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Joint cognitive systems: Foundations of cognitive systems engineering

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Abstract

Nothing has been more prolific over the past century than human/machine interaction. Automobiles, telephones, computers, manufacturing machines, robots, office equipment, machines large and small; all affect the very essence of our daily lives. However, this interaction has not always been efficient or easy and has at times turned fairly hazardous. Cognitive Systems Engineering (CSE) seeks to improve this situation by the careful study of human/machine interaction as the meaningful behavior of a unified system. Written by pioneers in the development of CSE, Joint Cognitive Systems: Foundations of Cognitive Systems Engineering offers a principled approach to studying human work with complex technology. The authors use a top-down, functional approach and emphasize a proactive (coping) perspective on work that overcomes the limitations of the structural human information processing view. They describe a conceptual framework for analysis with concrete theories and methods for joint system modeling that can be applied across the spectrum of single human/machine systems, social/technical systems, and whole organizations. The book explores both current and potential applications of CSE illustrated by examples. Understanding the complexities and functions of the human/machine interaction is critical to designing safe, highly functional, and efficient technological systems. This is a critical reference for students, designers, and engineers in a wide variety of disciplines.
... The problem is not equally serious for all ships. There are four common conditions that determine the control characteristics of a system -time, knowledge, competence, and resources (Hollnagel, E. & Woods, D., 2005). Time-relates to the ship's maneuverability; more time is required for ships with limited maneuverability in terms of forward planning than ship that is easy to maneuver. ...
... Combined with the display system, it could also be possible to employ a dynamic predictor that would integrate available information about the ship's speed and course, wind, currents etc. to provide the anticipated position of the ship in for example 30 seconds or a minute. This would further strengthen the ability of the pilot to plan ahead in the short term and to discover potential problems early on, which is very important as loss of control is intimately linked to unexpected events (Hollnagel, E. & Woods, D., 2005). ...
... If everyone knows how things are supposed to happen, there is less needed to coordinate and thus less risk of misunderstandings. Clear procedures are also a fundamental way to support the maintenance of control in any system (Hollnagel, E. & Woods, D., 2005). Furthermore, standardized procedures could be a way to deal with possible mistrust between the crew and the shore-based operator. ...
Thesis
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“Is route exchange and digital information exchange finally the key to remotely control and monitor MASS and conventional ships from land, from the sea area, all the way to the berthing area?” The Port Authority of Rotterdam wants to find out which services it can provide to MASS and conventional shipping in the future and to ascertain an accurate future scenario by determining whether it will have a central or decentralized position in terms of traffic and information management. Qualitative data was obtained through methodological triangulation through questionnaires and interviews with VTS operators, shore-based pilots and government officials involved with smart shipping. Route exchange has the potential to drastically reduce 90% of verbal communication via the VHF, eliminate Ad-Hoc situations, increase ship movement predictability, increase situational awareness, and reduce the carbon footprint. However, conservatism and legislation stand in the way of innovation, especially in terms of responsibility and liability. Either legislation must change to speed up innovation, or innovation will be stagnated by being forced to fit within the current legal boundaries. The VTS of the future will be a command center scenario entailing a centralized position in traffic management and both central and decentral position concerning information management. To accomplish this, a Local Port Control Center (LPCC) could be implemented whereby VTS operators, shore-based pilots, pilot exemption certificate holders, and corridor managers can support one another to ensure the optimization of traffic flow for both MASS and conventional vessels.
... Still, it is important to note that this is not only a matter of simplifying systems-the law of requisite variety implies that effective control is impossible if, e.g., a maritime autonomy emergency response system has less variety than the MASS itself [15]. An oversimplified system can easily lead to a hermeneutic man-machine relation [16], in which the operator has to cope with the variety of both systems. ...
... As systems have become more complex, the human-centred design concepts have provided a broader scope to traditional interface design [16]. A user-centred design approach is based on the assumption that design starts with the activity of the user, and the only reasonable way to capture user needs is to incorporate the user into the design process. ...
