Book

Introduction to Human Factors and Ergonomics for Engineers

Authors:

Abstract

Emphasizing customer oriented design and operation, Introduction to Human Factors and Ergonomics for Engineers explores the behavioral, physical, and mathematical foundations of the discipline and how to apply them to improve the human, societal, and economic well being of systems and organizations. The book discusses product design, such as tools, machines, or systems as well as the tasks or jobs people perform, and environments in which people live. The authors explore methods of obtaining these objectives, uniquely approaching the topic from an engineering perspective as well as a psychological standpoint. The 22 chapters of this book, coupled with the extensive appendices, provide valuable tools for students and practicing engineers in human centered design and operation of equipment, work place, and organizations in order to optimize performance, satisfaction, and effectiveness. Covering physical and cognitive ergonomics, the book is an excellent source for valuable information on safe, effective, enjoyable, and productive design of products and services that require interaction between humans and the environment.
... This compliance was followed by the approval of the Ethics Committee of Université du Québec en Abitibi-Témiscamingue (UQAT). Subsequently, a total of 7 Canadian experts (a representative sample sizeLehto & Buck, 2008;Nielsen, 1993) [42] ...
... This compliance was followed by the approval of the Ethics Committee of Université du Québec en Abitibi-Témiscamingue (UQAT). Subsequently, a total of 7 Canadian experts (a representative sample sizeLehto & Buck, 2008;Nielsen, 1993) [42] ...
... The measurement of subjective workload is considered to represent the conditions felt by the operator regarding the burden of his work [4]. Also, measurements using NASA TLX are more comfortable to identify components that affect workload [1] and can provide excellent results without requiring the difficult and expensive direct observation of operators [8]. ...
... The advantages of subjective workload rating are that they can provide excellent results without requiring expensive and sometimes tricky direct observation of operators. Another advantage is that the norms are taken retrospectively, which eliminates the possibility of interfering with task performance [8]. ...
... Human factors engineering as a design-production process recognizes (a) the holistic, ecological, and cross-disciplinary nature of human-technology system design; (b) the socio-cultural, economic, and geopolitical importance of information utilization and knowledge generation, and (c) the dynamically-hybrid human-centered, user-centered, and usage-centered nature of product form factor and interface design (Burns & Hajdukiewicz, 2004;Hofstede, 1991). Human factor approaches strive to deeply integrate existing multidisciplinary domains including: (a) systems theory; change management; computer and information science; (b) cognitive informatics, learning and performance; (c) philosophy, law and ethics; (d) human physiological psychology, cognition and perception; and (e) usability testing, industrial design, and ergonomics (Lehto & Buck, 2007;Rubin, 1994;Salvendy, 2006;Stanton, & Young, 1999;Ware, 2004;Wickens, Lee, Liu, & Becker, 2004). ...
... The emerging IT professions utilizing human factors design may make a positive, significant and possibly decisive change in the way we will design and deliver our academic information technology environments in the 21st century (Lehto & Buck, 2007). The human factors and allied usability professions are in the process of improving user experience designs for more accessible, more truly universal design solutions (Guastello, 2006;Hassenzahl, Beu, & Burmester, 2001;Jokela, 2002;Keates, 2007;Lidwell, Holden, & Butler, 2003;Preece, Rogers, & Sharp, 2002). ...
Chapter
This chapter examines the realm of human-factors design for public information technology in the rapidly evolving postmodern knowledge age of the 21st century, with special focus on how new research and development into human cognition, perception, and performance capabilities is changing the design function for IT systems and products. Many “one size fits all” IT designs are neither adaptive nor adaptable—promulgating a top-down technological imperialism penetrating every aspect of their use. The communication, collaboration, and interaction infrastructure of IT organizations thus remains acutely challenged with enduring problems of usability, learnability, accessibility, and adaptability. As the function and form of products undergo increasingly rigorous scrutiny, one important design goal is emerging as a paramount priority: improving the usability of products, tools, and systems for all stakeholders across the enterprise. It is therefore important to briefly describe emerging human-factor design knowledge and practices applicable to organizations that invent, incubate, innovate, prototype, and drive the creation and application of public IT. The findings here suggest the most effective strategies to manage and augment user-centered design (UCD) endeavors across a wide array of public IT products and organizations.
... Occupational exposure to too many acceleration values can damage the health of operators and, consequently, they may leave work due to occupational diseases. In this sense, whole-body vibrations can be associated with the most diverse harmful effects that occur on the health of the operator, such as fatigue, insomnia, headaches, tremors, problems in the lumbar region and neck, and reduction in the attention of operators, in addition to generating discomfort and loss of efficiency while working [48][49][50][51]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The grapple skidder is a self-propelled forestry machine that is used for the extraction of trees in wood harvesting—commonly used in full tree systems. Moving this machine can expose operators to occupational hazards of physical origin, among which whole body vibration stands out. However, the measurement of this risk agent does not have a standard measurement time, being performed for periods of approximately 30 min—disregarding the time of the daily workday. In view of this, it was analyzed whether occupational exposure to whole body vibration transmitted to grapple skidder operators using different measurement times complies with the guidelines for preventative purposes. Thus, measurements of whole-body vibration were carried out along three orthogonal axes over a period of one hour and over a daily workday of eight hours—by which were measured the daily (8 h) vibration exposure for the l-axis and the vibration value. The acceleration values in the three evaluated axes were higher for the daily working day, denoting the influence of the measurement time. In addition, the vibration dose value resulted in values above the action limit for both evaluations; however, the daily workload was highlighted—indicating the presence of higher vibration peaks over a longer measurement time. Thus, the assertiveness and influence of measurement times over the daily working day for whole-body vibration transmitted to grapple skidder operators is evidenced.
... Based on the amount of coconut production, the availability of coconut shells as raw material for briquettes is also abundant. Coconut shell is considered the best briquette material because it has a carbon content of 76.32% when it is turned into charcoal, relatively higher when compared to charcoal from other materials [8]. PT XYZ plans to produce coconut shell briquettes. ...
