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A Framework of Efficient Material Storage Management on Congested Construction Site

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Material storage management focuses on starting material into the built-up site to be recorded, the material layout and stored over a certain period until it is taken out of the storage area to the work site and the process is repeated. The emergence of new technologies that are not integrated and have no efficient management methods as well as inexperienced management negatively affect the storage management of overcrowded site sites. This study aims to devise an efficient set of materials storage management on a congested site. Critical studies have been referred on more than 50 previous research journals covering by the elements. The framework of this study comprises four elements that are defined as workflow of storage management, storage management systems, material storage methods and roles of responsible parties. The combination of the elements can contribute to the strengthening or discovery of the theory or concept that can be used by the developmental growth and future of the industry.
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A Framework of Efficient Material Storage
Management on Congested Construction Site
Nurul Fathira Misron1,2, Muhamad Azry Khoiry1,2*, Noraini Hamzah1,2
1Programme of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering & Built Environment, Universiti
Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43650 Bangi, Malaysia
2Smart and Sustainable Township Research Centre (SUTRA), Faculty of Engineering & Built
Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43650 Bangi, Malaysia
Abstract. Material storage management focuses on starting material into
the built-up site to be recorded, the material layout and stored over a
certain period until it is taken out of the storage area to the work site and
the process is repeated. The emergence of new technologies that are not
integrated and have no efficient management methods as well as
inexperienced management negatively affect the storage management of
overcrowded site sites. This study aims to devise an efficient set of
materials storage management on a congested site. Critical studies have
been referred on more than 50 previous research journals covering by the
elements. The framework of this study comprises four elements that are
defined as workflow of storage management, storage management
systems, material storage methods and roles of responsible parties. The
combination of the elements can contribute to the strengthening or
discovery of the theory or concept that can be used by the developmental
growth and future of the industry.
1 Introduction
The management of a construction requires integrated processes to ensure that the work can
be completed on time, cost and meet specified contract specifications [1]. This is because
management that related to materials is very important from the design stage to the
construction stage [2]. The management of building materials is generally recognized as an
integrated coordination of material removal, purchase, delivery, receiving of materials on
site, warehousing or storage and installation [3]. However, all process of early planning
cannot be performed properly without a controlled or coordinated technique or system. An
important component of construction management is the construction industry where the
parties need to understand the appropriate material management techniques and their
effectiveness on the implementation of construction projects [4].
This management is the strategies to ensure the outflow and entry of each building
material in order to improve the organization of the construction area as well as to control
the flow of construction materials from the storage area to the construction site [5].
Additionally, a good planning and control system ensures the quality and quantity of a
* Corresponding author: azrykhoiry@ukm.edu.my
© The Authors, published by EDP Sciences. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons
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E3S Web of Conferences 65, 03005 (2018) https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/20186503005
ICCEE 2018
building material is accurate and timely [6]. Good management is carried out to resolve
potential problems such as material shortages, materials supply delays, non-schedule,
material damage and wastage and lack of storage space [2]. While the issues often raised
are related to congested site moreover in limited urban areas and site plans are reserved.
The underlying aspects of the site also take into several issues such as lack of adequate
storage space, less room for effective handling of materials, accidents due to poor
management and less adequate space to for remaining building materials [7]. Subsequently,
an increase of congested sites in the construction industry is a global scale in urban
development research also shows that regeneration areas are more prominent than urban
resettlement areas [8]. The improvement of industry is urban development and it
demonstrates an efficient need for material space, equipment and workforce but the
environment needs to be limited. The construction often involves a large number of
activities that work simultaneously to share construction space and may require the same
area or space on the same time [9].
There are four categories workflow of material storage management namely planning
and arrangement, implementation and handling, control and monitoring and supervision.
Planning matters involving the determination of material requirements for carrying out
production and other related work processes such as determining the types of materials to
be used in construction works, quantities, and specifications to carry out construction work
[10]. Material managers should play a role in determining storage locations, layouts and all
necessary equipment including coding and cataloging, material acceptance, material
inspection, building materials storage safety, material production, cost data preparation,
stock records and disposing of bad building materials or cannot be used [11]. Appropriate
storage facilities should be provided for the on-site materials, some materials usually not
stored in material storage and additional material handling are to avoid wastage [12]. In
addition, observe the materials sent to the storage area and always refer to the storage of
materials to detect quantities and to avoid theft cases and so on [13].
