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Abstract

Periplaneta americana (L.) (Blattaria: Blattidae), the American cockroach, is the most important invasive urban pest of sewer environments colonizing there with high significance of human public health and household allergens need to be controlled. Therefore this practical approach systematic review perform internationally to highlight and provide a detailed P. americana control in sewers. Of the 474 papers, 129 papers were selected to become this practical approach systematic review study of cockroach control in sewers. To control the American cockroaches, many studies have been conducted in various fields describing from an angle. The results were classified and discussed in getting cockroaches from sewers into buildings and their elimination, insecticide susceptibility, application of dust, bait and Inesfly paint insecticide formulations, biocontrol, and futuristic action categories. A recommending manner to achieve a successful P. americana cockroach control in sewers is using a combination of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies resulted in significant reductions of cockroach infestations and asthma health outcomes. Use of P. americana breeding thelytoky, push-pull strategies and an automated sewer robot, and integrating health into the future buildings may be new approaches of P. americana control strategies.
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Vector Control, Pest Management, Resistance, Repellents
Control of Cockroaches (Blattaria) in Sewers: APractical
Approach SystematicReview
HassanNasirian1,3, and ArefSalehzadeh2
1Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran,
Iran, 2Department of Medical Entomology, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran, and
3Corresponding author, e-mail: hanasirian@yahoo.com
Subject Editor: Richard Johnson
Received 12 August 2018; Editorial decision 20 October 2018
Abstract
Periplaneta americana (L.) (Blattaria: Blattidae), the American cockroach, is the most important invasive urban pest
of sewer environments colonizing there with high significance of human public health and household allergens
need to be controlled. Therefore this practical approach systematic review perform internationally to highlight
and provide a detailed P.americana control in sewers. Among 474 searched papers, 129 of those were selected
to become this practical approach systematic review of the American cockroach control in sewers. To control the
American cockroaches, many studies have been conducted in various fields describing from an angle. The results
were classified and discussed in getting cockroaches from sewers into buildings and their elimination, insecticide
susceptibility, application of dust, bait and Inesfly paint insecticide formulations, biocontrol, and futuristic action
categories. Arecommending manner to achieve a successful P. americana cockroach control in sewers is using
a combination of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies resulted in significant reductions of cockroach
infestations and asthma health outcomes. Use ofthe American cockroach breeding thelytok y, push–pull strategies
and an automated sewer robot, and integrating health into the future buildings may be new approaches ofthe
American cockroach control strategies.
Key words: American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, allergen, integrated pest management, IPM
Cockroaches (Blattaria) have a world-wide distribution especially
in the tropical and subtropical areas. They demonstrate extraordin-
ary adaptation to a wide range of habitats, reproduce rapidly, and
have lthy habits and a bad smell. Cockroaches have been proved
acting as probable carriers of the pathogenic or opportunistic bac-
teria and fungi found in nosocomial infections, and food-borne
poisoning mostly being drug resistant. They involve in human intes-
tinal parasites and intermediate hosts, and play a role as a major
source of allergens (Tachbele etal. 2006; Salehzadeh et al. 2007;
Fakoorziba et al. 2010; Kassiri and Kazemi 2012; Page 2012;
Pai 2013; Motevali Haghi et al. 2014a,b; Menasria et al. 2015;
Varadínová etal. 2015; Nasirian 2016; Atiokeng Tatang etal. 2017;
Davari etal. 2017a; Martínez-Girón etal. 2017; Nasirian 2017a,b;
Esty and Phipatanakul 2018; Nasirian 2018; Schapheer etal. 2018;
Sookrung etal. 2018). In addition to the great medical importance,
cockroaches are a common and important pest that inhabit various
public places (Wagan etal. 2017) and are one of the key group of
insect pests in sewer environments (Gul etal. 2017).
