Risk in Implementing Building Information Modelling (BIM) in Malaysia Construction Industry: A Review

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DOI: 10.1051/e3sconf/20186503002
Cite this publication
Abstract
Building Information Modelling (BIM) terminology in the construction industry has been widespread used as industry standard buzzword term. BIM could open up a broad range of benefits in the construction industry. However, rate of implementation does not match its benefits. Why BIM has not been fully adopted in construction industry? The underlying problem to the above-mentioned issue were arisen due to the barriers, challenges and risks. These can be a potential factor to jeopardise the successfulness of the construction project by affecting the cost, time and quality. The said factors can be an actual risk which later on bringing construction project to failure. Thus, it crucial to identify the potential risk as a basis for risk assessment and risk response process. Moreover, risk identification relatively important since the risk assessment and risk response process are applied only to the regornised risk factors. Therefore, the aim for this paper is to review the possible risks in implementing BIM in construction industry.
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Risk in Implementing Building Information
Modelling (BIM) in Malaysia Construction
Industry: A Review
Ibtisam Azwani Mat Ya’acob1*, and Faizul Azli Mohd Rahim2 and Nurshuhada Zainon3
1Lee Kong Chian Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Jalan Sungai
Long, Bandar Sungai Long, Cheras, 43000 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia
1, 2, 3Project Management, Procurement & Economic Research Group, Centre for Building,
Construction and Tropical Architecture, Faculty of Built Environment, Universiti Malaya, Jalan
Universiti, 50603, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Abstract. Building Information Modelling (BIM) terminology in the
construction industry has been widespread used as industry standard
buzzword term. BIM could open up a broad range of benefits in the
construction industry. However, rate of implementation does not match its
benefits. Why BIM has not been fully adopted in construction industry?
The underlying problem to the above-mentioned issue were arisen due to
the barriers, challenges and risks. These can be a potential factor to
jeopardise the successfulness of the construction project by affecting the
cost, time and quality. The said factors can be an actual risk w hich later on
bringing construction project to failure. Thus, it crucial to identify the
potential risk as a basis for risk assessment and risk response process.
Moreover, risk identification relatively important since the risk assessment
and risk response process are applied only to the regornised risk factors.
Therefore, the aim for this paper is to review the possible risks in
implementing BIM in construction industry.
1 Introduction
Building Information Modeling (BIM) is an emerging digital information technology in a
virtual space to achieve high quality and efficient of construction and management [1, 2].
BIM can be defined as a collaboration of information and simulation in planning, design,
construction and facility’s operation [3]. It involves with learning new software, reinvent
the workflow, training and assigning staff responsibility [4]. Recently, the growing needs of
BIM in Architectural, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry led by a variety of
benefit offered to facilitate projects execution. Rely on that, believed BIM can become as a
core technology used in the construction industry [5].
BIM’s terminology within the context of AEC has been widespread used as industry
standard buzzword term since the early 2000s [1]. Malaysia started to implement BIM
concept in 2007, initiated by Director of Public Works Department (PWD) with first project
* Corresponding author: azwani@utar.edu.my
© The Authors, published by EDP Sciences. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons
Attribution License 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
E3S Web of Conferences 65, 03002 (2018) https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/20186503002
ICCEE 2018
Multipurpose Hall of Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM), Johore in the
Southern region of Malaysia and National Cancer Institute of Malaysia, Putrajaya.
Nowadays, BIM implementation in Malaysia is keen to be more suitable for complex
projects and high risk projects [2]. However, construction project particularly mega projects
have grown in size and quantity are becoming significantly complex and difficult to
manage [6, 7].
Risk in projects can be defined as the probability of an event occurring that is likely
impacted project outcome such as time, cost and quality. It can be measured in terms of
likelihood and consequence. Risks vary in nature, severity and consequence, hence there is
a high demand for systematic risk management in order to reduce the possibility of these
hazards effectively [8]. Failure to manage risks may jeopardized the project outcome by
affecting the cost, time and quality of construction projects [8, 9]. Thus, this research paper
reviewed a potential risk related with BIM construction project.
