and two regular and instant commercial creamers (CO) (a and B). a–m Signicant dierences at the condence
level of p 0.05 (mean ± SD, n = 3); A–C: Creamers with 0% maltodextrin and 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5% inulin, respectively. D–G:
Creamers with 15% maltodextrin and 0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5% inulin, respectively. H–K: Creamers with 20% maltodextrin
and 0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5% inulin, respectively. L–O: Creamers with 25% maltodextrin and 0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5% inulin,
respectively.
version 16 (Minitab Inc., State College, PA, USA) was used to run the statistical analysis. All
formulated creamers were compared with control and two commercial creamers (A and B) to
investigate the impact of dierent fat replacers and drying techniques.
4. Results and dissociation
4.1. Eect of dierent fat replacers and drying techniques on water activity
Figure 2 shows that the water activity (aw) of the formulated creamers was signicantly
(p < 0.05) aected by the type and content of fat replacer as well as drying technique. As
shown in Figure 2a, water activity of regular creamers signicantly decreased from 0.36 to
Descriptive Food Science122
0.26 with increase in maltodextrin and inulin contents. The samples containing higher malto-
dextrin and inulin contents had lower water activity, while control sample (CS) had the high-
est water activity among all formulated creamers (Figure 2a). The control sample is probably
more hygroscopic than the other formulated creamers. The result showed that the control
creamer adsorbed more water than other formulated creamers. It had the highest stickiness
and very poor reconstitution properties as well. In this case, Kumar and Mishra [32] explained
that the proper water activity of powder should be between 0.20 and 0.25. Water activity (aw)
of instant spray-dried samples also varied from 0.36 to 0.24 (Figure 2b). It was concluded that
the single and interaction eects of inulin and maltodextrin signicantly (p < 0.05) aected the
water activity of regular and instant spray-dried creamers (Table 3). Maltodextrin has highly
hygroscopic eect with the extensive ability to capture the free moisture, so aw reduction can
be due to such maltodextrin function.
Table 4 also shows that the water activity of the creamer was signicantly inuenced by uid-
ized-bed drying. This dierence was analyzed by comparing the water activity of the regular
and instant creamer before and after uidized-bed drying, respectively. Maltodextrin showed
more signicant (p < 0.05) eects than inulin as indicated by its higher F-ratio. It was observed
that the agglomeration induced by uidized-bed drying signicantly (p < 0.05) decreased
the water activity of instant creamers. This might be aributed to long residence time (about
'30 min) and hot air (50°C) injected throughout uidized-bed the dryer. The hot air caused
Creamer Creamer characteristics Linear eect Interaction eect R2
Inulin Maltodextrin Inulin* Maltodextrin
p-value F-ratio p-value F-ratio p-value F-ratio
Regular Water activity 0.000 52 0.000 793 0.000 1 0.971
particle size 0.000 14 0.000 1744 0.000 74 0.994
Apparent viscosity 0.000 48 0.000 1442 0.278a1 0.990
Weability 0.000 22 0.000 832 0.006 4 0.988
Lightness (L*) 0.000 158 0.000 5181 0.000 40 0.997
Yellowness (b*) 0.000 134 0.000 8691 0.000 22 0.999
Yield 0.367a1 0.002 8 0.477a1 0.690
Instant Water activity 0.000 585 0.000 1389 0.000 12 0.998
particle size 0.000 108 0.000 2259 0.001 7 0.995
Apparent viscosity 0.000 859 0.000 38,957 0.000 95 0.999
Weability 0.000 550 0.000 800 0.000 5 0.988
Lightness (L*) 0.000 7609 0.000 265,995 0.000 206 0.999
Yellowness (b*) 0.000 474 0.000 15,137 0.000 32 0.997
Yield 0.000 23 0.000 4009 0.000 12 0.998
aNon-signicant (p > 0.05).
Table 3. Two-way ANOVA showing the single main eect and interaction eect of inulin and maltodextrin on
characteristics of regular and instant reduced-fat dairy creamers.
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more water evaporation from the surface of the particles, thus providing less stickiness (wall
deposition). The results showed that the regular creamers had higher water activity than the
instant creamers, indicating a higher amount of freely available water for the undesirable
biological reactions and consequently inducing shorter shelf life.