After developing and increasing the population of the cities and
expanding of industries and factories, the issue of environmental
pollution is becoming increasingly important. Effective collection
and treatment of urban waste water is essential to the health of our
rivers, lakes and coastal waters and to protect human health. The
collection of sanitary and human wastewaters is one of the most
important issues of urban and rural life due to the high levels of con-
tamination and pathogenic microorganisms toxicity and odor nuis-
ance to the network stakeholders and the public (Carrera etal. 2016,
EPA 2016, Shammay etal. 2016). So at rst the wastewaters need to
be decontaminated, and then returned into the ow of water in the
nature after their collecting and bringing out of the towns by sewers.
The most common worldwide cockroaches are the American
(Periplaneta americana), the German (Blattella germanica), the
Oriental (Blatta orientalis), and the brown-banded (Supella lon-
gipalpa) cockroaches (Sulaiman et al. 2011, Nasirian 2016).
Periplaneta americana (L.) (Blattaria: Blattidae) is one of the most
important synanthropic invasive and hygienic urban pests distrib-
uted worldwide. This pest species is an annoyance to human as
associates with diseases and allergies, and damages to clothes and
documents (Hwang and Chen 2004, Reierson etal. 2005, Baggio-
Deibler et al. 2018, Zhu et al. 2018). The American cockroaches
Journal of Medical Entomology, 56(1), 2019, 181–191
doi: 10.1093/jme/tjy205
Advance Access Publication Date: 20 November 2018
Review Article
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are also a prevailing species and important sources of household
allergens (Hubner-Campos etal. 2013, Carlson etal. 2017, Esty and
Phipatanakul 2018, Sookrung etal. 2018). Unlike the German cock-
roach being the most invading pests of human dwellings (Noureldin
and Farrag 2008, Paksa et al. 2012, Nazari etal. 2016, Tang etal.
2016, Sanei Dehkordi et al. 2017, Davari et al. 2018, Nasirian
2018), it is considerable that P.americana species is the most import-
ant pests of sewers. The appropriate conditions of the sewers such
as humidity, temperature, darkness of the environment, and presence
of plenty of water and food have made sewers as a suitable environ-
ment to the growth and reproduction of the American cockroaches.
In fact, a sewer is a perfect home for the American cockroaches. An
underground sewer system is insulated, warm in winter, and cool
in summer. Asewer provides protection from people and predators
with the possible exception of hungry rats. The substantial problem
is when these creatures exit the sewers and enter the people homes
and other buildings. A large-scale of P. americana cockroaches
migrates to human dwellings via breathing manholes of sewers.
Nowadays, P.americana not only is a domiciliary pest but also
the most frequent species in sewers which colonize there turning into
suitable environment for reproduction and growth with high sig-
nicance of human public health throughout the world, especially
in metropolitan areas neglecting maintenance of manholes for long
periods. They frequently invade surrounding buildings after mov-
ing from sewers (Reierson etal. 2005, Tee etal. 2011b, Bueno-Marí
et al. 2013, Dehghani et al. 2014, Lupo 2017, Alias and Retnani
2018). When cockroaches are occupying sewers and, more impor-
tantly, escaping from sewers, solving the problem is not as easy as
we would think required control measures. Treating the sewers with
insecticides can become a political and regulatory issue, involving
coordination with the sewer authority. The older the sewers, the
more likely it is to be infested with cockroaches, and the more dif-
cult it will be to solve the problem (Williams 2016).
To control P. americana, many studies have been conducted in
various elds which has been published in separate papers or notes
and describe from an angle of the topic such as getting cockroaches
from sewers into buildings and their elimination, sewer cockroach
population size and age-class structure, ghting measures such as
insecticide susceptibility, application of dust, bait and Inesy paint
insecticide formulations, possible plant essential oil application and
biocontrol, and futuristic actions such as integrating health into the
future buildings and future techniques for control of cockroaches.
Each of them can be a good lever for P.americana control measures.
Putting the all levers of control on the table in order to use the best
optimized P.americana control that encountered conditions require
to be used. Therefore this practical approach systematic review per-
form internationally to highlight and provide a detailed of the cock-
roach control in sewers between July 2017 and July2018.