1.1 Problem Statement
Researchers that look into trends of a benefit of BIM have increased in the recent year. A
long list of tremendous benefits of BIM was identified. BIM could lead to a broad range of
changes in the construction industry at almost every level within a building life cycle [4].
The benefit varies along the project life cycle and affected all project team members. In
pre-construction stage, BIM can be utilised in planning, design, scheduling, cost estimation
and documentation. Meanwhile, during construction stage BIM will support a fabrication,
construction and construction logistic process. BIM reach the upmost application level in
operation and maintenance during post construction stage.
However, its rate of implementation yet to match its benefits. Even though with long
benefit list, a question arises: why BIM has not been fully adopted? Why BIM
implementation in Malaysian Construction Industry are considered low? [10]. This slow
pace implementation issue kept persisting in Malaysia’s scenario [11]. On the broader
perspective, The Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors (2017) stated even though BIM
is an increasingly important component in the global built environment, but adoption of
BIM in Asia still lags behind. In line with that, Bui, Merschbrock, & Munkvold concludes
that developing countries have to develop new BIM solution to address the challenges and
risks in the context of local construction industries [12].
Ghaffarianhoseini et al., stated the problems underlying the low adoption level were
arisen due to the scepticism concerning its full feasibility and real risks and challenges [1].
Zakaria et al., also mentioned that Malaysian’s construction player are still doubtful with
BIM effectiveness because of the limited proven data of successful rate [10]. Recently,
many research on the benefits attained by implementing BIM are not in Malaysia and BIM
application is limited in the fragmented nature of the Malaysian construction industry.
Further study shown the contractor Grade 1 (G1) to Grade 6 (G6) are not ready to
implement BIM in Malaysia construction projects due to technical risk namely hard to use
information technology (IT) and financial issue to purchase BIM tools such as Revit
Architectural, Revit Structural and Navisworks as well as to attend BIM-related training
[2].
Several BIM publications have addressed the challenges and potential risk in
implementing BIM. Eastman, Teicholz, Sacks, & Liston described the barriers for BIM
implementation are the work process changes and technological risks [13]. Meanwhile,
AEC UK provides the BIM protocal (2015) to give a guidance for BIM interoperability
problem. A same approach was implemented when Singapore AEC established the
Singapore BIM Guide version 2.0 to address the the risk allocation and intellectual property
rights in BIM project. In Malaysia, the study was carried out by Construction Research
2
E3S Web of Conferences 65, 03002 (2018) https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/20186503002
ICCEE 2018
Multipurpose Hall of Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM), Johore in the
Southern region of Malaysia and National Cancer Institute of Malaysia, Putrajaya.
Nowadays, BIM implementation in Malaysia is keen to be more suitable for complex
projects and high risk projects [2]. However, construction project particularly mega projects
have grown in size and quantity are becoming significantly complex and difficult to
manage [6, 7].
Risk in projects can be defined as the probability of an event occurring that is likely
impacted project outcome such as time, cost and quality. It can be measured in terms of
likelihood and consequence. Risks vary in nature, severity and consequence, hence there is
a high demand for systematic risk management in order to reduce the possibility of these
hazards effectively [8]. Failure to manage risks may jeopardized the project outcome by
affecting the cost, time and quality of construction projects [8, 9]. Thus, this research paper
reviewed a potential risk related with BIM construction project.
1.1 Problem Statement
Researchers that look into trends of a benefit of BIM have increased in the recent year. A
long list of tremendous benefits of BIM was identified. BIM could lead to a broad range of
changes in the construction industry at almost every level within a building life cycle [4].
The benefit varies along the project life cycle and affected all project team members. In
pre-construction stage, BIM can be utilised in planning, design, scheduling, cost estimation
and documentation. Meanwhile, during construction stage BIM will support a fabrication,
construction and construction logistic process. BIM reach the upmost application level in
operation and maintenance during post construction stage.
