Mapping the spatial and temporal distribution of changes in the administrative-territorial division

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The article is devoted to the development of the content of generalized maps on the history of administrative-territorial division. The purpose of such maps is to reflect the features of the space-time distribution of administrative changes.We have found that it is better to link indicators of dynamics to such spatial objects as the territories of modern administrative-territorial units (or the territory of historical administrative-territorial ones as of a certain date), to polygons of a single history of administrative membership, to administrative-territorial units as dynamic objects.Under the polygons of a single history of administrative ownership, we mean the territories identified during the analysis, all points within which belonged to the same administrative-territorial unit at any time during the analyzed period. Unlike polygons of the smallest common geometry (used in the method of space-time composites), such objects can be allocated for different periods of time and for different administrative levels.For such spatial objects, we propose to calculate and display on the map the number ofchanges in administrative ownership or the total duration of belonging to some administrative-territorial unit (usually, a high level). For larger static areas than the polygons of a single history of administrative affiliation, we suggest calculating and displaying on the map the indicator of administrative variability and the average duration of ownership. In our opinion, the indicator of administrative variability should consider the size of the analyzed territory, the number and volume of spatial changes. We have developed a formula for calculating such an indicator.The indicators that we calculate for historical administrative-territorial units on the map are dis- played within the static contour. However, these indicators are calculated for a dynamic object. These indicators are: the number of changes, the total number of changes in parameters, the total number of dates of change, the spatial configuration variability index, the area-weighted average area and its relation to the modern one. We propose to calculate the index of the variability of the configuration of the administrative-territorial unit as the sum of the relations of the areas of the reassigned territories to the areas of the administrative-territorial unit at the time before the change. Since different administrative-territorial units have different duration of existence, in our opinion, it is important to analyze not only the quantity but also the intensity of the changes. To reflect on the map the course of changes in the administrative-territorial unit in time, we developed a timeline-based chart.

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Розглянуто проблеми змісту аналітичних карт-узагальнень з історії адміністративної належності території. Для однорідних у історичному відношенні територіальних об’єктів (полігонів єдиної історії адміністративної належності) запропоновано розраховувати кількісні показники, що відображають варіативність/стабільність адміністративної належності: кількість змін адміністративної належності, кількість власників, тривалість найдовшого періоду без змін, індекс різноманіття власників, індекс мінливості адміністративної належності. Розроблено три показники подібності історії адміністративної належності: синхронний, асинхронний, пропорційний. Запропоновані також відображати на картах-узагальненнях окремі атрибутивні показники – мажоритарних та міноритарних власників. Охарактеризовано способи узагальнення цих показників для неоднорідних у історичному відношенні об’єктів.
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A historical database of Belgian municipalities has been under construction at the Department of Modern History at Ghent University. Hundreds of historical maps have been digitized representing the territorial structure of Belgium for the period 1800-2000. Recently, a sophisticated historical geographical information system and a website have been developed to make these maps and data accessible to the public. This is a flexible storage system for geometric data, which contains all polygons representing every historical municipality down to the smallest units. Each polygon has been time-stamped. By linking historical data to this map the boundaries of municipalities, valid only for a particular moment in time, can be extracted from this map. The geometry of the map can be easily updated, and each boundary exists only in one map and not in hundreds of different historical maps.
The book deals with the integration of temporal information in Geographic Information Systems. The main purpose of an historical or time-integrative GIS is to reproduce spatio- temporal processes or sequents of events in the real world in the form of a model. The model thus making them accessible for spatial query, analysis and visualization. This volume reflects both theoretical thoughts on the interrelations of space and time, as well as practical examples taken from various fields of application (e.g. business data warehousing, demographics, history and spatial analysis).
Merrick Lex Berman focuses on concepts of measuring space and administrative geography in Chinese history using geographic information systems (GIS). Depending on the availability of historical sources, changes of historical administrative units can be traced backwards in time for a limited period with a reasonable degree of accuracy and confidence in their spatial representations. There is clearly a higher degree of confidence about the location of county seats represented as point features than there is about locations of jurisdictional boundaries. There are many ways to approach the idea of measuring spate in China, including cosmological diversions of heaven and earth, detailed examinations of local economic systems, and the relationships between central places and peripheral hinterlands. The spatial objects depicted in GIS have the appearance of accuracy and precision, regardless of the uncertainty or error contained in the source materials from which they were produced.