Article
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PT XYZ plans to produce coconut shell briquettes. Currently, PT XYZ already has a hammer mill machine that will be used in the production process. A hammer mill machine is a machine that serves to smooth the material. Before carrying out mass production, a simulation is carried out first. The manufacture of briquettes found obstacles in the process of grinding and screening. Coconut shell charcoal that has been milled and entered is partially retained and cannot be released to proceed to the next process. The grinding result is larger than the screen size, which is 1 to 2 mm. In the manufacture of briquettes, it is expected that the grinding results are less or equal to 0.4 mm. Based on the identification of the problem, the alternative solution chosen by the researcher is to redesign the hammer mill machine, especially on the blade and screen sections. The design is done using the reverse engineering method. There are five steps in designing using this method. In the study, it was found that the second design was a suitable design to be developed because it was better than the existing state. The mill results were obtained with an average of 0.0343 mm and a grinding time of 186.807 seconds. The fineness values and the grinding process time were obtained through simulations using the EDEM 2022.1 software.
... Kao and Thomas (2008) seem to be the first ones who paid attention to this analogy that could be viewed today as part of what is identified as human-system-integration/interaction (HSI). This extraordinarily broad field includes the role of human performance in various psychological and ergonomic tasks in general (Suhir, Karwowski, and Bedny, I., 2021, Suhir, and Paul, 2021,Suhir, 2020, Hollnagel, 1993, Taatgen, 2002, Lehto and Buck, 2008, Gluck and Pew, 2005 and critical aspects of human interaction with an intelligent system in particular: predictive modeling (PM), computer and analytical based simulations (Suhir, 2014(Suhir, , 2016(Suhir, , 2017; vehicular engineering, such as aerospace (Suhir, 2013, Suhir and Yi, 2017, automotive, railway, and maritime; medical electronics (Cain, 2007); and, of course, all kind of the human-in-the loop (HITL) and human factor (HF) related activities, attributes and challenges. The outcome of these activities is due, first of all, to the short-term mental (cognitive) workload (MWL) and, mostly to the long-term, human capacity factor (HCF) (Suhir, 2017, 2013, Suhir, Yi, 2017, Cain, 2007. ...
Conference Paper
There is an obvious analogy between the challenges that an aircraft pilot has to cope with when fulfilling his/her long-term mission or when encountering a short-term abnormal situation, and the challenges that a surgeon faces during his/her "mission", a surgical operation, which is always a highly challenging and sometimes unpredictable effort. Kao and Thomas seem to be the first ones who paid attention to this analogy that could be viewed today as a part of what is identified as human-system-integration/interaction (HSI) field. This extraordinarily broad field includes the role of human performance in various psychological and ergonomics tasks in general and critical aspects of human interactions with an intelligent system in particular: predictive modeling (PM), both computer simulations based and analytical; vehicular engineering, such as aerospace, automotive, railway, and maritime; medical electronics; and, of course, all kind of the human-in-the loop (HITL) and human factor (HF) related activities, attributes and challenges. The outcome of these activities is highly dependent on the mental (cognitive) workload (MWL) and, mostly long-term, human capacity factor (HCF). Probabilistic predictive modeling (PPM) enables evaluating, improving, assuring and ultimately, if possible and appropriate, even specifying the acceptable (adequate and never-zero) probability of failure of a HITL mission or a situation, when the reliability of the equipment/instrumentation, the performance of the human-in-control (the pilot or the surgeon) and the response of the object-of-control (the air or spacecraft, not to mention the patient undergoing surgery), and the interfaces of these and other uncertainties contribute jointly to the importance of the outcome of the undertaking. Systemic-Structural Activity Theory (SSAT) is applicable to the analysis and improvement of the efficiency and reliability of the highly challenging types of human activity. The objective of this paper is to indicate the need for quantifying the role of the HF in making a surgical operation less risky and to indicate that the consideration of the analogy of this effort with the aircraft pilot challenges, which have been addressed and modeled in a number of recent publications, could be helpful. The paper uses a simplified double-exponential-probability-distribution function (DEPDF) to make our point and to "bring down to earth" the more general model for the probability of the human-non-failure (HnF). By predicting this probability and making it adequate for a particular surgical application, one could put various "educated guesses" and "gut feelings" about the instrumentation and human reliability during the fulfillment of the surgical mission on a really "reliable" quantified foundation. Plenty of additional, both analytical and computer simulation-based modeling, as well as experimental and clinical and statistical work should be done to “reduce to practice” the general idea of the need for quantifying, in one way or another, the numerous challenges that a surgeon faces in his/hers never-routine activity, in which the analogy with the pilot's performance might be helpful.
... Eye Link II Display PC which was used in this research was Hans G monitor 29.5 × 46.4 cm and a CPU. Human's sight range is limited to 30° [13], so the minimum range between the monitor and the eyes is 88.6 cm. ...
Article
Full-text available
Nowadays, Indonesian consumers are very lacking in attention to nutrition labels. This research focused on front-of-pack nutrition labelling. Based on a research conducted in US, Europe, Australia, and New Zealand, front-of-pack nutrition labels ease consumers to choose healthier food products. The objective of this research for the food manufacturers is as a recommendation of effective front-of-pack nutrition labelling, and for the consumers as a consideration to choose proper and healthier products. This research was begun with consumer preference questionnaire and was continued with eye-tracking. The results of questionnaire and eye-tracking were compared and were validated using eye-tracking. This research shows that the most effective front-of-pack nutrition label should be placed at upper left and using PDI (Percent Daily Intake) format.
... This study adopted Lin and Hsieh (2011) SSTQUAL measurement for customer requirements. For QFD, researchers can either develop customer requirement items from scratch or use findings from previous studies to determine customer requirements (Lehto et al., 2007). Since SSTQUAL was developed in the SST context, it perfectly fits for this study. ...
Article
Self-service technology (SST) has been increasingly integrated into today’s service industry. The ability to understand how customers perceive SST and improve its quality is therefore important for both researchers and practitioners. Applying the Quality Function Deployment (QFD) methodology, this research established an SST House of Quality (HoQ) structure for restaurants by synthesizing the inputs of consumers and restaurant industry experts, the managers. This HoQ presents a relationship matrix that allows restaurants to assess SST attributes in relation to SST technical design specificities in a measurable way. Such a relationship matrix can assist in designing restaurant SST to deliver better service and customer experiences. This research thus provides an illustration of how the QFD method can be a useful tool in SST service design in restaurants.
... Ergonomi merupakan ilmu yang mempelajari perilaku manusia saat bekerja (Lehto & Buck, 1999). Menurut (Tarwaka, Ha.Bakri, & Sudiajeng, 2004) ergonomi dapat diartikan sebagai aturan-aturan dan norma yang diterapkan dalam suatu sistem kerja dan melihat batasan-batasan tubuh manusia terhadap suatu pekerjaan yang dilakukannya, serta menerapkan suatu teknologi untuk meningkatkan kualitas hidup agar menjadi lebih baik lagi. ...