However, its rate of implementation yet to match its benefits. Even though with long
benefit list, a question arises: why BIM has not been fully adopted? Why BIM
implementation in Malaysian Construction Industry are considered low? [10]. This slow
pace implementation issue kept persisting in Malaysia’s scenario [11]. On the broader
perspective, The Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors (2017) stated even though BIM
is an increasingly important component in the global built environment, but adoption of
BIM in Asia still lags behind. In line with that, Bui, Merschbrock, & Munkvold concludes
that developing countries have to develop new BIM solution to address the challenges and
risks in the context of local construction industries [12].
Ghaffarianhoseini et al., stated the problems underlying the low adoption level were
arisen due to the scepticism concerning its full feasibility and real risks and challenges [1].
Zakaria et al., also mentioned that Malaysian’s construction player are still doubtful with
BIM effectiveness because of the limited proven data of successful rate [10]. Recently,
many research on the benefits attained by implementing BIM are not in Malaysia and BIM
application is limited in the fragmented nature of the Malaysian construction industry.
Further study shown the contractor Grade 1 (G1) to Grade 6 (G6) are not ready to
implement BIM in Malaysia construction projects due to technical risk namely hard to use
information technology (IT) and financial issue to purchase BIM tools such as Revit
Architectural, Revit Structural and Navisworks as well as to attend BIM-related training
[2].
Several BIM publications have addressed the challenges and potential risk in
implementing BIM. Eastman, Teicholz, Sacks, & Liston described the barriers for BIM
implementation are the work process changes and technological risks [13]. Meanwhile,
AEC UK provides the BIM protocal (2015) to give a guidance for BIM interoperability
problem. A same approach was implemented when Singapore AEC established the
Singapore BIM Guide version 2.0 to address the the risk allocation and intellectual property
rights in BIM project. In Malaysia, the study was carried out by Construction Research
Institute of Malaysia (CREAM, CIDB) shown barriers to BIM implementation are
identified as technology system risk and technology financial risk from the perspective of
individual and organisations [14]. Chien, We & Huang, mentioned risk management in
BIM project is more crucial, more complex which involved a big amount of investment
than conventional construction projects [5]. The bigger the size and complexity of the
project are, the bigger risk will be aroused [9]. Alreshidi, Mourshed, & Rezgui pointed out
that barriers and issues pertaining to BIM adoption in a collaborative environment would
affect the outcome of the construction project if such barriers are still instilled in the project
[15].
Being understood that projects are commonly influenced by multiple risk factors
regardless of project size or technology used, the said risk factors must be identified and
manage systematically during the early risk-management process. Understanding the
characteristics of the risk and the severity of risks are important to assess the risk and
develop a risk response strategy. Risk can be a potential factor to jeopardise the
successfulness of the project by affecting the cost, time and quality. The said factors can be
an actual problem which later on bringing construction project to failure. Thus, it crucial to
identify the potential risk at the first place as a basis for risk assessment and risk response
process. Risk identification relatively important because the process of risk assessment and
risk response are applied only to the potential risks that have been identified in earlier stage.
Therefore, this study aims to identify the risk in implementing BIM in Malaysia
construction industry.
2 Risk identification
The concept of risk is adopted in different fields and with a variety of different terms, such
as ‘‘hazard”, ‘‘threat”, ‘‘challenge”, or ‘‘uncertainty” [8]. Therefore, these terms were
combined and considered as key word when conducting the literature review. A systematic
risk management in the construction industry consists of three main stages; risk
identification, risk asssessment, and risk response. Risk identification is the first stage in
risk management process which is to identify the relevant and potential risk associated with
the project or organisation. It develops the basis for the next steps. This stage is crucial
because the processes of risk assessment and risk response are applied only to the identified
risks factors [5]. If risk managers unable to identify all possible losses or challenge in the
project or organisation, then these non-identified risks will become non-manageable and
jeopardize the successful completion of a project and affecting the project outcomes.