4.2. Eect of dierent fat replacers and drying techniques on weability and
apparent viscosity
Table 5 shows the weability and apparent viscosity of dierent reduced-fat dairy creamer as
compared to two commercial creamers and control. The weability and viscosity of the regu-
lar and instant dairy creamer were signicantly (p < 0.05) aected by the dierent composi-
tions and drying techniques. Weability is an important instant property of powder, and it is
dened as the ability of particles to overcome the surface tension between the liquid (solvent)
and themselves [14]. It is also directly aected by the interactions between two phases [9]. In
general, weability is considered to be the rate-controlling step of the reconstitution process
[29] with the surface content strongly aecting the weability [16]. In the current study, the
regular (75 s) and instant (63 s) control creamers showed the longest weing time among all
formulated creamers (Table 5). This might be explained by the eects of fat replacer and total
solid contents on the weability of the reduced-fat creamer (Table 6). The presence of free fat
on the particle surface could reduce weability of control sample due to its hydrophobicity,
making it dicult for water to penetrate into the powder.
Creamers Mean p-value T-value Test
RSRC 0.33 0.000 5.87 Water activity (aw)
ISRC 0.29
RSRC 58.68 0.000 29.55 Weability
ISRC 37.97
RSRC 5.66 0.000 −12.84 Apparent viscosity
ISRC 6.30
RSRC 66.05 0.000 −9.96 Particle size
ISRC 120.15
RSRC 84.33 0.000 12.61 Lightness (L*)
ISRC 81.01
RSRC 13.79 0.000 −14.99 Yellowness (b*)
ISRC 15.70
RSRC 64.40 0.360a−0.92 Yield
ISRC 66.59
RSRC: Regular spray-dried reduced-fat creamer.
ISRC: Instant spray-dried reduced-fat creamer.
aInsignicant at p > 0.05.
Table 4. Student t-test for signicant comparison of the regular and instant reduced-fat dairy creamers.
Descriptive Food Science124
As shown in Table 5, the regular spray-dried creamers exhibited dierent levels of weabil-
ity (40–75.50 s), while the instant spray-dried creamers lower faster weability (13–61 s) than
regular creamers with similar formulations. This was comparable with the weability of the
regular commercial creamer A (43 s) and instant commercial creamer B (17 s), respectively.
The results showed that the weing time of regular and instant creamers was decreased by
increasing the particle size and decreasing the water activity of creamers. Jakubczyk et al.
[26] reported that the weability of the apple puree powder was improved from '45 to '33 (s)
by increasing maltodextrin from 6 to 15% (w/w). The amount of wall materials signicantly
aected the weability of the nal powder. The results showed that there was a reverse rela-
tionship between weing time and the content of wall materials (i.e. inulin and maltodextrin).
Sample Regular creamers Instant creamers
Weability
(s)
Apparent
viscosity (mPa.s)
Yield (%) Weability
(s)
Apparent viscosity
(mPa.s)
Yield (%)
Control* 75.00 ± 0.82a4.75 ± 0.19a43.00 ± 1.83l63.00 ± 0.00a4.85 ± 0.01n43.30 ± 1.20l
MA0%, IN2.5% 75.50 ± 0.70a4.88 ± 0.02ab 43.55 ± 0.62l61.00 ± 1.4a4.84 ± 0.01n43.55 ± 0.62l
MA 0%, IN 5% 75.50 ± 0.70a5.04 ± 0.06b47.00 ± 0.00k56.50 ± 0.70b5.21 ± 0.01m47.00 ± 0.31k
MA0%, IN7.5% 76.00 ± 0.93a5.06 ± 0.05b47.77 ± 0.31k55.50 ± 0.70b5.29 ± 0.01l47.77 ± 0.31k
MA15%, IN0% 69.00 ± 0.97b5.32 ± 0.02b53.35 ± 0.50 j54.00 ± 1.41b6.03 ± 0.02k53.35 ± 0.50 j
MA15%,
IN2.5%
66.50 ± 0.70bc 5.37 ± 0.02b55.03 ± 0.04i44.00 ± 2.12c6.01 ± 0.01k55.03 ± 0.04i
MA15%, IN 5% 64.00 ± 1.06cd 5.46 ± 0.02b60.55 ± 0.78h40.00 ± 0.00d6.21 ± 0.01i60.55 ± 0.78h
MA15%,
IN7.5%
61.50 ± 0.83d5.54 ± 0.01bc 61.45 ± 0.63h39.50 ± 3.53d6.18 ± 0.01j61.45 ± 0.63h
MA20%, IN0% 58.50 ± 0.70e5.76 ± 0.02cd 65.80 ± 1.13g35.00 ± 3.53ef 6.49 ± 0.01h65.80 ± 1.13g
MA20%,
IN2.5%
58.50 ± 0.75e5.81 ± 0.02cd 66.00 ± 1.41g36.00 ± 1.41e6.56 ± 0.02f66.00 ± 1.41g
MA20%, IN 5% 54.00 ± 1.21f5.89 ± 0.01cd 70.60 ± 0.55f32.50 ± 0.70fg 6.52 ± 0.00g70.60 ± 0.55f
MA20%,
IN7.5%