Hiistorical geographies are often reconstructed from textual evidence that contains measurements of distances and directions. And yet, lacking any way to check the consistency or accuracy of these figures, when positions based on this information are calculated using GIS we are bound to end up with false, or at best fuzzy, conclusions.
The census has been collected in Britain since 1801 and has published detailed attribute data at district-level about the population since 1851. Comparing censuses over the long-term is, however, highly problematic due to the problem of boundary changes. The only traditional response to this has been to aggregate data; however, this is highly unsatisfactory. The Great Britain Historical Geographical Information Systems (GIS) allows census data to be linked to the boundaries that were used to publish them, and areal interpolation techniques allow data from many dates to be standardised onto a single administrative geography to allow long-term comparison. Areal interpolation, however, inevitably introduces error and quantifying this error with real-world data is usually impossible. In this paper the accuracy of several areal interpolation techniques suitable for use with historical data are compared using “synthetic” districts and parishes created from Enumeration District-level data from the 1991 census. The errors introduced are analysed for several different variables and show that the effectiveness of the technique depends on the variable to be interpolated and the choice of target geography. While this paper is mainly applied to historical data, these results have relevance to any areal interpolation problem.
The advantages of using digital boundary data as part of the process of analysing and visualising census data are well known. In many countries census data and their associated boundaries are now published as an integrated digital product. To truly understand the present, however, we must also understand the past and the changes that have led us to the present. Several European countries and regions have, therefore, created GISes of their changing administrative boundaries as a first stage in fully understanding the spatial and temporal complexities of long-term socio-economic change. Many others have plans to do so. In June 2000 a European Science Foundation funded workshop was held in Florence organised by Drs H Southall, M Goerke, and G Thorvaldsen. The meeting’s title was “Mapping Europe’s historic boundaries and borders: An exploratory workshop” (Southall et al. 2000). The meeting included a session on “Constructing historic boundary GISes” in which representatives of projects from various countries and regions reported on how their project had approached the problem of creating time-variant GISes of changing socio-economic units. This paper examines the different approaches to creating temporal GISes that are described in the literature and compares this to the actual methods used by these European projects.
Modeling and Visualizing Historical GIS Data
  • Merrick Berman
  • Lex
Berman, Merrick Lex. 2009. Modeling and Visualizing Historical GIS Data. Retrieved from papers/CGA_Wkshp2009_Lex_9apr09.pdf
Uzahalnennia riznochasovykh danykh z istorii administratyvno-terytorialnoho podilu zasobamy HIS [Generalization of different-time data on the history of administrative-territorial division in GIS
  • O Havriushyn
Havriushyn, O. 2018. Uzahalnennia riznochasovykh danykh z istorii administratyvno-terytorialnoho podilu zasobamy HIS [Generalization of different-time data on the history of administrative-territorial division in GIS].
d.) From Historical Mapping to Historical Geographical Information System / Nüssli Marc-Antoine, Nüssli Christos
  • M.-A Nüssli
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The accuracy of areal interpolation techniques: standardising 19th and 20th century census data to allow long-term comparisons. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems
  • I Gregory
Gregory, I. 2002. The accuracy of areal interpolation techniques: standardising 19th and 20th century census data to allow long-term comparisons. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 26(4), 293-314. DOI: 10.1016/S0198-9715(01)00013-8
Concepts and methods for modelling temporal and spatiotemporal information. Partial fulfilment for the degree "Thesis
  • T Ott
  • F Swiaczny
Ott, T. and Swiaczny, F. 2001. Time-Integrative Geographic Information Systems: Management and Analysis of Spatio-Temporal Data. Berlin / Heidelberg / New York: Springer Renolen, A. 1999. Concepts and methods for modelling temporal and spatiotemporal information. Partial fulfilment for the degree "Thesis", NTNU. Retrieved from