2.1 Risk identification process
A systematic literature review is adopted in this paper to identify the potential risk factor on
BIM implementation. The purpose of the systematic literature review is to gain overview
opinion and standpoint from different authors on the topic of study. To identify risks
effectively, many approaches have been suggested in the literature for classifying risks.
Pittard and Sell categorized BIM in 3 main components namely; process, people and
technology [16]. Chien, Wu and Huang presented a list of BIM risk factors extracted from
different nature of project consists of general construction project and IT project [5]. In a
nutshell, many ways can be used to classify the risks associated with construction projects
generally and BIM project specifically. The rationale for choosing a specific method must
cater the purpose of the research. These processes are important because the assessment and
response strategy will vary according to the nature of risk classification.
3
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2.2 BIM project risk factors
BIM is keen to be more suitable for complex projects and high risk projects [2]. Relatively,
risk will increase when size and complexity of construction projects are increasing [17].
Thus, risk management in BIM project is crucial as BIM project may involve with new
challenges and facing new risk factors. Comprehensive information is important in
determining risks and understanding the possibility of likelihood and the consequences of
each risk. Existing information sources from journal articles, proceedings and conferences,
books and online sources need to be accessed and reviewed. Therefore in this paper,
various sources have been reviewed comprises of risk in IT and software projects and risk
in BIM projects. Risk associated in IT project is considered since the successfulness on
BIM implementation are depending on the usage of software tools. The identified risks later
on were classified based on previous scholars’s categorisation as listed in Table 1.
Futhermore, the risk description were summarised under 4 main categories namely;
technical risk, management risk, financial risk and legal risk as shown in Table 1.
Table 1. Risk in Implementing BIM
Risk categories
Description
Literature
Technology Risk Interoperability,compatibility complexity
license policies
risk regarding data sharing
version control problem
data loss during BIM-IFC file exchange
insufficient hardware
lack of software compatibility
BIG DATA software unable
upgrading the technology
no proper ICT infrastructure
[1, 5, 10, 14, 17,
18, 19]
Management
Risk
Actors
lack of skilled personnel/BIM expertise
lack of knowledge of BIM implementation,
resistance to change from people;
insufficient commitment of top management,
the lack of support from senior,
mode of operation changes
time to familiar
Team
inadequate project organisation experience
lack of training;
no R&D unit for new technology
leadership of the company (conservative approach);
team does not have members with a vision or people
who are open minded to change,
lack of demand for BIM;
[1, 4, 5, 10, 14,
15, 17, 18, 19,
20, 21, 22]
Financial Risk
Financial
lack of funds
cost challenges
investment includes software and hardware and
[5, 1 [5, 14, 15, 17, 18,
1 1
9, 20, 21, 21, 23]
4
E3S Web of Conferences 65, 03002 (2018) https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/20186503002
ICCEE 2018
2.2 BIM project risk factors
BIM is keen to be more suitable for complex projects and high risk projects [2]. Relatively,
risk will increase when size and complexity of construction projects are increasing [17].
Thus, risk management in BIM project is crucial as BIM project may involve with new
challenges and facing new risk factors. Comprehensive information is important in
determining risks and understanding the possibility of likelihood and the consequences of
each risk. Existing information sources from journal articles, proceedings and conferences,
books and online sources need to be accessed and reviewed. Therefore in this paper,
various sources have been reviewed comprises of risk in IT and software projects and risk
in BIM projects. Risk associated in IT project is considered since the successfulness on
BIM implementation are depending on the usage of software tools. The identified risks later
on were classified based on previous scholars’s categorisation as listed in Table 1.
Futhermore, the risk description were summarised under 4 main categories namely;
technical risk, management risk, financial risk and legal risk as shown in Table 1.