Materials and Methods
Paper Collection and Selection forReview
At the rst step, some special phrases or key words like ‘sewers’, ‘cock-
roaches’, ‘medical importance of cockroaches’, ‘Periplaneta ameri-
cana’, ‘American cockroach’, ‘medical importance of Periplaneta
americana’, ‘insecticide susceptibility’, and ‘control of P.americana
or American cockroaches in sewers’ were used to search the relevant
papers or notes from websites like Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science,
Google Scholar, Springer, Elsevier, ScienceDirect and academic
assemblies between July 2017 and July 2018. In the second step,
some special phrases or key words were selected among the con-
tent of the searched papers after carefully reading. Then they were
used as new key words or phrases to seek the new papers about the
subject of the study. Of the 474 papers from the above-mentioned
websites, 129 papers were selected to become this practical approach
systematic review study of sewer cockroach control.
Paper Data Extraction and Classification
The papers were dedicated to having sewer cockroach control were
read carefully and their contents were extracted and categorized
using Nasirian (2017a,b; 2018) methodology (Nasirian 2017a,b,
Nasirian 2018). Results of cockroach control in sewers which were
extracted and classied in separate distinct categories, and their
extensive description represented in the section of the results sum-
marized in Table1.
Results and Discussion
Getting Cockroaches From Sewers Into Buildings and
Their Elimination
Having cockroaches in a sewer system would not be a problem, if
cockroaches stayed put. But they do not stay put. The American
cockroaches have only one generation per year. Adults and nymphs
of the American cockroaches are active throughout a year (Tee etal.
2011b). Adults and fully-grown cockroach nymphs migrate from
sewers into buildings for food, shelter and overwintering (Williams
2016). The movements of cockroach density rates between the man-
holes of sewers also correlate with the mean daily minimum tem-
perature (Tee etal. 2011b).
An effective tactic to reduce cockroach allergen exposures is
eliminating the cockroaches (Sever et al. 2007). As cockroaches
afliate with food, water, and shelter sources. Therefore potential
cockroach food, water, and shelter sources should be eliminated as
well as elimination and closing of crevices or cracks (Orkin 2018).
To eliminate the cockroaches’ water sources and entering points,
any cracks or holes in the drain pipes would be located by using
a ashlight and would be sealed with appropriate caulk. Standing
water attracts cockroaches; so any leaky faucets would be xed.
Crevices and holes around the drain pipes would be sealed with
caulk, plaster or cement. Any gaps around the pipes would be
looked for and lled with silicone sealant or urethane foam. Any
space around the pipes and holes in the walls where they come
through the walls would be sealed by using expanding insulation
foam (TICLP 2017). After that, a very thorough inspection of the
areas should be inspected. Evaluating the situation and making a
customized highly effective treatment plan will correlate with the
needs (Orkin 2018). Exterior treatments, drain cleaning and treat-
ments, drain traps, and interior inspections are steps of the solutions
to eliminate the cockroaches represented briey by Lupo (2017)
that depending on the circumstances need to be accurately imple-
mented (Lupo 2017).