Article
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Material Handling Equipment (MHE) is a tool that function to ease the workload in a work. But in the recipient area, Company X still carries out raw material unloading activities manually without the help of MHE, especially in the process of moving the timber blocks from truck suppliers to the ground. This process is repeated for a long time. Eventually, it causes the workers are at risk of getting Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs). In addition, the manual moving process is considered ineffective and inefficient by the process of unloading raw materials on a truck that can take hours. Because they have to move the wood blocks one by one manually. For this reason, an ergonomic design process for MHE was carried out by Ergonomic Function Deployment (EFD) approach which applies ergonomic aspects, namely ENASE (Effective, Comfortable, Safe, Healthy, and Efficient). It is hoped that this research will result in the concept of an ergonomic MHE can reduce the risk of Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) that can be seen from changes in the REBA value of workers' postures and makes the process of unloading raw materials more effective and efficient
... General aspects of the role of the HF were addressed [11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20], various human performance models with an emphasis on safety were suggested [21][22][23][24][25], long -and short-term preventive anticipation strategies have been modeled and analyzed in a large number of publications (see, e.g., Ref. [26][27][28][29][30][31][32]). As to the need for quantitative modeling, such a need has been indicated way back, about half a century ago, by Restle and Greeno [33], and addressed during the last several decades by numerous investigators (see, e.g., Refs. ...
Article
Astronaut's performance is critical to assure success and safety of an outer space mission. For the given mental workload (MWL), astronaut's long-term performance is affected by his/hers human capacity factor (HCF), while the astronaut's short-term performance depends also on his/hers current state of health (SoH). It is suggested that the roles of these human factors (HFs) are quantified by using the double-exponential-probability-distribution function (DEPDF). The underlying physics and attributes of this function in the problem in question are addressed and explained. The general concepts are illustrated by a numerical example.
... This research is related to the design of the output loader section that is too short, making it difficult for the operator to work. In addition, the position of the loader that is too low also affects the level of safety and ergonomics of the operator [1]. This has an effect on morality, the reduced enthusiasm of working of the operator because in the process of making the engine valve, the operator should be bent or even squat. ...
Article
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The process of making an engine valve is through a machining process in the machining area. One of the machines in the machining area is a snap gauge machine. This snap gauge machine is used for the engine valve dimension inspection process. In this snap gauge machine, there is a section called the output loader. The existing condition is the low height of the output loader. This causes the operator to bend when carrying out the engine valve. The impact is on the decline of operator morality, especially the enthusiasm and level of operator fatigue at work. Next, we design a mechanism to increase the output loader height so that the inner process runs automatically. The design of the Automatic Output Loader is to automatically increase the output loader’s height. In this Automatic Output Loader it will use PLC as a control, programmed according to the desired working system and use the pneumatic cylinder as an increase in the output loader height. The height of the previous loader was 40 cm, after making this tool it increased to 65 cm and the operator did not have to bend again as before.
... Mostly, such items involve some form of functional requirements, and involve some consideration of user attributes within their designs. For instance, chair designs incorporate some aspects and requirements for backrests, footrests (for smaller individuals), lumbar support, tilt, and ability to adjust for height level (Lehto & Buck, 2007). Additional chair considerations include human posture and muscular activities (Karwowski & Salvendy, 2011). ...
Article
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This study examined student perceptions of classroom furniture design for the purposes of raising satisfaction levels and durability. This study incorporated the Kano model to analyze student’s needs and satisfactions for the purpose of enhancing learning environment through identifying ways to improve student satisfaction. Proposed durable classroom furniture designs were identified according to student needs, thereby enhancing the satisfaction level. The force-field analysis outcome suggested pursuit of the new furniture design.
... With regard to the task analysis, the choice of an official and standardized approach to study job descriptions would not have been specific enough for the purpose of our study. Thus, we have chosen instead an ergonomic brainstorming approach that was made possible thanks to the help of several healthcare professionals, as shown previously by others (34). In this regard, the integrated collaboration between healthcare professionals (e.g. ...
Article
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Introduction: We have developed a new tool, named Holistic Approach Risk Assessment (HOARA), to support occupational safety and health professionals (OSH) in risk assessment and management when evaluating the biomechanical load of healthcare workers. Objectives: The primary aim of the HOARA is to support OSH in risk assessment and management of biomechanical hazards in healthcare facilities. This tool ensures a superior level of analysis by targeting independently various body compartments during all activities completed throughout the work shift. These include: head, neck, back and upper and lower limbs. Methods: For each body segment, ergonomic determinants were defined on the basis of previous literature, according to which task and job analyses were performed. Upon direct observation, ergonomic factors were given a score based on their temporal extent. Subsequently, action-body segment raw indices and weighted indices were calculated. Results: Results of the application of the method are shown. Of note, a relational database was set up to improve its usability. Conclusions: From an occupational health perspective, the HOARA, integrated with other methods, is expected to allow a more effective management of human resources, especially when assigning workers to specific jobs or tasks. Overall, the HOARA will be instrumental in assessing the impact of fitness for work judgments on work organization and its resources, in compliance with the guidelines from the Società Italiana di Medicina del Lavoro (SIML).
... İşyerinde güvenlik kavramı, işgörenlerin işyerinde kendilerinden beklenen görev ve sorumlulukları yerine getirirken iş sağlığı ve güvenliği perspektifinden ne kadar uygun koşullarda bulundukları ile ilgili bir kavramdır. İş sağlığı ve güvenliği konusunda gösterilen çabalar, yasal düzenlemeler, ortamın, süreçler ile kullanılan teçhizat, makine ve teknolojilerin insan sağlığına uygunluğu ile ilgili tedbirler temel anlamda fizyoloji, işyeri hekimliği, çevre sağlığı, hukuk, ekonomi, insan faktörleri mühendisliği ve ergonomi gibi birçok bilim dalının ilgilendiği bir alan olarak gelişmiştir (Lamm vd., 2006;Lehto ve Buck, 2008). Bu bilimsel disiplinlerin iş ortamında bireyi merkeze alan çalışmaları sadece devletlerin, sendikaların değil, aynı zamanda farkındalığı yüksek işverenlerin de desteklediği bir araştırma alanı halini almıştır. ...