50.50 ± 0.65g6.04 ± 0.03d75.66 ± 0.48e30.00 ± 0.00g6.75 ± 0.02e75.66 ± 0.48e
MA25%, IN0% 45.50 ± 2.05h6.29 ± 0.00d79.77 ± 0.48d24.00 ± 1.41h7.09 ± 0.01d79.77 ± 0.48d
MA25%,
IN2.5%
44.00 ± 1.40h6.35 ± 0.01d85.06 ± 0.09c24.00 ± 0.73h7.12 ± 0.01c85.06 ± 0.09c
MA25%, IN 5% 40.00 ± 0.09j6.41 ± 0.01d89.45 ± 0.77b19.00 ± 1.40i7.35 ± 0.01a89.45 ± 0.77b
MA25%,
IN7.5%
40.50 ± 0.77ij 6.53 ± 0.03d94.60 ± 0.56a13.00 ± 1.40j7.32 ± 0.01b94.60 ± 0.56a
Commercial
creamers
43.00 ± 1.41hi 5.82 ± 0.02d17.00 ± 0.00i7.29 ± 0.00b
*Control (0% inulin and maltodextrin); mean values ± standard deviation with dierent lowercase leers in the same
column indicating signicant dierence (P < 0.05); control (0%MA & 0%IN); MA, maltodextrin; IN, inulin.
Table 5. Signicant dierences (p < 0.05) among dierent regular and instant reduced-fat dairy creamers as compared to
two regular and instant commercial creamers in terms of weability, apparent viscosity and yield.
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The creamer containing the highest maltodextrin (25%) and inulin (7.5%) showed the shortest
weing time among all formulated creamers (Table 5).
The instant creamer exhibited signicantly higher weability (shorter weability) than the
regular creamer (Table 5) due to large particles exhibiting more empty spaces among them-
selves, resulting in easier penetration by the liquid (i.e. water) [15]. Lecithin can modify the
owability and weability of dried powders due to its potential surface active properties with
higher porosity and beer weability [13]. Figure 3 clearly shows the schematic of dissolution
timeline for standard and agglomerated powder [14] by correlation between the weability,
dispersibility and solubility in the regular (non-agglomerated) and instant creamers.
As shown in Table 5, the apparent viscosity of regular spray-dried creamers varied from 4.88
to 6.53 (mPa.s) as compared to the control (4.75 mPa.s) and regular commercial creamer A
(5.82 mPa.s). In addition, the viscosity of the instant spray-dried creamers varied from 4.84 to
7.35 (mPa.s) compared to the commercial instant creamer B (7.29 mPa.s) and control sample
(4.85 mPa.s) (Table 5). The result showed that the apparent viscosity of regular and instant
Characteristics Inulin Maltodextrin Total solid
content
Weability Viscosity
Viscosity r-correlation
p-value
0.180
0.506
0.938
0.000*
0.950
0.000*
−0.988
0.000*
Weability r-correlation
p-value
−0.156
0.564
−0.925
0.000*
−0.931
0.000*
— —
Particle size r-correlation
p-value
0.656
0.045*
0.907
0.000*
0.924
0.000*
−0.903
0.001*
0.941
0.000*
r = r Pearson correlation; signicant at p < 0.05; r > 0.9 represents positive strong correlation, while and r > −0.9 represents
negative strong correlation.
Table 6. Correlation analysis between total solid content, inulin and maltodextrin contents and creamer characteristics.
Figure 3. Dissolution timeline for regular and agglomerated (instant) powder showing the overlaps between dierent
phases with time [14].
Descriptive Food Science126
creamers was signicantly (p < 0.05) increased by increasing the concentration of maltodex-
trin and inulin in the creamer formulation. This could be due to increasing the total solids of
samples and positive eect of inulin and maltodextrin on the formation of a stable particle gel
with tridimensional network in the present of aqueous phase which led to enhance the vis-
cosity of creamer. Debon et al. [10] also reported the similar observation. They reported that
the addition of 5% inulin to the formulation signicantly increased the apparent viscosity of
low-fat fermented milk. It might be due to several dierent factors such as (i) the interaction
between inulin and milk protein (i.e. sodium caseinate) leading to enhance the viscosity, (ii)
the high inulin capacity to retain water [46] and (iii) the capacity to retain water by forma-
tion of small aggregates of inulin microcrystal [20]. This might be due to the increase in the
amount of soluble materials and reduction in the moisture content.