Fighting Measures
Many researches to achieve appropriate and effective insecticides
control against cockroaches using newer methods are still ongoing
(Buczkowski etal. 2001). Various registered aqueous sprays, dusts,
and baits are applied to sewer shafts for the American cockroach
control (Rust etal. 1991, Reierson etal. 2005). The use of spraying
insecticides, and re and fogging is the most popular method in sew-
ers. Due to the high population density of P. americana cockroach
species in sewers as a result of suitable warm and humid environ-
ment, the choice of an appropriate and effective insecticide is neces-
sary for its control. Resistance of cockroaches to insecticides also can
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Table1. Results of category data extracted and classified about cockroach control in sewers
Category References
Getting cockroaches from sewers into buildings and their elimination Tee etal. 2011b, Williams 2016, Lupo 2017, TICLP 2017, Orkin
2018
Insecticide susceptibility
Resistance of P.americana to cyclodiene Thompson etal. 1993
Susceptibility of P.americana to lambda-cyhalothrin, permethrin, del-
tamethrin, cyuthrin and alpha-cypermethrin
Vythilingam and Sutivigit 1994
Susceptibility of P.americana and B.germanica to commercially dish-
washing liquids and cleaners
Baldwin and Koehler 2007
Resistance of P.americana to imidacloprid, deltamethrin, pronil and
Metarhizium anisopliae
Syed etal. 2014
Resistance of P.americana to malathion Tahir etal. 2017
Effectivity of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets against non-target
household insects including P.americana
Sharma etal. 2006
Application of dust formulations Schoeld and Crisafulli 1980, Rust etal. 1991, Reierson etal. 2005
Application of bait formulations
Application of abamectin bait against P.americana Koehler etal. 1991
Application of neonicotinyl baits (pronil 0.05% and imidacloprid
2.15% gel baits) against P.americana
Reierson etal. 2005
Application of dust consisting of pyrethrins, piperonyl butoxide, boric
acid, and diatomaceous earth against P.americana
Reierson etal. 2005
Application of bait formulation containing abamectin B1, orthoboric acid,
or propoxur against P.americana
Appel etal. 2005
Application of pronil 0.03% (Goliath gel) against P.americana Srinivasan etal. 2005
Application of gel baits (0.01 and 0.05% pronil, and 0.6% indoxacarb)
against P.americana
Bayer etal. 2012
Application of indoxacarb 0.6% gel bait (Advion) against P.americana Anikwe etal. 2014
Application of Potassium alum against P.americana Salama 2015
Application of Beauveria bassiana bait formulation against P.americana Wang etal. 2016
Bait preference of P.americana to insecticides and natural foods Porusia etal. 2017
Application of insecticidal bait to reduce asthma of cockroach exposure Rabito etal. 2017
Application of Inesy paint insecticide formulations Delacour-Estrella etal. 2014, Hazra 2018
Application of plant essential oils as insect repellents
Repellency of N,N-diethylphenylacetamide (DEPA) against P.americana Prakash etal. 1990
Application of essential oil of Alpinia calcarata against P.americana Paranagama and Sujantha Ekanayake 2004
Fumigant effects of Allium sativum, Allium cepa, Thymus vulgaris,
Origanum dubium, Rosemarinus ofcinalis and Brassica nigra against
P.americana
Yilmaz and Tunaz 2013
Biocontrol
Releasing of Aprostocetus hagenowii parasitoid against P.americana Reierson etal. 2005
Investigating parasitism of P.americana oothecae by Evania
appendigaster
Fox and Bressan-Nascimento 2006
Investigating parasitism of Steinernema carpocapsae nematodes against
P.americana and B.germanica
Maketon etal. 2010
Release of Aprostocetus hagenowii parasitoids against P.americana Tee etal. 2011a
Evaluating of Metarhizium anisopliae, M.robertsii and Beauveria bassi-
ana against P.americana
Hubner-Campos etal. 2013
Evaluating of B.bassiana and M.anisopliae conidial suspensions against
P.americana
Hernández-Ramírez etal. 2007
Evaluating of M.anisopliae IP46 strain against P.americana Gutierrez etal. 2016
Evaluating of M.anisopliae (the JAB68 isolate) and B.bassiana (the
IBCB35 isolate) against P.americana
Baggio-Deibler etal. 2018
The challenges of nding environmentally safe treatments Hwang and Chen 2004, Reierson etal. 2005, Hernández-Ramírez
etal. 2007, Maketon etal. 2010, Kumar Reddy and Lee 2012,
Amin etal. 2014, Angelakis and Snyder 2015, Rani etal. 2017,
Davari etal. 2018, Orkin 2018
Futuristic actions
Integrating health into the future buildings Heidari etal. 2017
Future techniques for control of cockroaches
The parthenogenesis of domiciliary P.americana cockroaches Katoh etal. 2017
P.americana exhibits automixis-type thelytoky Tanaka and Daimon 2018
An automated sewer robot conduct any inspection of the sewage pipeline Mongeau etal. 2014, Vaani etal. 2017
The use of push–pull strategies in IPM Cook etal. 2007
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be delayed or avoided by using an appropriate insecticide (Tee etal.