Article
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Amaç-Bu araştırma işgörenlerin algıladıkları güvenlik iklimi ile bilgi teknolojileri verimliliği arasındaki ilişkiyi tespit etmek amacıyla gerçekleştirilmiştir. Yöntem-Türkiye genelinde çeşitli firmalarda görev yapan uçak bakım teknisyenlerinden tesadüfi örneklem yolu ile elektronik ortamda veriler toplanmış, uygun doldurulmuş olan 228 anket formu analizlere dâhil edilmiştir. Yapısal geçerliliği için örnekleme Doğrulayıcı ve Açımlayıcı Faktör Analizleri uygulanmıştır. Ardından hipotez testi için çoklu doğrusal regresyon analizi yapılmıştır. Bulgular-Analiz sonuçları; ölçeklerin yapısal geçerliliğinin uygun olduğunu ve uçak bakım teknisyenlerinin algıladıkları güvenlik iklimi düzeyinin (iki boyutu ile birlikte) bilgi teknolojileri verimliliğini anlamlı ve olumlu yönde etkilediğini desteklemektedir. Tartışma-Sonuçlar; iş sağlığı ve güvenliğinin sağlanması için çok önemli görülen, destek ve yatırımı hak ettiği düşünülen bir kavram olan çalışanların örgüte ilişkin pozitif güvenlik iklimi algılarının onların bilgi teknolojileri verimliliğini de olumlu yönde etkilediğini göstermektedir. Çünkü bilgi teknolojilerinin örgüt hedefleriyle uyumlu şekilde kullanılabilmesi çalışanların projenin başlangıcından itibaren ve tüm aşamalarına katkısına ve sahiplenmesine bağlıdır. Doğaldır ki işgörenlere atfedilen kıymet örgüte yönelik tutum ve davranışlarını olumlu yönde etkilemektedir. Bu yüzden, ortaya koyulan bu ilişkinin özel ve kamu sektöründeki örgüt yönetimlerince dikkate alınmasının uygun olacağı düşünülmektedir. ARTICLE INFO ABSTRACT Article Classification: Research Article Purpose-This study aims to ferret the association between perceived safety climate and information technology productivity in aviation sector Design/methodology/approach-The data is collected from aircraft maintenance engineers and technicians working for different companies via random sample method using online survey form. Appropriately filled 228 forms are decided to be ıncluded in the analyses. Confirmatory and Exploratory Factor Analyses are conducted for the construct validation of the scales. Then, Multiple Linear Regression Analysis is performed to test our hypothesis. Findings-Analyses show that the scales have construct validity and perceived safety climate (with its two dimensions) significantly increases information technology productivity. Discussion-The findings support that safety climate, which is considered as a prominent concept deserves to be advocated and invested in order to establish occupational health and safety environment also increases the level of information technology productivity. Because the use of information technology compliant with the organisational objectives depends on the contribution of, and ownership provided by employees from the onset and during all stages of the project. It seems natural that value ascribed employee develops positive attitudes and behaviours towards organisation. Thus, this mechanism should be taken in the consideration by private and public organisation managements.
... Among the PTSs, the MTM stands out as one of the most used time systems (Alrabghi & Tiwari, 2016) and is therefore applied as an international standard for work performance. Another PTS called the work factor (WF) is also applied in industry, but its methods consider the execution time for a more skilled operator versus considerations related to the MTM, so the values determined via the WF are on average 20% smaller than those established via the MTM (Lehto & Buck, 2007). ...
Article
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Objective:: The aim of this article is to analyze the influence of the variability of the standard time in the simulation of the assembly operations of manufacturing systems. Background:: Discrete event simulation (DES) has been used to provide efficient analysis during the design of a process or scenario. However, the modeling activities of new configurations face the problem of data availability and reliability when it comes to seeking standard times that are effective in representing the actual process under analysis, especially when the process cannot be monitored. Method:: The methods-time measurement (MTM) is used as a source of standard times for simulation. Assembly activities were performed at a Learning Factory facility, which provided the necessary structure for simulating real production processes. Simulation performances using different variability of standard times were analyzed to define the impact of data characteristics. Results:: The MTM standard time presented an error of approximately 5%. The definition of the data variability of standard times and the statistical distribution impacts were shown in the simulation results, with errors above 6% being observed, interfering with the model reliability. Conclusion:: Based on the study, to increase the adherence of a simulation to represent a real process, it is recommended to use triangular distributions with central values greater than those established via the MTM for the representation of the standard times of new assembly processes or scenarios using DES. Application:: The study contributions can be applied in assembly line design, providing a reliable model representing real processes and scenarios.
... Ergonomics [3], [4] Occupational safety and health (OSH), also commonly referred to as occupational health and safety (OHS), occupational health, [5] or workplace health and safety (WHS), is a multidisciplinary field concerned with the safety, health, and welfare of people at work. These terms also refer to the goals of this field, so their use in the sense of this article was originally an abbreviation of occupational safety and health program/department etc. ...
... For convenience, the review will focus on cognitive, psychomotor and emotional domains. The theoretical literature review helps to establish what theories already exist, the relationships between them, to what degree the existing theories have been investigated, and to develop new hypotheses to be tested [12]. The expected results of this step are the theories that apply an impact evaluation and their processes. ...
Conference Paper
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Visual disability has a significant impact on the quality of life of people with visual disabilities. To ameliorate this issue, many technologies exist to help people who are blind, such as mobile applications and serious games. However, these applications must prove their effectiveness and impact. Thus, the objective of this work is to propose a multimodal interfaces impact and effectiveness evaluation model for cognitive, psychomotor and emotional development and enhancement in people who are blind. This work presents the proposal of a master thesis research (in progress), centering on the initial corresponding systematic literature review. We divided the methodology into three steps: State of the art Study (current step), Theoretical Review and Model Proposal.
... Posisi kerja duduk merupakan postur kerja yang umum ditemukan pada industri, khususnya industri kecil. Hasil riset ergonomi menyatakan posisi kerja duduk lebih dipilih untuk digunakan dibanding postur kerja berdiri, terlebih untuk pekerja wanita (Lehto & Buck, 2008). Postur kerja duduk memberi keuntung- * Korespondensi Penulis an dibanding postur kerja berdiri karena dapat menurunkan beban statis khususnya pada kaki, memungkinkan peredaran darah yang lebih lancar dan tingkat kelelahan yang lebih rendah (Pulat, 1996). ...
Article
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A staticwork position with sitting is common work posture founded in industry, particularly small industry in Indonesia. The problem that review in this paper is the activity of workers sitting static for processing emping in Yogyakarta. Activity done by means sitting on the floor without using table. The activity carried in a continuous long term, so as to cause disease risks muscle and bone especially lower back. Ergonomic work facilities is implemented to solve the work problem with table and chair. The design of work table is developed with concept low cost improvement and consider with secure, health, and convenience of worker. The design process using participatory approach by involving worker to get best design. The result of facilities implementation can be achieved a decrease ih the risk of work. The potential risk of work posture can be repair that shown of the RULA score from 6 to 4, and no more complain the back and waist from worker activity.