The apparent viscosity of the spray-dried creamers was greatly enhanced after agglomeration
via uidized-bed drying (Table 5). This could be explained by the signicant (p < 0.05) eects
of the agglomeration on the intermolecular interactions among creamer particles which
resulted in higher viscosity. In addition, the lower moisture content and higher total solid
content can be also responsible for the higher viscosity of the instant creamers. Water acts as
a mobility enhancer, resulting in a larger free volume and a reduction in the viscosity [48].
4.3. Eect of dierent fat replacers and drying techniques on average particle size
In the current study, the average particle size of dierent creamers was determined by measuring
the volume-weighted mean. The particle size of the powder can signicantly aect its appear-
ance, owability, weability and dispensability [43]. Figure 4 showed a signicantly increase in
the particle size of dierent formulated creamers. The results showed that the creamer O con-
taining 25% maltodextrin and 7.5% inulin exhibited the largest particle size (101.45 μm), while
the control sample had the smallest particle size among all regular spray-dried dairy cream-
ers, respectively (Figure 4a). As stated by Master [36], the particle size is highly inuenced by
the viscosity of the feed. Similar observations were previously reported by Jinapong et al. [27]
wherein increasing the solids content of instant spray-dried soymilk powders from 5.2 to 13.0%
signicantly resulted in enlargement of the particle size from 14.54 to 23.59 (μm).
Figure 4b shows that agglomeration process by uidized-bed drying technique signicantly
(p < 0.05) increased the volume-weighted mean (D4, 3) or particle size of the instant spray
creamers compared to the regular creamers. As stated by Chen and Özkan [8], agglomera-
tion results in larger particles, bigger particle clusters and beer ow characteristics than
one-stage drying. The instant spray-dried creamers exhibited dierent particle size, ranging
from 46.45 to 193.26 μm compared to control creamer (47.35 μm) and the commercial instant
creamer B (190.94 μm) (Figure 4b). As stated by Carić [7], the most suitable particle size for
rapid dispersion is around 150–200 μm. Binder in the wet agglomeration process leads to
the enlargement of particle size, thereby improving the owability of the nal powder [3,
44]. Jinapong et al. [27] reported that the particle size of the instant spray-dried soymilk was
increased from 25 to 260 μm after subjecting the sample to uidized-bed drying. This nding
was also reported also by Machado et al. [35] wherein agglomerated soy protein had much
larger particles than non-agglomerated regular creamer. In addition, it was found that the
agglomeration through uidized-bed drying also caused stickiness reduction and owability
Quality of Reduced-Fat Dairy Coffee Creamer: Affected by Different Fat Replacer and Drying...
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improvement in the creamer. As the particle size increases, the adhesive forces decrease due
to the aractive forces (i.e. van der Waals) among creamer particles [54]. However, the appli-
cation of the spray drying process followed by the agglomeration process resulted in a sig-
nicant (p < 0.05) beer owability and reconstitution properties than the spray drying alone.
Dhanalakshmi et al. [13] indicated that the powder owability and reconstitution are highly
aected by the particle size, shape and distribution, the particle surface properties as well as
the geometry of the system. As shown in Table 3, the linear and interaction eects of the inu-
lin and maltodextrin had signicant (p < 0.05) eect on the volume-weighed mean (or particle
size) of spray-dried creamers.
4.4. Eect of dierent fat replacers and drying techniques on yield
Table 5 shows the yield of regular and instant dairy creamers compared to the control sample.
The control sample had remarkably lower yield (43%) than other regular spray-dried creamers.
Figure 4. Volume-weighted mean (or average particle size) of dierently formulated regular creamers (a) and instant
creamers (b) as compared to the control (CS) and two regular and instant commercial creamers (CO) (a and B). a–m
Signicant dierences at the condence level of p ≤ 0.05 (mean ± SD, n = 3); A–C: Creamers with 0% maltodextrin and 2.5,
5.0 and 7.5% inulin, respectively. D–G: Creamers with 15% maltodextrin and 0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5% inulin, respectively. H–K:
Creamers with 20% maltodextrin and 0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5% inulin, respectively. L–O: Creamers with 25% maltodextrin and
0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5% inulin, respectively.