Table 1. Risk in Implementing BIM
Risk categories
Description
Literature
Technology Risk
Interoperability,compatibility complexity
license policies
risk regarding data sharing
version control problem
data loss during BIM-IFC file exchange
insufficient hardware
lack of software compatibility
BIG DATA software unable
upgrading the technology
no proper ICT infrastructure
[1, 5, 10, 14, 17,
18, 19]
Management
Risk
Actors
lack of skilled personnel/BIM expertise
lack of knowledge of BIM implementation,
resistance to change from people;
insufficient commitment of top management,
the lack of support from senior,
mode of operation changes
time to familiar
Team
inadequate project organisation experience
lack of training;
no R&D unit for new technology
leadership of the company (conservative approach);
team does not have members with a vision or people
who are open minded to change,
lack of demand for BIM;
[1, 4, 5, 10, 14,
15, 17, 18, 19,
20, 21, 22]
Financial Risk
Financial
lack of funds
cost challenges
investment includes software and hardware and
[5, 1 [5, 14, 15, 17, 18,
1 19, 20, 21, 21, 23]
human resources
high initial investment costs
software updates
Legal Risk
BIM Standard and legal BIM
intellectual property
cyber security
ownership or licensing issues of data model
unclear policies for re-use BIM model
unclear level of responsibility
liability issue derived from joint authorship of
different BIM model
limited warranties from the designers
risk for accuracy of data
no specific BIM protocol
no standard contract for BIM project
dispute-settlement mechanisms risk,
contract obligations in certain countries or unified
documentation
company knowledge leaked
[1, 5, 14, 15, 18,
19, 20, 21, 23]
2.2.1 Technology risk
Technical risks are referring to technical issue pertaining to the implementation of BIM in
construction project. The interoperability between application and software compatibility
issue are considered a major risk in implementing BIM. This problem arises when a single
software tool is developed to accomplish the requirement from different discipline [18, 31].
Different project team are required to use a same BIM model in their practice, resulting the
compatibility issue in transferring the data from their existing software to a new BIM
software. They also facing the risk of data loss during data transferring process and during
the updating a new version. In order to accomplish a full BIM adoption in construction
project, good infrastructure support focusing on open file exchange formats, like the
industry foundation classes (IFC) should establish especially for developing country like
Malaysia to ensure the date model are control by government agency and not the software
vendor.
2.2.2 Management risk
Management risk can be divided into two broad categories namely actor risk and team risk.
Actor risk meant for an individual attribute such as reluctant to change from their comfort
zone, lengthy time to familiar with new technology, and lack of BIM experience. These
will demotivate the organisation to implement BIM in their project. On the other hand, lack
of training and conservative leadership approach will bring a high risk in organisation. The
decision maker, should have a clear vision or demand for BIM adoption in their
organisation. This attitute will open a new opportunity for the management to provide the
training to their subordinate and to establish a Research and Development (R&D) centre in
their organisation. Furthermore, in ensuring BIM being implemented in organisation, only
company with adequate BIM knowledge and BIM experience are allowed to tender for
BIM project to avoid the probability of project failure.
5
E3S Web of Conferences 65, 03002 (2018) https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/20186503002
ICCEE 2018
2.2.3 Financial risk
Cost will be one of the risk in implementing BIM in organisation. It requires a large initial
investment in updating software, hardware and provide training to staff [18]. It also costly
in terms of changing the work flow and work process. In Malaysia, contractor Grade 1 (G1)
to Grade 6 (G6) are still not ready to implement BIM in their construction project due to a
large amount of money to purchase the BIM software and to attend the training [2].
2.2.4 Legal risk
Absent of national BIM standard in construction industry create a high risk in implementing
BIM. There is no clear standard and policy on BIM process and procedure, no legal
provision for intellectual property, cyber security, and ownership of the data model. Who is
the owner of the data model? Adoption of BIM are initiative by the organisation and yet no
mandate from government to fully implement BIM in construction project both in public or
private project. Therefore, the organisation use their own standard and modified from other
country BIM standard to make suit with Malaysian construction industry. Thus, this
standard tend to be a project basis rather than national standard based. Furthermore, there is
also no standard contract for BIM project which stipulated the contract obligation among
parties involved and dispute settlement mechanism. This will create a big risk in term of
unclear level of responsibility among the project team. Who will bear the responsibility if
any inaccuracy or mistake detected since all have ‘touch up the information in the same
data model?
