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Efficient routing for corona based underwater wireless sensor networks

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Abstract and Figures

The imbalance energy consumption and high data traffic at intermediate nodes degrade the network performance. In this paper, we propose: energy grade and balance load distribution (EGBLOAD) corona, EG without corona and DA without corona based schemes to distribute data traffic across the network nodes for efficient energy consumption. The dynamic adjustment of transmission range in first scheme helps in reducing data load. Additionally, the transmission range is purely based on distance, energy and data load of the receiver node for achieving maximum network lifetime. Second scheme divides a data packet into three fractions; small, medium and large for transmitting from various paths to evenly distribute the data load on the network nodes. In third scheme, depth adjustment of void node is performed to resume network operations, whereas, the load distribution and transmission range mechanisms are the same. The extensive simulations are carried out to show the effectiveness of proposed schemes in terms of PDR, energy consumption, and load distribution against the baseline scheme.
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Computing (2019) 101:831–856
Efficient routing for corona based underwater wireless
sensor networks
Zahoor Ali Khan1
·Ghazanfar Latif2
·Arshad Sher2
·Imran Usman3
Mahmood Ashraf4
·Manzoor Ilahi2
·Nadeem Javaid2
Received: 3 May 2018 / Accepted: 11 December 2018 / Published online: 2 January 2019
© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2019
The imbalance energy consumption and high data traffic at intermediate nodes degrade
the network performance. In this paper, we propose: energy grade and balance load
distribution corona, EG without corona and DA without corona based schemes to
distribute data traffic across the network nodes for efficient energy consumption. The
dynamic adjustment of transmission range in first scheme helps in reducing data load.
Additionally, the transmission range is purely based on distance, energy and data
load of the receiver node for achieving maximum network lifetime. Second scheme
divides a data packet into three fractions; small, medium and large for transmitting
from various paths to evenly distribute the data load on the network nodes. In third
scheme, depth adjustment of void node is performed to resume network operations,
whereas, the load distribution and transmission range mechanisms are the same. The
extensive simulations are carried out to show the effectiveness of proposed schemes in
terms of PDR, energy consumption, and load distribution against the baseline scheme.
Keywords Underwater wireless sensor networks ·Energy grade ·Load distribution ·
Adaptive transmission power
Mathematics Subject Classification 65D99
BZahoor Ali Khan
1Computer Information Science, Higher Colleges of Technology, Fujairah Campus 4114, Abu
Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
2COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
3College of Computing and Informatics, Saudi Electronic University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
4Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved.
... Since the development of WSN-based IoT, multitudinous routing methods have been presented. [28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35] The network conditions are complex and dynamic; hence, it makes the replacement of battery quixotic. Consequently, the energy expenditure of sensor nodes is a crucial concern which seeks research attention. ...
... The network lifetime of a WSN-based IoT system is the total number of rounds completed when a node ceases to function. Figures 4A,B and 5A,B demonstrate that NORTH achieves network lifetime of 44,000 rounds; however, the protocols CIRP, DECEM, MEEC, IDHR, and GAOC accounted to 38,193,35,440,25,621,19,511, and 16,133 rounds, respectively. The reason for this improvement is the usage of traits like the network's average energy, which facilitates energy balance in the network. ...
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Technological advancements in the area of the Internet of Things have fostered the development of multi‐hop architectures pertaining to applications seeking large network areas. However, while exploiting such applications, the sensor devices being used are made to communicate through multi‐hop routing techniques, burdening the relay nodes. Hence, it leads to a hot‐spot problem, as the nodes passing on the data, that is, relay nodes, consume their energy at a large magnitude. To solve this issue, in this paper, we propose a novel optimized routing technique to mitigate hot‐spot problem (NORTH) for wireless sensor network (WSN)‐based IoT. We employ the tunicate swarm algorithm (TSA) to optimize the cluster‐based routing, specifically the selection of cluster head (CH) of each cluster by using some novel parameters. These parameters include energy status, a distance of a node from the sink and other nodes, load balancing, node proximity, and average energy stock of the network. We investigate two network scenarios, that is, when a sink is placed inside the network and otherwise, to give an optimized solution for every case. Further, to mitigate the hot‐spot problem, the relay node is selected in a cluster with the same mechanism as CH, which performs the task of data forwarding. The simulation analysis of NORTH reveals the supremacy of the proposed work against the recently proposed algorithms, based on various performance metrics, namely, network longevity, stability duration, throughput, and the network's remaining energy.
... Since the development of IoUT, various energy saving routing mechanisms have been proposed. [22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29] As the conditions of underwater scenario is complex which leads to non-replacement of batteries on regular basis. Hence, energy consumption of sensor nodes becomes one of the serious concerns to be handled. ...
... EGBLOAD 29 : The authors proposed this protocol for distributing the data traffic for acquiring efficient expenditure of energy. The data load is reduced for the first technique. ...
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Internet of Underwater Things (IoUT) comprises various resource‐constrained sensor nodes; therefore, the routing followed in acoustic medium underwater should be energy efficient to preserve their energies. Due to large area covered in the scenarios of underwater, the multi‐hop communication leads to energy hole problem. Therefore, Energy hole mitigation through Optimized Cluster Head (CH) selection and Strategic Routing (EOCSR) in IoUT is proposed in this paper. The proposed work not only optimizes CH selection using Tunicate Swarm Algorithm but also incorporates strategic routing to address energy hole problem. The simulation results show that EOCSR improves stability and lifetime of network by 16.8% and 17.7%, as compared with recently proposed Moth Flame Optimization‐based routing method.
... A node broadcasts the data packet to a forwarding set of nodes. Moreover, hidden terminal problem is solved by the involvement of multiple nodes that can overhear each other's transmissions in opportunistic routing Khan et al. (2019). Furthermore, in the case of bad link quality, the availability of multiple nodes in the forwarding set ensures successful data delivery and reduces energy consumption caused by retransmissions , Khan et al. (2022). ...
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... The sensors are used for tracking and monitoring purposes. In tracking purposes, sensors track enemies, animals, road traffic, etc., while in the moni-toring process, sensors monitor the environment, patients' health, malicious activities, etc. [3,4]. ...
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... However, this approach consumes high computational time among the nodes. In another work of Khan et al. [40], introduced an efficient routing scheme based on Energy Grade (EG), balanced load distribution, Depth Adjustment (DA), corona and without corona (EGBLOOAD) that dynamically adjusts the transmission range to prolong the lifetime and avoid data traffic for corona based UWSN. In this, the transmission range involves distance, load data and energy. ...
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... In routing protocol of [34], the IoTs consist of resource constrained devices, which are unable to perform PoW consensus mechanism. Moreover, in [35], the authors proposed an efficient routing scheme for underwater WSNs. ...
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The Underwater Wireless Acoustic Sensors are facing several challenges due to their limited energy power that can significantly affect their network performances, hence the design of an efficient and reliable routing protocol for the underwater sensor communication is becoming the main purpose for the researchers, however, in this article, a new mechanism is proposed to balance the underwater network energy consumption due to the frequent data packet forwarding, whereas the protocol uses a method that is based on the historical nodes energy, where sensor that are excessively consuming energy are considered as overloaded node and has to be excluded from the forwarding process depending on their priority value. The implementation and simulation have been performed using NS-2 network simulator, based on the well-known protocol for the underwater acoustic communication ‘Vector-Based Forwarding routing protocol’, the results shows the performance of the proposed mechanism over the VBF in term of energy consumption and efficiency, successful delivery data, and end to end delay.
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