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Evaluation of a universal prevention program for lottery retailer to raise the awareness for youth protection in Austria

  • Office of Addiction and Drug Policy of Vienna


Adolescent problem gambling is acknowledged as a public health concern. One approach to minimize the negative consequences of excessive gambling is to reduce the rate of the development of new cases of harm or disorder especially within underage persons by offering mandatory trainings for lottery retailer. Educational initiatives are intended to change internal knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and skills so as to prevent problem gambling (Williams, West & Simpson, 2012). Research has found that sustained information and awareness initiatives have significant potential to improve people’s knowledge and/or change their attitudes at a community-wide level (Duperrex, Roberts, & Bunn, 2002; Grilli, Ramsay, & Minozzi, 2004; Sowden, 2002). Research on the effectiveness of retailer training programs is limited. The primary objective of this study was to examine the impact of responsible gaming training and the personal attitude on compliance with the protection of minors in 1036 retailers of lottery products in Austria. The study applied Kirkpatrick’s (1998) four level model and Ajzen’s (1991) theory of planned behavior to examine how the retailer’s attitude to player protection measures, perception of pressure from society, assessment of barriers to implementation in the day-to-day sales setting and the training and education for lottery retailer provided from 2010 to 2014 influenced adherence to provisions to protect minors. Regression analyses were used to study the significance of these factors for adherence to such provisions, while CHAID analysis served to identify those traits that significantly distinguished the defined sales partner groups (no breaches versus breaches in mystery shopping tests) from one another. The results are being presented.
Evaluation of a universal prevention
program for lottery retailer to raise
the awareness for youth protection
in Austria
Dr. Doris Malischnig
E-Mental Health Project Manager
Deputy Head Institute for Addiction Prevention
Office of Addiction and Drug Policy of Vienna
EUSPR, September 2017, Vienna
In 2009, Austrian Lotteries raised the minimum age for
the sale of all its products and for all sales partners to
16 years of age
Intensive annual responsible gaming training courses
Information materials for customers and sales partners
Regular mystery shopping checks escalation path up to
termination of the contract by Austrian Lotteries
EUSPR, September 2017, Vienna
Goal of the study
To evaluate the responsible gambling (RG) training
measures for Austrian Lotteries retailers (sales partners)
To identify variables that influence the sale to young
test subjects in the retailers every day life
To build the foundations for the content of future RG
training courses
EUSPR, September 2017, Vienna
Key aspects of the study
1. Four Level Evaluation Model (Kirkpatrick, 1970)
2. Analysis of mystery shopping tests with respect to
situative and personal factors of influence
3. Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1991)
Personal attitude of the sales partners towards the
protection of minors and mystery shopping checks
Social norms
Perceived behavioral control
EUSPR, September 2017, Vienna
Donald Kirkpatrick’s Four
Level Evaluation Model
(Kirkpatrick, 1970)
EUSPR, September 2017, Vienna
Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen 1991)
EUSPR, September 2017, Vienna
EUSPR, September 2017, Vienna
Basic training
Information focus
Online training
Refresher course after
mystery shopping check
EUSPR, September 2017, Vienna
Study timeline and samples:
Sample 1 -> Survey of sales partners in 2010 (Kalke et al., 2011)
Sample 2 -> Sales partner satisfaction with resp. gaming measures
Sample 3 -> Information focus 2014 (1) (18 questions)
Sample 4 -> Test purchases 2014 (2)
Sample 5 -> Survey (TPA, Ajzen) 2015
Sample 6 -> Analyze sample = overlap of samples 3, 4, 5
2010 2011 2014 (1) 2014 (2) 2015
Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 3 Sample 4 Sample 5 Sample 6
2217 4093 5032 1 421 4516 1036
EUSPR, September 2017, Vienna
Level 1: “Reaction”
Significant rise
with RG
(%) 2010
n: 2014
(%) 2014
Total (n)
Very good, good
1842 84 4941 98 6783
316 15 89 2 405 468.76
< 0.001
Not satisfied
26 1 2 0 28
2184 100% 5032 100% 7216
EUSPR, September 2017, Vienna
Level 2: “Learning” – Knowledge of Gambling Addiction
Significant rise
Knowledge of
support for
2010 2010 (%) 2014 2014 (%) Total χ2 P-Value Cramers V Effect
Very good, good 1077 66.1 4367 83.9 5444
Fair 911 31.7 630 5.6 1541 890.33 < 0.001 0.2 low
None 220 2.2 35 0.5 255
Total (n) 2208 100% 5032 100% 7240
EUSPR, September 2017, Vienna
Level 3: “Behavior” – Mystery Shopping Tests 2014
(Analyze Sample)
No Sale Sale Total
910 126 1036
87.8% 12.2% 100%
EUSPR, September 2017, Vienna
Stepwise Logistic Regression: 1.036 cases included
Step 6
error Wald df Sig. Exp(B)
Age of mystery shopper
1.38 0.147 88.423 1 0 3.974
Gender of mystery shopper
1.153 0.318 13.148 1 0 3.167
Asked age
-7.02 1.079 42.318 1 0 0.001
Asked for ID
-4.353 0.887 24.076 1 0 0.013
Number of responsible
training courses
-0.493 0.166 8.805 1 0.003 0.611
Opinion of
shopping checks
-1.202 0.373 10.367 1 0.001 0.301
-17.143 2.006 73.047 1 0.00 0.00
Nagelkerke R-Square explains in
Step 6 -> 61.4 % of the variance
EUSPR, September 2017, Vienna
Independent variable:
Type of customer (sales category A, B, C), city/rural setting, time
of test purchase, sector, gender of mystery shopper, gender of
salesperson, verification of age, request for ID, position in the
sales outlet, length of service in company, knowledge of gambling
addiction, level of knowledge of support services, satisfaction with
information from Austrian Lotteries, recognition of problem
customers, approach to problem customers, number of problem
customers, number of test purchases by young people under 16
years of age, probability of mystery shopping test purchases,
difficulty in implementing responsible gaming measures and
assessing the importance to customers of measures to protect
minors (social norm)
Behavior during
test purchase
CHAID Analysis
EUSPR, September 2017, Vienna
Behavior = Verhalten
Node = Knoten
Category = Kategorie
No Sale = Kein Verkauf
Sale = Verkauf
Total = Gesamt
Asked age = nach Alter gefragt
Adj. P-Value = 0.000, Chi-squared=153.849
Df = 1
No = Nein
Yes = Ja
City/rural area = Stadt/Land
City = Stadt
Rural = Land
Number of purchase attempts by under 16s =
Anzahl der Kaufversuche von unter 16 Jährigen
CHAID Analyse
EUSPR, September 2017, Vienna
Combined measures seem to work:
1. Contractually defined provisions to protect customers
2. Training measures
3. Mystery shopping checks
The results of the study are to be used in future preventive
Doris Malischnig (2017). Evaluierung von Spielerschutzschulungen bei Vertriebspartnern der
Österreichischen Lotterien unter besonderer Berücksichtigung von Testkäufen. Peter Lang GmbH,
Internationaler Verlag der Wissenschaften (Deutschland)
EUSPR, September 2017, Vienna
E-Mental Health Project Manager
Deputy Head Institute for Addiction Prevention
Office of Addiction and Drug Policy of Vienna
Modecenterstrasse 14, Block B, 2nd Floor
A-1030 Vienna, Austria
(+43 1) 4000 87321
Dr. Doris Malischnig
EUSPR, September 2017, Vienna
Thank you for your attention!
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Full-text available
Die Autorin analysiert, ob und in welchem Ausmaß Spielerschutzschulungen für Vertriebspartner der österreichischen Lotterien zur Umsetzung von Jugendschutzvorgaben (Compliance) führten. Sie untersucht darüber hinaus den Einfluss der persönlichen Einstellungen auf die Umsetzung von Präventionsmaßnahmen und die Rahmenbedingungen, die einem regelkonformen Verhalten bei der Überprüfung der Compliance mittels Testkäufen entgegenstehen. Die Studie stützt sich auf das Vier-Ebenen-Modell von Kirkpatrick (1970) und die Theorie des geplanten Verhaltens nach Ajzen (1991). Die Autorin gibt einen Überblick über die Maßnahmen, welche zeitnah und zielführend dazu führen sollen, die Compliance nachhaltig zu erhöhen.