Descriptive Food Science128
The low yield was observed for the control. This could be due to the stickiness of this sample
to the spray drying chamber and cyclone wall. This might be because the control did not
contain inulin and very low percentage of maltodextrin as a drying aid. Stickiness is one of
the main technological issues in the production of powders such as coee creamer because it
results in a reduction of the yield and stability. The result showed signicant improvement
in the production yield by increasing the maltodextrin and inulin content in the formulation
(Table 5). This was in agreement with the previous nding reported by Shrestha et al. [45]
for spray-dried tomato pulp. In fact, the addition of drying aids such as maltodextrin with
high glass transition temperature (>145°C) to the premix is one of the most suitable ways
to increase the stability, decrease the stickiness and improve the yield [21, 45]. In addition,
maltodextrin can help to shorten the drying time, thus reducing the input energy required for
spray drying process. According to Adhikari et al. [1], the improvement of yield (recovery)
might be due to the formation of a thin protein-rich membrane at the particle-air interface.
The high glass transition temperature of this surface layer causes the conversion of this thin
membrane into a glassy state, which prevents particles from sticking to each other and to the
walls of the dryer which resulted in the decrease of the wall deposition during drying and
increase of the yield. As shown in Table 3, maltodextrin with higher F-ratio had higher signi-
cant eects than inulin on the yield. There was no signicant (p > 0.05) dierence between the
yields of single- or double-step drying processes for regular and instant creamer, respectively.
Figure 5. The appearance of regular commercial creamer (a) as compared to the control creamer (b) and regular
formulated-reduced-fat creamer containing 25% maltodextrin and 7.5% inulin.
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It means that there was not any material loss or stickiness to the wall during uidized-bed
dying process. This could be aributed to the high eciency of such drying technique.
4.5. Eect of dierent fat replacers and drying techniques on color
Figure 5 shows the appearance of the regular creamer as compared to the control and com-
mercial creamer. The results indicated that dierently formulated creamers, control and com-
mercial creamer had signicant (p < 0.05) dierent color intensity in terms of L* and b* (Table 7).
In general, the lightness (L*) of all formulated regular and instant creamers was enhanced by
increasing maltodextrin and inulin concentrations in the creamer formulation. The result indi-
cated that the addition of maltodextrin and inulin to the creamer formulation led to decrease
the stickiness and increase the lightness of samples. Similar observation was reported by
Shrestha et al. [45] on spray-dried orange juice. The regular and instant creamer with 25%
maltodextrin and 7.5% inulin had the highest L*, while the control showed the lowest L*among
all samples due to the caramelization reaction (Table 7). The regular creamer containing
the highest maltodextrin content (25%) exhibited almost similar color to the regular commercial
Regular creamers Instant creamers
Sample L* b* L* b*
Control* 71.07 ± 0.05l22.49 ± 0.21a70.73 ± 0.21o24.57 ± 0.05a
MA0%, IN2.5% 73.28 ± 0.33k22.04 ± 0.06b71.20 ± 0.11n23.71 ± 0.21b
MA0%, IN5% 72.67 ± 0.27k21.09 ± 0.13c72.23 ± 0.00m23.62 ± 0.11b
MA0%, IN7.5% 71.48 ± 0.55l20.14 ± 0.04d70.46 ± 0.02p22.50 ± 0.47c
MA15%, IN0% 78.91 ± 0.07j18.37 ± 0.36e74.05 ± 0.00l20.69 ± 0.09d
MA15%, IN2.5% 82.30 ± 1.47i18.09 ± 0.07e76.38 ± 0.03k20.42 ± 0.17d
MA15%, IN 5% 84.63 ± 0.21h17.46 ± 0.53f79.13 ± 0.02j17.47 ± 0.00e
MA15%, IN7.5% 85.57 ± 0.19g15.15 ± 0.00g80.48 ± 0.01i17.44 ± 0.00e
MA20%, IN0% 87.46 ± 0.24f11.63 ± 0.02h82.11 ± 0.00h13.92 ± 0.00f
MA20%, IN2.5% 87.12 ± 0.01f11.03 ± 0.02i84.05 ± 0.11g13.32 ± 0.00g
MA20%, IN 5% 89.28 ± 0.17e10.28 ± 0.01j84.30 ± 0.02f12.61 ± 0.02h
MA20%, IN7.5% 89.80 ± 0.00de 10.83 ± 0.08i86.73 ± 0.02e11.76 ± 0.03i
MA25%, IN0% 90.90 ± 0.50c7.73 ± 0.00k88.73 ± 0.02c10.79 ± 0.11j
MA25%, IN2.5% 90.51 ± 0.00cd 7.22 ± 0.30l88.71 ± 0.01c9.21 ± 0.00k
MA25%, IN 5% 92.56 ± 0.57b6.99 ± 0.00l89.17 ± 0.19b8.56 ± 0.01l
MA25%, IN7.5% 95.32 ± 0.00a6.85 ± 0.07l90.15 ± 0.01a8.08 ± 0.07m
Commercial creamers
(Regular and instant)
95.44 ± 0.40a7.00 ± 0.07l88.59 ± 0.00d8.20 ± 0.02m
*Control (0% inulin and maltodextrin); mean values ± standard deviations with dierent lowercase leers in the same
column indicating signicant dierence (P < 0.05); MA, maltodextrin; IN, inulin.