3 Conclusion
Building Information Modeling (BIM) becomes a core technology used in construction
industry due to its benefits and positive impacts towards the project objectives. However,
the adoption rate is still at very low level and slow pace. The main problem of this issue is
concerning real risks and challenges. To succeed in BIM implementation, its important to
have a systematic risk management of how risk being mitigates and the challenges being
overcome. This paper focusing on the 1st stage of risk management which in risk
identification. A summary of risk factors in BIM project were presented and categorised
under 4 main categories; technical risk, management risk, financial risk and legal risk. This
identified risk serve as initial stage in systematic risk management process. It’s crucial to
identify the potential risk in order to enable the organisation to evaluate, assess the risk and
subsequently propose an effective risk response strategy. Failure to recognised the risk
might be affected and jeopardised the project outcome. Risk assessment and risk response
strategy for BIM implementation are highly depending on the comprehensive risk factors.
Recommended that the list of risk factors can be enhance by combining appropriate
techniques from literature review, interview and brainstorming. This research outcome is
proposed as an ongoing basis for the development of subsequent stage in risk management
process involving risk assessment and risk response strategy.
References
1. A. Ghaffarianhoseini, J. Tookey, A. Ghaffarianhoseini, N. Naismith, S. Azhar, O.
Efimova, K. Raahemifar, Building Information Modelling (BIM) uptake: Clear
benefits, understanding its implementation, risks and challenges. Renewable and
Sustainable Energy Reviews, (October 2015).
6
E3S Web of Conferences 65, 03002 (2018) https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/20186503002
ICCEE 2018
2.2.3 Financial risk
Cost will be one of the risk in implementing BIM in organisation. It requires a large initial
investment in updating software, hardware and provide training to staff [18]. It also costly
in terms of changing the work flow and work process. In Malaysia, contractor Grade 1 (G1)
to Grade 6 (G6) are still not ready to implement BIM in their construction project due to a
large amount of money to purchase the BIM software and to attend the training [2].
2.2.4 Legal risk
Absent of national BIM standard in construction industry create a high risk in implementing
BIM. There is no clear standard and policy on BIM process and procedure, no legal
provision for intellectual property, cyber security, and ownership of the data model. Who is
the owner of the data model? Adoption of BIM are initiative by the organisation and yet no
mandate from government to fully implement BIM in construction project both in public or
private project. Therefore, the organisation use their own standard and modified from other
country BIM standard to make suit with Malaysian construction industry. Thus, this
standard tend to be a project basis rather than national standard based. Furthermore, there is
also no standard contract for BIM project which stipulated the contract obligation among
parties involved and dispute settlement mechanism. This will create a big risk in term of
unclear level of responsibility among the project team. Who will bear the responsibility if
any inaccuracy or mistake detected since all have ‘touch up the information in the same
data model?
3 Conclusion
Building Information Modeling (BIM) becomes a core technology used in construction
industry due to its benefits and positive impacts towards the project objectives. However,
the adoption rate is still at very low level and slow pace. The main problem of this issue is
concerning real risks and challenges. To succeed in BIM implementation, its important to
have a systematic risk management of how risk being mitigates and the challenges being
overcome. This paper focusing on the 1st stage of risk management which in risk
identification. A summary of risk factors in BIM project were presented and categorised
under 4 main categories; technical risk, management risk, financial risk and legal risk. This
identified risk serve as initial stage in systematic risk management process. It’s crucial to
identify the potential risk in order to enable the organisation to evaluate, assess the risk and
subsequently propose an effective risk response strategy. Failure to recognised the risk
might be affected and jeopardised the project outcome. Risk assessment and risk response
strategy for BIM implementation are highly depending on the comprehensive risk factors.