Material layout planning is part of material management in construction projects and it
is includes layout and compilation of materials and storage facilities and storage plan
development [14]. Many studies have been conducted to optimize site layout plans or
logistics plans separately, the conflicts are contradictory and the results of layout plans and
logistics planners are neglected in construction planning and design phase [15]. The use of
new equipment and innovative material handling methods has influenced changes in
construction technology in recent years where this method has been supported by suppliers
across various industrial sectors outside construction [16]. Additionally, improved material
related to management using modern technologies available today such as mobile phones
and laptops or other appropriate and affordable technologies such as the internet, RFID
(Radio Frequency Identification), GIS (GPS Information System), GPS (Global Positioning
System), tracking technologies available should be used to assist in better material handling
as well as the ability to detect materials [17].
However, the role of responsible parties is important in mobilizing this work process. In
addition to training and education what workers need to know before moving, handling and
storing building materials is to know the general principles of safety such as proper work
practices, tools, and controls that can help reduce accidents at work and they need to
understand the potential hazards that related to the task and how to control it whether the
material moves manually or mechanically [18]. The general factor that causes building
defects is the low quality of materials where it is important to the relevant parties in the
construction to ensure good and acceptable use of the material throughout the project to
ensure a satisfactory end product of the product and conform to specifications [19].
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building material is accurate and timely [6]. Good management is carried out to resolve
potential problems such as material shortages, materials supply delays, non-schedule,
material damage and wastage and lack of storage space [2]. While the issues often raised
are related to congested site moreover in limited urban areas and site plans are reserved.
The underlying aspects of the site also take into several issues such as lack of adequate
storage space, less room for effective handling of materials, accidents due to poor
management and less adequate space to for remaining building materials [7]. Subsequently,
an increase of congested sites in the construction industry is a global scale in urban
development research also shows that regeneration areas are more prominent than urban
resettlement areas [8]. The improvement of industry is urban development and it
demonstrates an efficient need for material space, equipment and workforce but the
environment needs to be limited. The construction often involves a large number of
activities that work simultaneously to share construction space and may require the same
area or space on the same time [9].
There are four categories workflow of material storage management namely planning
and arrangement, implementation and handling, control and monitoring and supervision.
Planning matters involving the determination of material requirements for carrying out
production and other related work processes such as determining the types of materials to
be used in construction works, quantities, and specifications to carry out construction work
[10]. Material managers should play a role in determining storage locations, layouts and all
necessary equipment including coding and cataloging, material acceptance, material
inspection, building materials storage safety, material production, cost data preparation,
stock records and disposing of bad building materials or cannot be used [11]. Appropriate
storage facilities should be provided for the on-site materials, some materials usually not
stored in material storage and additional material handling are to avoid wastage [12]. In
addition, observe the materials sent to the storage area and always refer to the storage of
materials to detect quantities and to avoid theft cases and so on [13].
Material layout planning is part of material management in construction projects and it
is includes layout and compilation of materials and storage facilities and storage plan
development [14]. Many studies have been conducted to optimize site layout plans or
logistics plans separately, the conflicts are contradictory and the results of layout plans and
logistics planners are neglected in construction planning and design phase [15]. The use of
new equipment and innovative material handling methods has influenced changes in
construction technology in recent years where this method has been supported by suppliers
across various industrial sectors outside construction [16]. Additionally, improved material
related to management using modern technologies available today such as mobile phones
and laptops or other appropriate and affordable technologies such as the internet, RFID
(Radio Frequency Identification), GIS (GPS Information System), GPS (Global Positioning
System), tracking technologies available should be used to assist in better material handling
as well as the ability to detect materials [17].
However, the role of responsible parties is important in mobilizing this work process. In
addition to training and education what workers need to know before moving, handling and
storing building materials is to know the general principles of safety such as proper work
practices, tools, and controls that can help reduce accidents at work and they need to
understand the potential hazards that related to the task and how to control it whether the
material moves manually or mechanically [18]. The general factor that causes building
defects is the low quality of materials where it is important to the relevant parties in the
construction to ensure good and acceptable use of the material throughout the project to
ensure a satisfactory end product of the product and conform to specifications [19].
2 Methodology
The literature review carried out in this study is extensively highlighted in terms of the
efficient management of materials at the site of congested construction site. Selection of the
title is made after several discussions and looks at the context of storage of material storage.
Paper has been identified through structured keyword search and functionality in major
databases and legitimate publishing websites (Elsevier ScienceDirect, Wiley InterScience,
SCOPUS, SpringerLink, Jstor, Emerald Insight, Ebsco). The keywords are "building
materials", "crowded sites", "storage" combined with those related to management is
"material management", "material storage management", "space". Methods of the study
method are as outlined in Figure 1.
