Article

The determination of Cd AND Zn phytoremediation potential of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum)

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Abstract

Cadmium (Cd) which is absorbed and stored by the plants is causing too many metabolic changes of the plants. The biological function of cadmium is not known over the plants. The plant is generally taking in small amounts the Cd, this element is competing with the zinc (Zn). Buckwheat has relatively high biomass productivity, is adapted to many areas of the world, therefore buckwheat is widely used for the phytoremediation process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the phytoremediation capacity of the high-yielding plant buckwheat in soils contaminated with Cd and Zn. The soils were applied to different doses Cd (0–12.5–25–50–100 mg Cd kg–1 soil) and Zn (0–10–30 mg Zn kg–1 soil). Buckwheat seeds (Günes and Aktas cultivars) were sown and grown under greenhouse conditions. After harvest, Cd and Zn concentrations of plant biomass and grain yield (kg d–1) and translocation factors for Zn and Cd were determined. Cadmium accumulation in biomass and grain significantly increased in dose-dependent manner. Günes genotype accumulated higher lead than Aktas genotypes.

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... Scientists are conducting research to assess the potential of common buckwheat for phytoremediation [9]. Harada and Hatanaka [10] found higher concentrations of cadmium in the plants of the Polygonaceae family, compared to other studied plant families. ...
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The results of this study provided accurate guidance on the possibility of using common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) in phytoremediation practices for mineral soil or organic soils contaminated with Cd or Pb. Based on a model pot experiment, the tolerance of buckwheat to elevated contents of cadmium and lead in organic and mineral soils was examined. The soils were differentiated into neutral and acidic, and amended with metals at doses of 10 mg Cd kg−1 DM and 100 mg Pb kg−1 DM of soil. The growth, development, biomass, translocation coefficient, and tolerance index (TI) of the tested plants were examined. The use of metals caused a weakening of plant growth and development, as well as intensified chlorotic and necrotic changes to the buckwheat leaves. The application of Cd caused a statistically significant decrease in shoot biomass. The plants growing in organic acidic soil were most vulnerable to Cd toxicity. The (TI) values confirm the generally low tolerance of buckwheat to Cd, except for the treatment in organic neutral soil, and the high tolerance of this plant to Pb in all the studied soils.
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