Article
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Commercial deployment of maritime autonomous surface ships (MASSs) is close to becoming a reality. Although MASSs are fully autonomous, the industry will still allow remote operations centre (ROC) operators to intervene if a MASS is facing an emergency the MASS cannot handle by itself. A human-centred design for the associated emergency response systems will require attention to the ROC operator workplace, but also, arguably, to the behaviour-shaping constraints on the engineers building these systems. There is thus a need for an engineer-centred design of engineering organisations, influenced by the current discourse on human factors. To contribute to the discourse, think-aloud protocol interviewing was conducted with well-informed maritime operators to elicit fundamental demands on cognition and collaboration by maritime autonomy emergency response systems. Based on the results, inferences were made regarding both design factors and methodological choices for future, early phase engineering of emergency response systems. Firstly, engineering firms have to improve their informal gathering and sharing of information through gatekeepers and/or organisational liaisons. To avoid a too cautious approach to accountability, this will have to include a closer integration of development and operations. Secondly, associated studies taking the typical approach of exposing relevant operators to new design concepts in scripted scenarios should include significant flexibility and less focus on realism.
... However, innovative technologies not only provide opportunities and performance improvements but also raise new regulatory, safety, cognitive and operational challenges, and tradeoffs and therefore, there is an urgent need to examine the introduction of AI cautiously. In this paper, we present an initial attempt to detect and document the fundamental challenges of implementing AI, in the European ATM system through the lens of Cognitive Systems Engineering (CSE) paradigm (Hollnagel and Woods, 2005;Woods and Hollnagel, 2006). ...
Conference Paper
Abstract: The Air Traffic Management (ATM) system can be defined as a “Joint Cognitive System” of people, teams, and artifacts that adapts to the challenges and demands posed by familiar and unfamiliar situations in a dynamically evolving operational context. In the era of digitalization and Big Data we live, an incremental modernization of the ATM system is expected in the coming years with the pervasive implementation of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning (ML). In this paper, we present the findings from an initial attempt to detect and document the fundamental challenges of the introduction of AI, in the European ATM system through the lens of Cognitive Systems Engineering paradigm. We also discuss how these challenges give rise to difficult to resolve safety and performance related patterns in the ATM system. Keywords: Cognitive Systems Engineering, Joint Cognitive Systems, Air Traffic Control, Air Traffic Management, Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning, Digitalization.
... Therefore, there is an urgent need to examine the introduction of AI cautiously. In this paper, we present an initial attempt to detect and document the fundamental challenges of implementing AI, in the European ATM system through the lens of Cognitive Systems Engineering (CSE) paradigm (Hollnagel and Woods, 2005;Woods and Hollnagel, 2006). ...
Article
Full-text available
The Air Traffic Management (ATM) system can be defined as a "Joint Cognitive System" of people, teams, and artifacts that adapts to the challenges and demands posed by familiar and unfamiliar situations in a dynamically evolving operational context. In the era of digitalization and Big Data we live, an incremental modernization of the ATM system is expected in the coming years with the pervasive implementation of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning (ML). In this paper, we present the findings from an initial attempt to detect and document the fundamental challenges of the introduction of AI, in the European ATM system through the lens of Cognitive Systems Engineering paradigm. We also discuss how these challenges give rise to difficult to resolve safety and performance related patterns in the ATM system.
... As vehicles become more automated, the technologies that drive them may, themselves, become a source of distraction for drivers. Evidence already exists showing that automation actions and alerts that are unexpected, because of a lack of training, lack of situational awareness, or some other mechanism, may create "automation surprises" (Hollnagel and Woods 2005), and, in doing so, distract drivers. Even routine alerts and indicators in vehicles equipped with existing driver support features may draw attention away from the road at inopportune moments in time . ...