Fig. 1. Research process
Steps to develop the idea of past research in which to make the selection and
comparison of systems or concepts can be matched with the goal of this study and then
discussed in detail the process of producing a framework of efficient material storage
management at overcrowded site that categorized into four elements. Furthermore, the
paper has been set up with a research method available in four categories: modeling,
theoretical studies, case studies and literature studies. In addition, material collection has
been described by way of search and for analysis, a set of frameworks has been developed
to explain the elements contained.
3 Analysis of the papers and discussion
The framework has been discussed based on critical studies through previous research that
having four essential elements workflow of material storage management, storage
management systems, materials storage methods and roles of responsible parties. The
related papers where divided into the elements as shown in Figure 1.
Brainstorm and select a
topic
Search the literature and
select the journals
Develop the ideas of
journals
Survey the literature
Analyze the literature
Search the different
method used
Arrange the literature by
elements selected
Write the review
10 pages
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Table 1. Grouping papers according to element contents
Elements Related papers
1) Workflow of material storage management [5], [7], [10], [11], [13], [20-
24]
2) System of storage management [16], [25-37], [38-43]
3) Material storage method [44-49], [50], [51]
4) The Role of Responsibility Parties [4], [5], [8], [11], [12], [23],
[15], [16], [52], [53]
3.1 Workflow of materials storage management
Workflow of materials storage management is the criteria of management work forms that
are replicated in a process. There are four workflows which are planning and arrangement,
implementation and handling, controlling and, supervision and monitoring.
3.1.1 Planning and arrangement
Reducing material storage need more space for other tasks requiring additional space
considerations. Accurate planning of tasks can help manage the efficient construction site
layouts that can provide easy access and travel of materials in construction sites where
proper management during storage is often neglected and this can cause poor material
quality or material deterioration [20]. The material storage area must be located between
outside area and the work area [7].
Management is the planning system of efforts to ensure the correct quality and quantity
of materials are timely determined and the manner of obtaining at a reasonable cost [21].
Types of material storage exist either inside or outside if the internal storage is selected for
the material, the decision of storage priority variable is considered to provide the internal
building space to the material transmission, as described in the Logistic Analysis Model
[22].
3.1.2 Implementation and handling
Material storage arrangements are not limited to spaces and general arrangements, but
detailed tables and all conflicts, work practices and the required time must be pointed.
Material handling provides the movement to ensure the material is in the systematic state
required in designing the system where the frequency of handling material is a
consideration of quality [23]. Furthermore, the reporting facilities on work progress, the
materials used and required have the potential to advise the management of the materials
required, when and where they are required to follow the instructions, deliver and store the
arrangements to be carried out [24].
3.1.3 Controlling
Proper control of material storage by the workers can result in high productivity in a
construction. Among the key responsibilities of the responsible party as well as controlling
the outflow of materials is to control the materials storage planning, managing information
or issues by weekly and monthly meetings, assisting in making and determining the
required building materials demand and suitability of storage areas, assist in the co-
ordination of the use of building materials, meet material suppliers that meet daily, assess
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Table 1. Grouping papers according to element contents
Elements Related papers
1) Workflow of material storage management [5], [7], [10], [11], [13], [20-
24]
2) System of storage management [16], [25-37], [38-43]
3) Material storage method [44-49], [50], [51]
4) The Role of Responsibility Parties [4], [5], [8], [11], [12], [23],
[15], [16], [52], [53]
3.1 Workflow of materials storage management
Workflow of materials storage management is the criteria of management work forms that
are replicated in a process. There are four workflows which are planning and arrangement,
implementation and handling, controlling and, supervision and monitoring.
3.1.1 Planning and arrangement
Reducing material storage need more space for other tasks requiring additional space
considerations. Accurate planning of tasks can help manage the efficient construction site
layouts that can provide easy access and travel of materials in construction sites where
proper management during storage is often neglected and this can cause poor material
quality or material deterioration [20]. The material storage area must be located between
outside area and the work area [7].
Management is the planning system of efforts to ensure the correct quality and quantity
of materials are timely determined and the manner of obtaining at a reasonable cost [21].
Types of material storage exist either inside or outside if the internal storage is selected for
the material, the decision of storage priority variable is considered to provide the internal
building space to the material transmission, as described in the Logistic Analysis Model
[22].
3.1.2 Implementation and handling
Material storage arrangements are not limited to spaces and general arrangements, but
detailed tables and all conflicts, work practices and the required time must be pointed.
Material handling provides the movement to ensure the material is in the systematic state
required in designing the system where the frequency of handling material is a
consideration of quality [23]. Furthermore, the reporting facilities on work progress, the
materials used and required have the potential to advise the management of the materials
required, when and where they are required to follow the instructions, deliver and store the
arrangements to be carried out [24].