Recommended that the list of risk factors can be enhance by combining appropriate
techniques from literature review, interview and brainstorming. This research outcome is
proposed as an ongoing basis for the development of subsequent stage in risk management
process involving risk assessment and risk response strategy.
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Information Modelling (BIM) for constructions in Malaysia. Malaysian Construction
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E3S Web of Conferences 65, 03002 (2018) https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/20186503002
ICCEE 2018
Research Journal (Mcrj), 15(2), 19 (2014).
15. E. Alreshidi, M. Mourshed, Y. Rezgui, Factors for effective BIM governance, Journal
of Building Engineering, 10, 89-101 (2017).
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jobe.2017.02.006
16. S. Pittard, P. Sell, BIM and quantity surveying. New York: Routledge (2016).
17. R. Tulenheimo. Challenges of implementing new technologies in the world of BIM
Case study from construction engineering industry in Finland. Procedia Economics
and Finance, 21(Henttinen 2012), 469477 (2015).
https://doi.org/10.1016/S2212-5671(15)00201-4
18. A.H. Memon, I.A, Rahman, I. Memon, N.I.A. Azman, BIM in Malaysian construction
industry: Status, advantages, barriers and strategies to enhance the implementation
level. Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology, 8(5), 606
614 (2014). https://doi.org/10.19026/rjaset.8.1012
19. S. Rokooei, Building Information Modeling in Project Management: Necessities,
Challenges and Outcomes. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 210, 8795
(2015). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.11.332
20. R. Eadie, M. Browne, H. Odeyinka, C. McKeown, S. McNiff, BIM implementation
throughout the UK construction project lifecycle: An analysis. Automation in
Construction, 36, 145151 (2013).
21. D. Migilinkas, V. Popov, V. Juocevicius, L. Ustinovichius, The benefits, obstacles and
problems of practical bim implementation. Procedia Engineering, 57, 767774 (
2013). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2013.04.097
22. D. Cao, H. Li, G. Wang, T. Huang, Identifying and contextualising the motivations
for BIM implementation in construction projectsAn empirical study in China.
International Journal of Project Management, 35(4), 658669 (2017).
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijproman.2016.02.002
23. S. Azhar, Building Information Modeling (BIM): Trends, Benefits, Risks, and
Challenges for the AEC Industry.Leadership and Management in Engineering, 11(3),
241-252 (2011) .http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)LM.1943-5630.0000127
24. Q. He, L. Luo, Y. Hu, A.P.C. Chan, Measuring the complexity of mega construction
projects in China-A fuzzy analytic network process analysis. International Journal of
Project Management, 33(3), 549563 (2015).
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijproman.2014.07.009
25. M. Latham, Constructing the Team: Joint Review of Procurement and Contractual
Arrangements in the United Kingdom Construction Industry:Final Report. London,
England: H.M. Stationery Office (1994).
26. AEC (UK) BIM Technology Protocol v2.1. Retrieved May 2, 2017, from
https://aecuk.files.wordpress.com/2015/06/aecukbimtechnologyprotocol-v2-1-1-
201506022.pdf
27. B. Hardin, D. McCool, BIM and Construction Management: Proven tools, methods
and workflow. Indianapolis: Wiley Publishing, IN. (2015)
28. A. Tomek, P. Matejka, The impact of BIM on risk management As an argument for its
implementation in a construction company. Procedia Engineering, 85, 501509
(2014). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2014.10.577
29. A. Porwal, K.N. Hewage, Building Information Modeling (BIM) partnering
8
E3S Web of Conferences 65, 03002 (2018) https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/20186503002
ICCEE 2018
Research Journal (Mcrj), 15(2), 19 (2014).
15. E. Alreshidi, M. Mourshed, Y. Rezgui, Factors for effective BIM governance, Journal
of Building Engineering, 10, 89-101 (2017).