... It was necessary to adjust the students' ability and limitations to the environment where the learning process took place, the assignments which were supposed to be done by the students and how the learning environment was organized to minimize the musculoskeletal complaint, exhaustion and boredom as well as to make the learning process more human. Based on what was described above, it is necessary to improve the learning process by paying attention to the scales of priority such as a) the lighting intensity which was made to be between 350-700 lux for reading and writing; 8 b) the work terminal which was improved by adjusting the lecturing chairs to the students' anthropometry; [9][10][11] c) the position of the white board which was improved and the height of the LCD screen which was adjusted to the eyes of the students who were sitting behind in such a way that the head movement still remained within the range of 5 o above and 30 o under the horizontal era; 8 d) the addition and location of work board which were adjusted to the eyes of the students who were standing; 12 e) the learning media, especially the power point, which was fixed so that it was in accordance with the ergonomic principles; [13][14][15][16] and f) the learning process using ergonomic approach, which gave emphasis on more dynamic movement of muscles was applied, and in which active break was provided. 12 In this way, it was expected that the process input and the learning achievements of the students at the Department of Biology, IKIP Saraswati Tabanan could be improved. ...
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To identifying whether biotechnological teaching learning with Science Technology Society approach Ergonomics-Based (STMBE) could improve the learning outcome and the students’ learning achievement. Methods: This is a randomized pre-and post-test control group design and involved 16 samples from the control group and another 16 samples from the experiment group. All data obtained was then statistically analyzed by employing t group test and Mann-Whitney at 5% significant levels. Results: The results showed that the biotechnological teaching learning using STMBE approach applied to the experimental group could increase the learning outcome viewed from the facts that the musculoskeletal complaint went down by 43.68% (p<0.05), that the exhaustion decreased by 34.90% (p<0.05), that boredom dropped by 22.64% (p<0.05), and that the learning activity went up by 42.72% (p<0.05), and that the students’ achievement rose by 43.56% (p<0.05). Conclusion: It could be concluded that the biotechnological teaching learning using STMBE approach could increase the learning outcome and the students’ learning achievement.
... A study called Anthropometric Study among Adults of Different Ethnicity in Malaysia was done to determine the differences of anthropometrics data among three ethnic populations in Malaysia (Buck & R., 2008). Measurements were collected among 300 respondents representing 150 males and 150 females ranging from the age of 18 to 24 years. ...
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Abstract — This study tries to develop anthropometric standards for Ethiopian clothing design and to present the results of an anthropometric survey conducted on Ethiopian adult population. Body dimensions were taken based on ISO standards from systematically selected samples of the population. After all the data processing and screening a total of 31,455 sample measurements were used for the analysis out of the total sample measurements of 47,000 adults. Means, standard deviations (SD), 5th, 50th and 95th percentiles were computed by using statistical package (SPSS). The results of parallel surveys showed that Ethiopian closing industries have used traditionally fragmented and individual based anthropometric dimensions in the closing design. Moreover, there were little body dimension measurement and recording technique used throughout the industry. Hence, in the present study, the required anthropometric dimensions were collected from Ethiopia adult population, and the suitable percentile values (5th, 50th and 95th) of anthropometric measures were computed and taken on account for closing industries. Finally, standard Ethio-size chart was developed based on the findings of collected sample data which will be used in closing design applications. Key words- Anthropometric standard, Ethio-size chart, closing design
... Table 1 presents the publications reviewed. (Eysenck & Keane, 2000) Handbook of Aviation Human Factors (Garland, Wise, & Hopkin, 2010) Handbook of Human Factors Testing and Evaluation (Charlton & O'Brien, 2002) Hierarchy of Needs by Abraham Maslow, a First Look at Communication Theory (Griffin, 1996) Human Factors for Engineers (Sandom & Harvey, Human factors for engineers, 2004) Human Factors in Aviation (Salas & Maurino, 2010) Human Factors Methods: A Practical Guide for Engineering and Design (Stanton, Salmon, Walker, Baber, & Jenkins, 2005) Human Performance on the Flight Deck (Harris, 2011) Human Performance, Workload, and Situational Awareness Measures Handbook (Gawron, 2008) Introduction to Human Factors and Ergonomics for Engineers (Lehto & Buck, 2008) On The Design of Flight-Deck Procedures (Degani & Wiener, 1994) Techniques of safety management (Peterson, 1971). The handbook of human factors and ergonomics methods (Stanton, Hedge, Brookhuis, Salas, & Hendrick, 2004) ...
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A symbiotic relationship between human factors and safety scientists is needed to ensure the provision of holistic solutions for problems emerging in modern socio-technical systems. System Theoretic Accident Model and Processes (STAMP) tackles both interactions and individual failures of human and technological elements of systems. Human factors topics and indicative models, tools and methods were reviewed against the approach of STAMP. The results showed that STAMP engulfs many human factors subjects, is more descriptive than human factors models and tools, provides analytical power, and might be further improved by including more aspects of human factors. STAMP can serve in minimizing the gap between human factors and safety engineering sciences, which can collectively offer inclusive solutions to the industry.
... Human error contributes to about 80% of vehicular (aerospace, maritime, automotive, railroad) casualties and accidents (see, e.g., [1][2][3]). Such a large percentage of mishaps should not be attributed, of course, to the direct human error only. ...