3.1.3 Controlling
Proper control of material storage by the workers can result in high productivity in a
construction. Among the key responsibilities of the responsible party as well as controlling
the outflow of materials is to control the materials storage planning, managing information
or issues by weekly and monthly meetings, assisting in making and determining the
required building materials demand and suitability of storage areas, assist in the co-
ordination of the use of building materials, meet material suppliers that meet daily, assess
the change of material supply plan and storage schedule [5]. The changes should be made
according to the appropriate size, arranging the construction materials to be reused or the
second use and managing the waste of building materials.
Inventory control is the way to use the right quality and quantity material and is
available when needed, besides it can also determine stock of material storage. In
comparison, material shortages may cause product interruption for sale, relationships with
customers are impaired, while machines and equipment are not used [11]. Therefore, it
involves careful handling of stocks and maintains proper control over it.
3.1.4 Supervision and monitoring
Identify the needs of building materials, especially materials that have high demand so that
preliminary action can be taken. In addition, observe the materials that enter to the storage
and always refer to the record of material storage so that can detect quantities and to avoid
theft cases and so on. [13]. Table 2 are shown the related previous research to workflow of
storage management.
Table 2. The previous research related to the workflow of storage management
Narimah Kasim 2008
Ogbadu 2009
Spillane et al. 2010
Patel & Vyas 2011
Narimah Kasim
2012
Okorocha 200
Said & Rayes 2012
Duiyong et al. 2014
Siti Radziah Liwan 2015
Brutus & Chiyem 2015
Arijelye & Olushola 2016
Zaha Ahmad 2017
Planning and Arrangement
Implementation and
Handling
Controlling
Supervision and Monitoring
3.2 System of storage management
There are several methods of materials storage used in industry and there are constantly
reviewing the effectiveness of a construction in order to achieve the targeted quality. The
use of new equipment and innovative material handling methods has influenced changes in
construction technology in recent years where this method has been supported by suppliers
across various industrial sectors outside construction [16].
3.2.1 Radio Frequency Identification Technology (RFID)
In another study, categorizing the system consists of object storage, object shelves, RFID
readers and RFID tags where the RFID reader is in a fixed position and traces the tag data
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to get the coordinate of the stored object then obtains information on how the object is
oriented and the information is useful to smart storage system [25-26]. The situation
discussed in the study is in the storage area of the material where the remote RFID detector
will be installed to obtain the material information in the attached RFID tag on the material
and when the new material arrives in the area, the sensor reads the tag and automatically
updates the inventory database [27].
3.2.2 Barcode
Bar coding technology has been used in material tracking to provide the latest and up-to-
date information on the quantity of substitutes and equipment exchanged between store
managers and working groups [28]. Using the barcode system to detect items involving
printing and attaching labels to the items, scanning labels, entering recent information into
computers, and using software to track and run reports on inventory where in the middle of
each barcode system is a unique identification number (ID) assigned to each detected item
and ID number (in the form of barcode labels) are attached to each item in inventory [29].
3.2.3 3D/4D model technology
Site-based simulation of site equipment that consider the layout-related actions during
construction phase where planning is provided with a procedure based on a normal 3D
model plan is equipment that automatically generated by inheritance of the information
from the object [30]. This study also states that the current layout can be verified in terms
of efficient working surface use, such as storage areas or transport routes by designing
equipment in a simulated environment rather than using 3D-CAD, it is possible to conduct
accurate material flow analysis and because of attributes selected can change over the time,
objects will adaptation by autonomous to different phase of flow materials [30].
The latest development of 3D-dimensional reality technology (3D) is a laser scan and
photo modeling where laser scanning allows accurate measurement of the work site and its
representation in 3D format [31]. Scanning equipment sends a pulse to the object and
measures the return of the signal so that the location and distance of the object can be
measured. Additionally, summarizes the approaches for analysis of time -lapse conflicts in
4D and the type of established construction work space and classify spatial conflicts during
construction [32]. Introducing a four-dimensional model (4D) linking the three-dimensional
geometric model with construction schedule data, the visual relationship between the
schedule and the construction site conditions that can facilitate results in both planning and
construction stages [33].