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jobe.2017.02.006
16. S. Pittard, P. Sell, BIM and quantity surveying. New York: Routledge (2016).
17. R. Tulenheimo. Challenges of implementing new technologies in the world of BIM
Case study from construction engineering industry in Finland. Procedia Economics
and Finance, 21(Henttinen 2012), 469477 (2015).
https://doi.org/10.1016/S2212-5671(15)00201-4
18. A.H. Memon, I.A, Rahman, I. Memon, N.I.A. Azman, BIM in Malaysian construction
industry: Status, advantages, barriers and strategies to enhance the implementation
level. Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology, 8(5), 606
614 (2014). https://doi.org/10.19026/rjaset.8.1012
19. S. Rokooei, Building Information Modeling in Project Management: Necessities,
Challenges and Outcomes. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 210, 8795
(2015). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.11.332
20. R. Eadie, M. Browne, H. Odeyinka, C. McKeown, S. McNiff, BIM implementation
throughout the UK construction project lifecycle: An analysis. Automation in
Construction, 36, 145151 (2013).
21. D. Migilinkas, V. Popov, V. Juocevicius, L. Ustinovichius, The benefits, obstacles and
problems of practical bim implementation. Procedia Engineering, 57, 767774 (
2013). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2013.04.097
22. D. Cao, H. Li, G. Wang, T. Huang, Identifying and contextualising the motivations
for BIM implementation in construction projectsAn empirical study in China.
International Journal of Project Management, 35(4), 658669 (2017).
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijproman.2016.02.002
23. S. Azhar, Building Information Modeling (BIM): Trends, Benefits, Risks, and
Challenges for the AEC Industry.Leadership and Management in Engineering, 11(3),
241-252 (2011) .http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)LM.1943-5630.0000127
24. Q. He, L. Luo, Y. Hu, A.P.C. Chan, Measuring the complexity of mega construction
projects in China-A fuzzy analytic network process analysis. International Journal of
Project Management, 33(3), 549563 (2015).
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijproman.2014.07.009
25. M. Latham, Constructing the Team: Joint Review of Procurement and Contractual
Arrangements in the United Kingdom Construction Industry:Final Report. London,
England: H.M. Stationery Office (1994).
26. AEC (UK) BIM Technology Protocol v2.1. Retrieved May 2, 2017, from
https://aecuk.files.wordpress.com/2015/06/aecukbimtechnologyprotocol-v2-1-1-
201506022.pdf
27. B. Hardin, D. McCool, BIM and Construction Management: Proven tools, methods
and workflow. Indianapolis: Wiley Publishing, IN. (2015)
28. A. Tomek, P. Matejka, The impact of BIM on risk management As an argument for its
implementation in a construction company. Procedia Engineering, 85, 501509
(2014). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2014.10.577
29. A. Porwal, K.N. Hewage, Building Information Modeling (BIM) partnering
framework for public construction projects. Automation in Construction, 31, 204214
(2013). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.autcon.2012.12.004
30. C. Sun, Q. Man, Y. Wang, Study on BIM-based construction project cost and
schedule risk early warning. Journal of Intelligent and Fuzzy Systems, 29(2), 469477
(2015). https://doi.org/10.3233/IFS-141178
31. D. Mehran, Exploring the Adoption of BIM in the UAE Construction Industry for
AEC Firms. Procedia Engineering, 145, 11101118 ( 2016).
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2016.04.144
9
E3S Web of Conferences 65, 03002 (2018) https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/20186503002
ICCEE 2018
  • ... However, BIM is not yet the universal standard in the construction industry; thus it is possible that construction partners are not utilizing BIM software and; therefore, will not be able to use BIM models [35]. Implementing new technologies, such as BIM, is costly in terms of training and changing work processes, as well as investment into software and hardware [36]. BIM implementation is not as advanced in most developing countries, perhaps because it requires additional investments, training and support efforts of all project partners. ...
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