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Improvements in safety in the air and in space can be achieved through better ergonomics, better work environment, and other efforts of the traditional avionic psychology that directly affect human behaviors and performance. There is also a significant potential, however, for further reduction in aerospace accidents and casualties through better understanding the role that various uncertainties play in the planner’s and operator’s worlds of work, when never-perfect human, never failure-free navigation equipment and instrumentation, never hundred-percent-predictable response of the object of control (air- or space-craft), and uncertain-and-often-harsh environments contribute jointly to the likelihood of a mishap. By employing quantifiable and measurable ways of assessing the role and significance of such uncertainties and treating a human-in-the-loop (HITL) as a part, often the most crucial part, of a complex man–instrumentation–equipment–vehicle–environment system, one could improve dramatically the state-of-the-art in assuring aerospace operational safety. This can be done by predicting, quantifying and, if necessary, even specifying an adequate (low enough) probability of a possible accident. Nothing and nobody is perfect, of course, and the difference between a highly reliable object, product, performance or a mission and an insufficiently reliable one is “merely” in the level of the never-zero probability of failure. Application of the probabilistic predictive modeling (PPM) concept provides a natural and an effective means for reduction of vehicular casualties. When success and safety are imperative, ability to predict and quantify the outcome of an HITL related mission or a situation is a must. This is not the current practice though. The application of the PPM concept can improve therefore the state-of-the-art in understanding and accounting for the human performance in a vehicular mission or a situation. While the traditional statistical human-factor-oriented approaches are based on experimentations followed by statistical analyses, the PPM concept is based on, and starts with, physically meaningful and flexible predictive modeling followed by highly focused and highly cost effective experimentations geared to the chosen governing model(s). The PPT concept enables one to quantify, on the probabilistic basis, the outcome of a particular HITL related effort, situation or a mission. If the predicted outcome, in terms of the most likely probability of the operational failure, is not favorable, then an appropriate sensitivity analysis (SA) based on the developed and available algorithms can be effectively conducted to improve the situation. With the appropriate modifications and generalizations, such a cost-effective and insightful approach is applicable to numerous, not even necessarily in the aerospace and vehicular domain, HITL related missions and situations, when a human encounters an uncertain environment or a hazardous off-normal situation. The suggested approach is applicable also when there is an incentive to quantify human’s qualifications and performance, and/or when there is a need to assess and possibly improve his/her role in a particular mission or a situation. The general PPM concepts are illustrated in this analysis by addressing several more or less typical aerospace HITL related problems and by providing meaningful numerical examples.
... This paper shows that costs in terms of lost productivity in a large building in a high-wind environment are likely to exceed US$1 million a year, and across a city, the collective cost would be much larger. Lehto, Landry, and Buck (2007) argue that design should cater to 95% of the user base, and the remaining 5% require provision, but likely with a different design or intervention. In addition to general criteria, research should seek to understand who are the most sensitive building users, and develop strategies to ensure they are not disproportionately affected. ...
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Tall buildings vibrate in response to strong winds at frequencies below 1 Hz, which can cause motion sickness and sopite syndrome in humans. Sopite syndrome is characterized by sleepiness, low motivation and low mood that can reduce productivity in office workers. This paper uses recent multidisciplinary research to estimate the cost of building motion on organizations in tall buildings, and provides a framework for future research. The potential costs of wind-induced building motion to organizations are highly variable, depending on the local weather climate, but are likely to be significant in the long-term. It is argued that wind-induced building motion is a negative externality, a cost of inadequate design passed to building users. A three-factor approach towards reducing adverse impacts of wind-induced building motion is discussed: (1) further research investigating the characteristics of motion that provoke sopite syndrome, (2) create a new generation of serviceability criteria, and (3) regulations setting the maximum acceptable motion dose for office workers. This three-factor approach will likely produce comprehensive, yet usable, guidelines to develop strategies that reduce the adverse effects of motion on occupants in both new and existing buildings.
... Ergonomists [8], [9] study people and how they operate equipment in the home, in commerce, and in factories, in activities. It stands to design products and also design jobs. ...
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Ergonomics processes described in the literature have been associated mostly with manufacturing, financial, elec-tronics, and office settings where working conditions tend to be rather constant and repetitive. The information presented in this paper demonstrates, however, that an ergonomics process can also be implemented in a setting such as mining where working conditions frequently change and workers are periodically exposed to extreme conditions. This paper describes how to identify manual handling problem in one of Indonesian Coal Company at South Kalimantan Mine in 2015. The process of problem identification and the impacts of the process on working conditions at the mine using Job Discomfort Survey, Manual Handling Checklist and Sample Decisison Matrix (DM) are reviewed. Barriers overcome and lessons learned are also described. Quotes from Coal Company em-ployees are included in the document to add an ergonomic perspective. Other industries with working conditions similar to mining, such as construction and retail, may find this information useful. The uniqueness of decision matrix is that DM is the research instrument that collect baseline data from supervisor interviews, Nordic-questionnaire, incident data and management concerns becomes task analysis which consist of observations, video taping, discomfort intervention, task measurements which end up with identify risk factors. Scope of coal mining in this paper is crushing & sizing and barge loading, as we know that the overall scope of coal mining are: overburden stripping, coal mining, loading coal from rom stockpile to coal hauler, coal hauling, haul road, crushing & sizing, barge loading, coal barging, floating cranes, coal terminal. Finally, the contribution is to help, prevent or reduce the occurrence of lifting-related lower-back injuries
Chapter
Over the last 70 years, human factors, a term that is used synonymously with ergonomics and denoted as human factors ergonomics (HFE), has been evolving as a unique and independent discipline that originated with a focus on the nature of human–artifact interactions. The HFE discipline advocates systematic use of the knowledge concerning the relevant human characteristics in order to achieve compatibility in the design of interactive systems of people, machines, environments, and devices of all kinds to ensure specific goals. Ergonomics design is concerned with the ability to implement knowledge about human–system interactions and use them to develop systems that satisfy customer needs and relevant human compatibility requirements. Ergonomics literacy prepares individuals to perform their roles in the workplace and outside the working environment. One important subdiscipline of HFE with respect to the central focus of the management discipline is macroergonomics.
Chapter
This chapter provides an overall perspective on human decision making to human factors practitioners, developers of decision tools, product designers, and others who are interested in how people make decisions and how decision making might be improved. It presents a broad set of prescriptive and descriptive approaches. The chapter introduces principles of rational choice suggested by classical decision theory, followed by a discussion of research on human decision making which has led to the new perspectives of behavioral decision theory and behavioral economics, and naturalistic decision models. It addresses the topic of decision support and problem solving. The main idea of adaptive decision behavior, or contingent decision behavior, is that an individual decision maker uses different strategies in different situations. The chapter also addresses methods of supporting or improving group decision making. Expert systems are developed to capture knowledge for a very specific and limited domain of human expertise.
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A partial differential equation is an equation which includes derivatives of an unknown function with respect to two or more independent variables. The analytical solution is needed to obtain the exact solution of partial differential equation. To solve these partial differential equations, the appropriate boundary and initial conditions are needed. The general solution is dependent not only on the equation, but also on the boundary conditions. These partial differential equations will have different general solution when paired with different sets of boundary conditions. In the present study, the non-homogeneous one-dimensional heat equation will be solved analytically by using Separation of Variables method. Our main objective is to determine the solution of heat equation based on different boundary conditions, which are Dirichlet, Neumann or both. To verify our objective, the results of temperature for non- homogeneous heat equation will be compared with homogeneous heat equation. The results are validated by using the Separation of Variables method on the homogeneous heat equation. The results have been compared with different types of boundary and initial conditions for both homogeneous and non-homogenous heat equation. Based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that heat equations have different patterns of temperature profile based on different types of boundary conditions. For non- homogeneous partial differential equation, the heat equation with the boundary and initial conditions need to be homogeneous, then the solution of heat equation has been determined.