3.2.4 GIS (Geographic Information System)
Studies have suggested that the Geographical Information System (GIS) which it uses to
represent integrated information and systems in which a computerized approach to planning
vehicle access routes on industrial sites [34]. The geographical information system (GIS) is
one of the fastest growing computer-based technologies in the past two decades, but the full
potential of this technology is not yet possible [35]. According to him based on GIS
capability, the layout of the construction site is one of the areas that GIS can use which is a
temporary facility layout. GIS is a computer-based system for collecting, storing,
integrating, manipulating, analyzing, and displaying data in spatially-referenced
environments, helping to visually analyze data and see patterns, trends and relationships
that may not be reflected in tables or written forms [28]. Additionally, the use of GIS
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to get the coordinate of the stored object then obtains information on how the object is
oriented and the information is useful to smart storage system [25-26]. The situation
discussed in the study is in the storage area of the material where the remote RFID detector
will be installed to obtain the material information in the attached RFID tag on the material
and when the new material arrives in the area, the sensor reads the tag and automatically
updates the inventory database [27].
3.2.2 Barcode
Bar coding technology has been used in material tracking to provide the latest and up-to-
date information on the quantity of substitutes and equipment exchanged between store
managers and working groups [28]. Using the barcode system to detect items involving
printing and attaching labels to the items, scanning labels, entering recent information into
computers, and using software to track and run reports on inventory where in the middle of
each barcode system is a unique identification number (ID) assigned to each detected item
and ID number (in the form of barcode labels) are attached to each item in inventory [29].
3.2.3 3D/4D model technology
Site-based simulation of site equipment that consider the layout-related actions during
construction phase where planning is provided with a procedure based on a normal 3D
model plan is equipment that automatically generated by inheritance of the information
from the object [30]. This study also states that the current layout can be verified in terms
of efficient working surface use, such as storage areas or transport routes by designing
equipment in a simulated environment rather than using 3D-CAD, it is possible to conduct
accurate material flow analysis and because of attributes selected can change over the time,
objects will adaptation by autonomous to different phase of flow materials [30].
The latest development of 3D-dimensional reality technology (3D) is a laser scan and
photo modeling where laser scanning allows accurate measurement of the work site and its
representation in 3D format [31]. Scanning equipment sends a pulse to the object and
measures the return of the signal so that the location and distance of the object can be
measured. Additionally, summarizes the approaches for analysis of time -lapse conflicts in
4D and the type of established construction work space and classify spatial conflicts during
construction [32]. Introducing a four-dimensional model (4D) linking the three-dimensional
geometric model with construction schedule data, the visual relationship between the
schedule and the construction site conditions that can facilitate results in both planning and
construction stages [33].
3.2.4 GIS (Geographic Information System)
Studies have suggested that the Geographical Information System (GIS) which it uses to
represent integrated information and systems in which a computerized approach to planning
vehicle access routes on industrial sites [34]. The geographical information system (GIS) is
one of the fastest growing computer-based technologies in the past two decades, but the full
potential of this technology is not yet possible [35]. According to him based on GIS
capability, the layout of the construction site is one of the areas that GIS can use which is a
temporary facility layout. GIS is a computer-based system for collecting, storing,
integrating, manipulating, analyzing, and displaying data in spatially-referenced
environments, helping to visually analyze data and see patterns, trends and relationships
that may not be reflected in tables or written forms [28]. Additionally, the use of GIS
enables planners to look and analyze the impact of new construction on existing facilities
and this approach can help in combining environmental aspects in the early phase of
construction planning where the three categories of space available have been considered in
this paper that space provided by site work in the field, space provided by temporary
structures and spaces provided by structures to be built [36].
3.2.5 JIT System (Just in Time)
'Future-based Quality Management' (JIT) is a philosophy and a guiding principle that
integrates basic management techniques, existing improvements and technical tools where
it has significant impact on quality control, purchasing functions, and work culture as well
as philosophy which includes costs, meeting delivery schedules, work assignments and
skills development, supplier relationships and new product development [36].
Implementation of JIT does not require substantial capital expenditure on materials and
equipment unless investment in employee training and restructuring of work processes
other than he agrees that JIT aims to improve quality by eliminating material defects,
reduced inventory, better quality, increased flexibility, increased productivity and reduced
space requirements [37].
One of the features of the concept is emphasizing awareness, and provides guidance for
identifying problems and solutions, requiring training to use multiple troubleshooting tools,
improvements to new levels with every problem solved, require standardization of methods
and procedures, high motivation, empowerment of employees, and open organizational
culture is essential for the efficient implementation of JIT [36].
3.2.6 Simulation system
Performance measurement of effective work function is revocation and storage where these
achievement measures differ from system to system in order to manage and control material
effectively and to divide materials into management system parts to make system work
more efficient [38]. Furthermore, investigate the factors that influence the betterment of
construction work scheduling, identify the critical level of each factor and identify the
method of improving the preparation of more effective construction work schedules [39].
The information obtained will be used to develop structural modeling for material
management and it is hoped that these models will assist the construction industry,
especially contractors to improve the efficiency of material management [40].