Table 7. Signicant dierent (p < 0.05) color intensity of dierent regular and instant reduced-fat dairy creamers as
compared to two regular and instant commercial creamers.
Descriptive Food Science130
creamer A (Table 7). According to Roland et al. (1999), reduced-fat ice cream made by only
maltodextrin exhibited similar whiteness to 10% fat ice cream. Moreover, the control and
creamer containing 0% maltodextrin and 2.5% inulin had the highest b*among all samples. On
the other hand, the regular and instant samples containing 25% maltodextrin exhibited similar
yellowness (b*) as compared to regular and instant commercial samples (A and B). The instant
commercial creamer B and the formulated creamer containing 25% maltodextrin and 7.5% inu-
lin had the lowest b* among all instant creamers (Table 7). The lightness (L*) and yellowness
(b*) of the instant creamers were slightly decreased after applying the agglomeration process.
This might be aributed to the eects of binder solution and Maillard reaction on the lightness
of the instant creamer. Szulc and Lenart [49] also reported similar ndings for the agglomerated
dairy powders. They explained that Maillard reaction was responsible for the color changes
during agglomeration (i.e. uidize-bed drying). Color can change during the drying process
due to several chemical reactions. Most of the time, enzymatic activity is not desirable, because
it aects the amount of nutrients in food (e.g. hydrolysis of lecithin by phospholipase) or the
color of the products. The yellowish color of regular and instant creamer is mainly due to the
non-enzymatic reaction, either by caramelization or by Maillard reactions. The caramelization
process is a complex series of chemical reactions promoted by the direct heating of sugars [6].
5. Conclusions
The present work describes the possibility of producing regular and instant reduced-fat dairy
creamers by spray and uid-bed drying and the changes in some of the physical, chemical
and powder properties of the creamer powders depending on the maltodextrin and inulin
levels. A signicant eect of the type and concentration of the fat replacers (wall materials) on
the process yield, weability, viscosity, solubility, color, water activity and particle size was
found. The results showed that the process has some diculties for drying of control samples.
The use of wall materials (maltodextrin and inulin) signicantly improved the drying pro-
cess and leads to improve the physicochemical properties of reduced-fat dairy creamer func-
tionality. The highest weability, viscosity, solubility, yield and lightness and lowest water
activities were obtained from the samples containing the highest contents of maltodextrin
(25% w/w) and inulin (7.5%). As a result, the current study also revealed that the instant
formulated-reduced-fat creamers from two-stage drying (spray drying followed by uidized-
bed drying) showed signicantly (p < 0.05) beer quality than regular creamer from one-stage
drying (spray dying only). The current study suggests optimizing the uidized-bed drying
condition for preparation and commercialization of instant reduced-fat dairy creamer.
Author details
Simin Hedayatnia and Hamed Mirhosseini*
*Address all correspondence to: hamedmi@upm.edu.my
Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Department of Food Technology, University Putra
Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
Quality of Reduced-Fat Dairy Coffee Creamer: Affected by Different Fat Replacer and Drying...
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131
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Quality of Reduced-Fat Dairy Coffee Creamer: Affected by Different Fat Replacer and Drying...
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... However, the sensory evaluation revealed that as the maltodextrin concentration rises, the powder acceptability rises as well (Vidovi et al., 2014). Maltodextrin has been studied extensively as a fat substitute as well as a drying aid (Hedayatnia and Mirhosseini, 2018;Colla et al., 2018;Khan et al., 2018;Kiritsakis et al., 2018;Marte et al., 2018). However, there has been little research on the use of maltodextrin in the reduction of oiliness (Villagran, 2015;Livestrong.com, ...
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