Chapter
Many task analysis techniques and methods have been developed over the past decades, but identifying and decomposing a user’s task into small task components remains a difficult, impractically time-consuming, and expensive process that involves extensive manual effort (Sheridan, 1997; Liu, 1997; Gramopadhye and Thaker, 1999; Annett and Stanton, 2000; Bridger, 2003; Stammers and Shephard, 2005; Hollnagel, 2006; Luczak et al., 2006; Morgeson et al., 2006). A practical need exists for developing automated task analysis techniques to help practitioners perform task analysis efficiently and effectively (Lin, 2007). This chapter summarizes a Bayesian methodology for task analysis tool to help identify and predict the agents’ subtasks from the call center’s naturalistic decision making’s environment.
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This paper presents a scoring methodology for assessing ergonomic risks. The proposed methodology consists of three main phases: (1) identifying ergonomic risk factors, (2) defining ergonomic risk scores, and (3) calculating and prioritizing ergonomic risks. In the first phase, the main factors that can cause ergonomic risks are identified based on process and task mapping techniques. In the second phase, score levels are defined for each ergonomic risk factor based on the ergonomic standards developed by different organizations and researchers. In the third phase, current ergonomic risks in the workplace are calculated and prioritized so that the high risks can be mitigated by implementing proper action plans. The proposed methodology helps decision makers evaluate and assess ergonomic risks in an easy way. A case study from a manufacturing environment is presented. Results showed that the proposed method can be used as a basis for identifying ergonomic risks and developing effective mitigation and control plans for these risks.
Conference Paper
Vocational school is an educational institution provide practice study times more than theory. Manual garment pattern workshop is one of the major workshops where students learn drawing skills in garment patterns with manual technic in Textile and Garment School, Indonesia. The observation shows that the drawing table is the main facility in the workshop because of almost 6 hours a day in 2-3 weeks, students do activities in there for 3 semesters. The aim of this study is to conduct an ergonomic evaluation of the table facilities for making the manual garment patterns in the workshop. This is necessary because students often sit hunched up and reach beyond the reach of their hands. Bad learning positions for a long time and repeatedly can cause injury to students. The methods used in this study are the Nordic Body Map questionnaire to assess the respondent’s pain, anthropometric to check the facilities dimensional, and garment size standards based on the Indonesian National Standard (SNI) to check the suitability of a wide area of the facilities. To the best of our knowledge, in Indonesia, there are no published studies specific about evaluated the manual pattern garment workshop, so it the reasons for presenting in this research.
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This study intends to evaluate projetual methodologies for the construction of diagrams with the aim of promoting better teaching processes. Particularly, those methodologies that emphasize regularly and systematically organizing the information, that best contribute to the visual translation of the problem and to communicate that promote ease of use to persons. With the diagrams is possible to describe data and present them distinctly. Its explanatory potential is another feature and therefore they serve as tools in learning activities. This context of use called of diagrammatic. The concept of diagrammatic process does not end when the product obtained through the diagram. It has implications for educational criteria and methodologies selected for its construction. To understand the relationship between the various methodologies used in evaluating projects diagrams and their contribution to the rigorous organization of information in visual translations that increase ease of use by the addressees will carried out case studies with specific groups, classified according to the degree of previous contact regarding the issue to expose the diagrams.
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In today’s technology-driven configuration of work and life systems, wellness imbalances underscore the need for time away from sources of stress in the workplace, school, and other living scenarios. Increasingly, consumers are turning to vacation travel for health and wellness enhancement. The tourism and hospitality industries can design experiences and services that support optimal health and wellness outcomes for consumers. Drawing from interdisciplinary perspectives, this study revisits tourism as a personal health and wellness resource and discusses opportunities for better leveraging design factors in delivering, communicating, and sustaining health and wellness benefits of tourism. This article proposes a traveler wellness–centered design framework and highlights the important role of tourism and hospitality providers in safeguarding human health and wellness.
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The main thing the chicken skewers owners do is cut the meat into blocks. However, to produce a cubical meat shape is not an easy task and takes a long time. Therefore, it is necessary to design a tool to help the chicken skewers business owner to cut the chicken breast faster. The purpose of this research was to design an ergonomically chicken meat cutting tool to produce cubical chicken meat in large quantities so that the work can be completed in a shorter time. The planning and product development stage of this research was based on Ulrich and Eppinger steps from phases 0 through 4. After that, a prototype evaluation was performed. The conclusion of this research was that the tool successfully worked as the design intended. The maximum cutting yield is 225 pieces, 15 times faster, suitable for half-frozen chicken meat, and the evaluation results show a good performance rating. Overall, most of the respondents (87.5%) were pleased with this tools, shown by 57.5% choose a smiling face and 30% show a big smiling face as their feeling of satisfaction after trying the gamma prototype.
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This study aims to provide an ergonomic assessment of a church to validate the concerns from its churchgoers regarding its overall conditions, and to provide recommendations to address such concerns. The researchers looked into five factors– illumination level, temperature level, noise level, pew dimensions, and kneeler dimensions – that may affect the churchgoers’ overall experience while attending mass. Each factor was measured and compared to researched ergonomic standards to assess whether such standards were met. The results showed that majority of the factors were not compliant to ergonomic standards.
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Background: This paper presents the findings of a pilot research survey which assessed the degree of balance between safety and productivity, and its relationship with awareness and communication of human factors and safety rules in the aircraft manufacturing environment. Methods: The study was carried out at two Australian aircraft manufacturing facilities where a Likertscale questionnaire was administered to a representative sample. The research instrument included topics relevant to the safety and human factors training provided to the target workforce. The answers were processed in overall, and against demographic characteristics of the sample population. Results: The workers were sufficiently aware of how human factors and safety rules influence their performance and acknowledged that supervisors had adequately communicated such topics. Safety and productivity seemed equally balanced across the sample. A preference for the former over the latter was associated with a higher awareness about human factors and safety rules, but not linked with safety communication. The size of the facility and the length and type of employment were occasionally correlated with responses to some communication and human factors topics and the equilibrium between productivity and safety. Conclusion: Although human factors training had been provided and sufficient bidirectional communication was present across the sample, it seems that quality and complexity factors might have influenced the effects of those safety related practices on the safety-productivity balance for specific parts of the population studied. Customization of safety training and communication to specific characteristics of employees may be necessary to achieve the desired outcomes.