The simulations presented are reviewed as a tool to handle the construction site layout
planning can be a complicated problem due to the interplay factor where the simulation
technology capabilities to be a model complex processes in the construction project to
optimizing site problem optimization, while the existing method cannot solve this problem
perfectly in some cases [41]. The simulation model also takes aspect of complex
interactions between facilities, activities and resources but simulations are the ideal tools
for project site layout planning with repeat activity, tight interaction between strict activities
and schedules and the limited resources. Otherwise, the simulation is not very beneficial
[41].
3.3 Material storage methods
Several methods of materials storage that can be collected from past research where this
method can help in planning a more efficient work process as well as a smooth and quality
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work. The two methods of storing the material are optimizing the layout space and
optimizing the flow of the material.
3.3.1 Optimizing layout space
Layout space model that can involve five steps, namely grid size selection, ‘Available
Space identification (AS) for storage and transport, installation area segmentation, actual
calculation of travel distance and optimal selection of storage locations [42]. The layout
optimization study is a tailor-made customization prediction to predict the strength of the
material by using the DLO ("Discontinuity Layout Optimization") method evaluated
through problem analysis and the available solutions and is ultimately used to improve the
strength of the recall where the probabilistic study of material strength with an emphasis on
various sampling sets, material properties, forms, numbers and standard deviation of space
and/ or admission in SVE ("Statistical Volume Elements"), paving the way for a better
understanding of the effective strength of the matrix entry material [43]. Next, use 3D
models to optimize layouts is locations and sizes such as setting the thickness of the
optimization area, labeling the color of the area to represent the density of the material and
considering the long-distance use of the material [44].
In general, materials are based on the availability and proximity of the destination to
reduce the time of transport apart from the constraints where the yard depend on the type of
material and their characteristics such as compatibility constraints (only the same type of
material can be arranged in one area of material) and also consider the security [45]. The
problematic study of the unsuitable layout affects the material traffic production and
performs the re-layout procedure which consists of three steps is analyzing the existing
layout, designing the layout based on SLP (Systematic Layout Planning) and evaluation and
alternative selection layout using the Simulation Pro Version 6’ model [46]. The input data
required by the SLP in the study is the product (type of material), the quantity (number/
component produced), the route (operation instructions for each material), services (support
services such as monitoring stations and others) and time (type of material was produced at
the time). It shows that materials are stored according to the categories of materials which
are the shape and density of the material [47].
3.3.2 Optimizing material flows
Material control and site layout controls where the "Move Cap Plan" model has been
developed to help model the movements of the on-site materials, capture the actual layout
and location of the materials and plan the storage and recovery of materials throughout the
site during construction as well as integrate the "Move Plan" model to help make
arrangements that suit the schedule of activities with the CAPSYTM surveying station that
helps to identify the material position [48]. Then, some materials move rapidly that they
may be required for the production of a few days after their arrival while the remaining
material stays up to 6 months in the storage store and therefore moving and slow-moving
materials should be kept in different order [49]. Sampling of materials is one of the
activities that requires the loading and unloading process of each bag, drum, or large bag
taken from its location where the re-capture of these materials is accompanied by the
handling, transport, and transfer of other materials alongside the system storage provisions
by class can be used to store patterns of recruitment of the same materials in the same
order.
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work. The two methods of storing the material are optimizing the layout space and
optimizing the flow of the material.
3.3.1 Optimizing layout space
Layout space model that can involve five steps, namely grid size selection, ‘Available
Space identification (AS) for storage and transport, installation area segmentation, actual
calculation of travel distance and optimal selection of storage locations [42]. The layout
optimization study is a tailor-made customization prediction to predict the strength of the
material by using the DLO ("Discontinuity Layout Optimization") method evaluated
through problem analysis and the available solutions and is ultimately used to improve the
strength of the recall where the probabilistic study of material strength with an emphasis on
various sampling sets, material properties, forms, numbers and standard deviation of space
and/ or admission in SVE ("Statistical Volume Elements"), paving the way for a better
understanding of the effective strength of the matrix entry material [43]. Next, use 3D
models to optimize layouts is locations and sizes such as setting the thickness of the
optimization area, labeling the color of the area to represent the density of the material and
considering the long-distance use of the material [44].
In general, materials are based on the availability and proximity of the destination to
reduce the time of transport apart from the constraints where the yard depend on the type of
material and their characteristics such as compatibility constraints (only the same type of
material can be arranged in one area of material) and also consider the security [45]. The
problematic study of the unsuitable layout affects the material traffic production and
performs the re-layout procedure which consists of three steps is analyzing the existing
layout, designing the layout based on SLP (Systematic Layout Planning) and evaluation and
alternative selection layout using the Simulation Pro Version 6’ model [46]. The input data
required by the SLP in the study is the product (type of material), the quantity (number/
component produced), the route (operation instructions for each material), services (support
services such as monitoring stations and others) and time (type of material was produced at
the time). It shows that materials are stored according to the categories of materials which
are the shape and density of the material [47].