Chapter
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In this chapter, the reader is introduced to the topic of driver distraction: its definition and mechanisms; its impact on driving performance and safety; approaches to preventing it; evidence-based injury prevention and mitigation countermeasures; and new frames of reference for conceptualizing distraction as traditional driving functions and tasks become increasingly automated. Some strategies that might be considered by societal stakeholders in setting a coordinated agenda for the management of distracted driving going into the future are also presented. Until all vehicles can safely drive themselves, in all conditions, all of the time, it is unlikely that, for driver distraction, Vision Zero will be achieved. In the meantime, however, there is much that can be done to slow its spread and mitigate it effects.
... This paper also provides a multilayered behavioral approach to developing and applying AI in a more humane and equitable way. Existing literature on usability, user experience, human-centered design, and human-computer interaction (e.g., [24][25][26][27][28]) all have behavioral elements, but not all of them consider a multilayered approach. Even the ISO standards related to human-centered design for interactive systems [29] lack a multilevel viewpoint. ...
Article
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One of the biggest challenges in Artificial Intelligence (AI) development and application is the lack of consideration for human enhancement as a cornerstone for its operationalization. Nor is there a universally accepted approach that guides best practices in this field. However, the behavioral science field offers suggestions on how to develop a sustainable and enriching relationship between humans and intelligent machines. This paper provides a three-level (micro, meso and macro) framework on how to humanize AI with the intention of enhancing human properties and experiences. It argues that humanizing AI will help make intelligent machines not just more efficient but will also make their application more ethical and human-centric. Suggestions to policymakers, organizations, and developers are made on how to implement this framework to fix existing issues in AI and create a more symbiotic relationship between humans and machines moving into the future.
Preprint
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Occupational safety and health are important aspect of social dimension of sustainability in the concept of sustainable supply chain. along with the environmental dimension of sustainability, helps organizations integrated approach to health, safety and environment management to move towards sustainable development. Resilience Engineering is a new approach of safety management and an inherent ability of an organization to regulate its functions before or during disruptions, enabling it to continue operating in times of crisis or constant stress. This paper presents an integrated framework for evaluating, ranking and selecting top suppliers in terms of resilience, greenness and occupational safety and health issues. The framework is based on using expert panel meetings and Delphi method to define the criteria, and content validity ratio to measure validity of the designed framework. Besides, two Multi-Criteria Decision Methods namely the Best-Worst Method and Multi-Attributive Border Approximation Area Comparison were used to weight the criteria and ranking the suppliers. The case study to apply the designed framework is the automotive industry with focus on the suppliers of one of the biggest Automotive Companies in Iran. The results showed the criteria management commitment demonstrated the highest weight and among the indicators, adequate budget allocation for HSE actions, risk awareness, management systems and control measures for risks ranked one to four, respectively. Finally, using the designed model and conducting an audit of the studied companies, the final ranking of four suppliers was done and suggestions were made to improve the performance of the companies.
Preprint
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Our recent research shows that the design philosophy of human factors research in the intelligence age is expanding from "user-centered design" to "user-centered design 2.0" and "human-centered AI", and the human-machine relationship presents a trans-era evolution from "human-machine interaction" to "human-machine teaming". These changes have raised new questions and challenges for human factors research, compelling us to re-examine the paradigm and agenda of human factors research that was traditionally based on non-intelligent technologies. In this context, this paper reviews the cross-generational expansion of the human factors research paradigm and summarizes the new conceptual models and frameworks we proposed to enrich the human factors research paradigm, including a human-agent teaming model, a human-agent joint cognitive ecosystem framework, and an intelligent sociotechnical systems framework. This paper further enhances these concepts and looks forward to the corresponding application of these concepts and future research agenda. This paper also looks forward to the future agenda of human factors research from three aspects: "human-AI interaction", "intelligent human-machine interface", and "human-machine teaming". It analyzes the role of human factors research paradigms on future research agenda. We believe that the research paradigms and the research agenda influence and promote each other. Human factors research in the intelligence age needs diversified and innovative research paradigms, thereby further promoting the development of human factors science.
Technical Report
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Final report from a concept development project for A-CDM cooperation tools (Airport Collaborative Decision Making)
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