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The MSD -musculoskeletal disorders- represent 45% of labour injuries. Specifically, construction workers involved in the different activities linked to steel reinforcement for an insitu concrete are exposed to a high rate of such injuries. This paper reviews in detail the physical risks of the iron worker, installing steel reinforcement for an insitu concrete pour. This study has revealed that the Spanish legislation, enforced since 1997 (transposing the European Directive on the implementation of minimum safety and health requirements at temporary or mobile construction sites) is not correcting the multiple musculoskeletal risk factors of these workers. It's proposed for the analysis of such risks musculoskeletal, the use of different ergonomic methodologies. In one hand, the load handling guide from the Spanish National Health and Safety Institute, and in the other, the method ERGO/ IBV, developed by the Biomecanics Institute of Valencia for the repetitive tasks analysis. The use of these tools allows the design of new working methods that reduce the risks discussed. Subsequently, after the identification of the large number of risks musculoskeletals, it's defined a set of better practices for these workers, exposed to very demanding work conditions and with low culture of prevention.
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The objective of this work is to introduce a new method for determining preliminary design specifications related to human-artifact interaction. This new method uses data mining of large numbers of consumer reviews. User opinion on specific product features can be time-consuming or expensive to obtain through traditional methods including surveys, experiments, and observational studies. Data mining review text of already released products may be a potentially less time consuming and costly method. Previously established methods of determining design for human variability information from consumer reviews, such as the frequency and accuracy summation (FAS) number and subsequent manual analysis, are explored. The weighted phrase rating (WPR), a new metric which can be an automated tool to quickly analyze consumer reviews, is also introduced. It does not require manual parsing of the reviews, which extends its applicability to larger review pools. This new method is shown to quickly and economically provide information useful to the establishment of design specifications.
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Manual que incluye 27 prácticas de laboratorio de los temas de antropometría. biomecánica y fisiología, todas ellas con enfoque para el diseñador industrial.
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Textured voices include both voices heard as interpolated into a musical texture and voices heard as having their own textured character, whether as a ‘voice’ with a ‘timbre’ or as a ‘collective voice’ with a ‘composite timbre’ made up of many voices, each textured itself. They have often been heard as performances of ethical life. Comparisons between these performances can be misleading because the contingencies characterizing the textured voice for a listener who listens in a particular way can make each performance irreducible. A pair of articles and cartoons in TV Guide from the summer of 1966 depict the making of a textured laugh track as a contradictory activity. Yet they seem to resolve contradictions into surface conflicts between individuated parties. Listening for textured voices in this case was itself a political activity because it was productive of more than one distinct form of ethical life.
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Bilişim teknolojileri günümüzde çalışma hayatını neredeyse tamamıyla etkisi altına almış durumdadır. Organizasyonun etkinliği ve verimliliği için birçok fayda sağlayan yeni teknolojiler, çalışanların iş yapış tarzlarında köklü değişiklere de sebep olmaktadır. Bu değişikler birey üzerinde bir takım baskılar oluşturabilmektedir. Yeni teknolojilerin tetiklediği bu baskı tekno-stres olarak tanımlanmaktadır. Tekno-stresi ölçmek yönetebilmenin ön şartı olduğundan bu çalışmada Tarafdar vd. (2007) tarafından geliştirilmiş olan tekno-stres ölçeği, iş yeri kaynaklı tekno-stresi ölçmek maksadıyla yeniden düzenlenerek Türkçe’ye adapte edilmiştir. Böylece, bankacılık ve havacılık sektörü çalışanları olmak üzere iki ayrı örneklem üzerinde geçerliği ve güvenilirlik testlerinden geçen ölçek yazına kazandırılmıştır. Ayrıca her iki sektörde de tekno-stresin %30’lar seviyesinden etkili olduğu ve aralarında anlamlı bir fark olmadığı tespit edilmiştir. **Information and computer technologies have penetrated into all dimensions of work life. These technologies that improve organizational efficiency and effectiveness, may lead some radical changes in working methods and habits of employees. These changes can cause certain pressures on employees. These pressures caused by new information technologies are called techno-stress. Measuring a concept is the prerequisite for managing it. The aim of this study is to adapt techno-stress scale by Tarafdar et al (2007) in to Turkish through a modification which is done in order to focus on workplace related techno-stress. To do so, validity and reliability analyses are conducted to data which is collected from two different industries namely banking and aviation, and “Techno-stress Scale at Workplace” is provided in Turkish. Moreover, it is found that techno-stress levels in both sectors are 30%, and there is no significant difference between them in terms of techno-stress.
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RESUMO A revisão da literatura foi realizada nos bancos de dados eletrônicos Medline e Web of Science, PubMed e livros-texto. Foram consultados trabalhos comparativos entre os gêneros retrospectivamente, até o ano de 1995. As diferenças relativas ao sexo no desempenho físico são explicadas, principalmente, pelas diferenças nas características fisiológicas e morfofuncionais de homens e mulheres. As respostas neuromusculares, metabólicas e morfológicas entre homens e mulheres refletem a ação de hormônios característicos. Um aspecto relacionado ao esforço físico em que são notadas diferenças entre os sexos diz respeito à instalação do quadro de fadiga. Estudos têm demonstrado que a fadiga da musculatura periférica em função do exercício é maior nas mulheres do que nos homens, o que resulta em menor rendimento delas em tarefas físicas. Em relação à força muscular absoluta, a da mulher média é 63,5% da força do homem. A força muscular da parte superior do corpo das mulheres é de 55,8% da força dos homens enquanto que a da parte inferior é de 71,9%. Já em relação à capacidade aeróbia, a diferença em valores absolutos no consumo máximo de oxigênio é de aproximadamente 30%. Resultados relativos à capacidade anaeróbica e potência anaeróbica apresentam os mesmos resultados que nos correspondentes aeróbicos. Como conclusão, fica clara a desvantagem do sexo feminino em relação ao masculino para todas as valências físicas, com exceção da flexibilidade, o que irá impactar o desempenho de tarefas militares. Palavras-chave: desempenho físico, fadiga, respostas neuromusculares. Recebido para publicação em 02/2015 e aprovado em 06/2015.
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