3.3.2 Optimizing material flows
Material control and site layout controls where the "Move Cap Plan" model has been
developed to help model the movements of the on-site materials, capture the actual layout
and location of the materials and plan the storage and recovery of materials throughout the
site during construction as well as integrate the "Move Plan" model to help make
arrangements that suit the schedule of activities with the CAPSYTM surveying station that
helps to identify the material position [48]. Then, some materials move rapidly that they
may be required for the production of a few days after their arrival while the remaining
material stays up to 6 months in the storage store and therefore moving and slow-moving
materials should be kept in different order [49]. Sampling of materials is one of the
activities that requires the loading and unloading process of each bag, drum, or large bag
taken from its location where the re-capture of these materials is accompanied by the
handling, transport, and transfer of other materials alongside the system storage provisions
by class can be used to store patterns of recruitment of the same materials in the same
order.
A good layout planning strategy can produce high productivity in the storage of
materials where the layout of the construction projects varies according to site conditions,
size of site, storage space, project size and several other factors. The method is definitely
reviewed by the previous construction projects, but the planned layout was reflecting the
high-risk storage of material which is known as one of the impacts of site congestion is the
lack of space. Hence, the limited space is used as storage but the layout is also limited to
the material needed in a short period of time and not too long to allow the outgoing material
in the storage area to be well designed and proactive.
3.4 The role of responsible parties
3.4.1 Contractor
The contractor considers the difference between the date and time the material was
requested and the ordered was made where the material was delivered, then material
management was the key to the project management [4]. Additionally, assigning a task to
employees on a timely basis to carry out these tasks is inadequate, but instructions need to
be clear, specific the works, monitor workers in their efforts and others. [12].
Review of contractors should choose and obtain appropriate building materials so they
can meet contract specifications unless certain brands and model numbers are stated and
recommended [20]. This is because the quality and specifications of the building will
facilitate storage management where in the event of failure due to inappropriate material
code will result in storage area obtaining waste material and take time to remove it.
Additionally, contractors need to implement more computer and electronic based
businesses ('e-business') through the Internet in managing materials at the construction sites
[23]. Subcontractors should perform their activities in parallel and closely with each other
which increases competition for site sources such as storage space, building elevators and
delivery area [50].
3.4.2 Suppliers
Supplier should bring the participation in the design stage with the aim of selecting the
appropriate material, the appropriate plan summary to enable the benefits of pricing be
given preferential and better payment arrangements. The major responsibilities of
manufacturers, suppliers and sales include knowing the materials laws from major
manufacturers, project logistics plans as part of suppliers and sales, using third-party
logistics and existing technologies from other manufacturing industries, manufacturers,
suppliers and sales to determine cost allocation through the company's pricing strategy as
well as manufacturers, suppliers, vendors and contractors must be experienced in project
success [5].
Supplier also recognizes the difficulties faced and agrees with effective management
and information transfer, experienced and well-trained staff, enhancing approaches to avoid
issues arising. Additionally, suppliers need to take into account the lack of storage or space
around urban areas and limited construction sites. Location management must be proactive
in managing the area to accommodate the delivery of materials to the site. This also
indicates that suppliers need to comply with delivery schedules and time distribution
agreements with various contractors, assisting management processes in a proactive place
to reduce or eliminate issues from emerging [8]. Improving productivity in orders and
9
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ICCEE 2018
quotes, contractors and suppliers can transform conventional activities into more
innovative tools and techniques [23]. However, foreign suppliers are seen to provide poor
service quality on labeling and packaging [50].
3.4.3 Material manager
Material flow from starting material ordered, received, and stored until it is used for use is
the basic responsibility of material handling [4]. Material managers should maintain reports
such as ordering materials between two dates, material assignments, waste management
when purchasing building materials, managing materials up to the location and purchasing
orders [51]. The management should increase their surveillance at the site so that the
material can be adequately handled when delivered, make sure the material handling
process is safely and more awareness of the knowledge of material management, especially
in construction sites [12]. The main role of the material manager is to ensure the free flow
of materials in the manufacturing sector where it can be achieved through proper
production planning, procurement, storage and distribution control [11].
However, it is a common belief that the responsibility of the material manager should
include collaboration with the designer on the specification of the material component,
purchasing the right material to assist the changing of supply source location, inbound
traffic, acceptance and inspection, supplier quality control, inventory control and material
control. On larger build sites, material managers should be assisted by suppliers [16].
3.4.4 Material Surveyors / Engineers / Architects
This function comes immediately with a product design prepared by the Architect or
Engineer and Quantity Surveyor to list all the materials required to execute the project by
compiling the material bill with the published construction schedule, the buyer may set up
material requirements whenever necessary [16].
Figure 2 shows the framework of storing efficient material storage management at a
congested site. The built-in framework is based on the inputs obtained from the previous
study in which the ideas are combined and form four essential elements in a material
storage management, especially on a congested site.
10
E3S Web of Conferences 65, 03005 (2018) https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/20186503005
ICCEE 2018
quotes, contractors and suppliers can transform conventional activities into more
innovative tools and techniques [23]. However, foreign suppliers are seen to provide poor
service quality on labeling and packaging [50].
3.4.3 Material manager
Material flow from starting material ordered, received, and stored until it is used for use is
the basic responsibility of material handling [4]. Material managers should maintain reports
such as ordering materials between two dates, material assignments, waste management
when purchasing building materials, managing materials up to the location and purchasing
orders [51]. The management should increase their surveillance at the site so that the
material can be adequately handled when delivered, make sure the material handling
process is safely and more awareness of the knowledge of material management, especially
in construction sites [12]. The main role of the material manager is to ensure the free flow
of materials in the manufacturing sector where it can be achieved through proper
production planning, procurement, storage and distribution control [11].
However, it is a common belief that the responsibility of the material manager should
include collaboration with the designer on the specification of the material component,
purchasing the right material to assist the changing of supply source location, inbound
traffic, acceptance and inspection, supplier quality control, inventory control and material
control. On larger build sites, material managers should be assisted by suppliers [16].
3.4.4 Material Surveyors / Engineers / Architects
This function comes immediately with a product design prepared by the Architect or
Engineer and Quantity Surveyor to list all the materials required to execute the project by
compiling the material bill with the published construction schedule, the buyer may set up
material requirements whenever necessary [16].
Figure 2 shows the framework of storing efficient material storage management at a
congested site. The built-in framework is based on the inputs obtained from the previous
study in which the ideas are combined and form four essential elements in a material
storage management, especially on a congested site.
Fig. 2. Framework of efficient storage management
4 Conclusion
Congested sites may have a negative impact on storage of materials such as restricted site
space to the source of storage space is also limited, site productivity is weak, construction
site security is also affected and irregular management system. However, the problem of
congestion in a busy urban area of construction is inevitable. Therefore, these problems
need to be addressed so as not to affect a high percentage of material storage management
work. Additionally, the use of systematic management and layout systems can reduce the
congestion of construction sites in limited urban areas.
In conclusion, the first efficient material storage management strategy is view of a
congested site where some of its features are limited space, poor site productivity, impaired
site security and irregular systems. Then, the strategy to look at the solution of how storage
of building materials can be consolidated if a congested site is a combination of elements of
the building materials storage management framework. Several types of systems that have
been used by past construction projects are references but the possibility of a combination
of two or three types of systems can result in higher quality in which each system has the
advantages and disadvantages that have been discussed and its suitability to the storage of
materials storage the buildup as well as the material storage method is closely related.
However, the management workflow is a guide to the work process that will be carried out
by the responsible party.
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... In construction, logistics mainly refers to the movement of materials and construction equipment on-site. Additional factors that play an important role in efficiently managing construction resources on-site include material procurement, handling, and storage (Tunji-Olayeni et al., 2017;Misron et al., 2018). A successful site logistics plan needs significant amounts of pre-planning and coordination between various trades and is, therefore, considered a complicated task (Tunji-Olayeni et al., 2017). ...
... A successful site logistics plan needs significant amounts of pre-planning and coordination between various trades and is, therefore, considered a complicated task (Tunji-Olayeni et al., 2017). Inefficient site logistics plans generate large amounts of waste and material losses, subsequently leading to time and cost overruns (Tunji-Olayeni et al., 2017;Misron et al., 2018). Ogundipe et al. (2020) identified 25 factors that hamper the full exploitation of the benefits of effective building materials management (EBMM), most of which relate to improper material handling and inefficient site logistics. ...
... An optimal CSLP improves project productivity and the level of safety on a construction site. Several practitioners and researchers, therefore, believe that an effective CSLP is of great importance to finish a construction project successfully (Ning et al., 2010;Misron et al., 2018;Magill et al., 2020). As we already know, because construction activities are usually performed in sequential or parallel stages, the late completion of a construction task can affect the start time of the next task. ...
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