2011b, Bueno-Marí etal. 2013).
Insecticide susceptibility (Thompson et al. 1993, Vythilingam
and Sutivigit 1994, Baldwin and Koehler 2007, Syed etal. 2014,
Tahir etal. 2017), effectivity of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets
(LLINs) (Sharma etal. 2006), application of dust, bait and Inesy
paint insecticide formulations (Schoeld and Crisafulli 1980,
Koehler etal. 1991, Rust etal. 1991, Appel etal. 2005, Reierson etal.
2005, Srinivasan etal. 2005, Bayer etal. 2012, Anikwe etal. 2014,
Delacour-Estrella etal. 2014, Salama 2015, Wang etal. 2016, Porusia
etal. 2017, Rabito etal. 2017, Hazra 2018) and plant essential oils
as insect repellents (Prakash etal. 1990, Paranagama and Sujantha
Ekanayake 2004, Yilmaz and Tunaz 2013), and biocontrol (Reierson
etal. 2005, Fox and Bressan-Nascimento 2006, Hernández-Ramírez
etal. 2007, Maketon etal. 2010, Tee etal. 2011a, Hubner-Campos
et al. 2013, Gutierrez et al. 2016, Baggio-Deibler et al. 2018) are
ghting measures that their extensive description represented and
discussed in the following items (Table1).
Insecticide Susceptibility
Unlike the German cockroaches which its insecticide susceptibility
or resistance has been well studied, a few studies have been per-
formed in the eld of insecticide susceptibility or resistance against
the American cockroaches. There are few studies being also available
about the efcacy of insecticide formulations against P.americana in
sewers (Tee etal. 2011b, Bueno-Marí etal. 2013). Vythilingam and
Sutivigit (1994) reported that P.americana was susceptible to namely,
lambda-cyhalothrin, permethrin, deltamethrin, cyuthrin, and alpha-
cypermethrin pyrethroids. The susceptibility level based on LC50 were
observed as the lambda-cyhalothrin > permethrin > deltamethrin >
cyuthrin > alpha-cypermethrin order. Lambda-cyhalothrin was the
most effective and alpha-cypermethrin was the least effective against
P. americana (Vythilingam and Sutivigit 1994). However, a study
exhibited a moderate levels of resistance (2.0-fold) to deltamethrin
against P. americana (Syed etal. 2014). Excluding bed bugs, 100%
mortality was detected in nontarget household insects including the
American cockroaches by cone bioassaytests.
Cyclodiene insecticide resistance in the American cockroaches is
related with a single base pair replacement in the GABA receptor
or chloride ion channel gene Rdl (Thompson etal. 1993). In many
parts of the world, the control of cockroaches discontinue with
diazinon and chlorpyrifos applications (Reierson etal. 2005). Unlike
the German cockroaches, the commercially available formulations
of dishwashing liquids and cleaners were not effective against the
American cockroaches (Baldwin and Koehler 2007). Imidacloprid
and deltamethrin (2.0-fold), and pronil (3.9-fold) exhibited moder-
ate level of resistance against adult P.americana (Syed etal. 2014).
Findings of topically applied entomopathogenic Metarhizium
anisopliae (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) also emphasize a distinct
resistance of nymphs of the American cockroach to M.anisopliae
(Gutierrez et al. 2016). The American cockroach populations also
exhibited resistance against malathion with signicantly higher
activities of insecticide detoxifying enzymes which were recorded
compared to the susceptible control population. The elevated levels
and higher enzymatic activity of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs),
monooxygenases, and nonspecic esterases are the possible reasons
for resistance of malathion and enzymes involved in resistance devel-
opment (Tahir etal. 2017).
Briey, P. americana is being emerged resistant to cyclodiene,
deltamethrin, pronil, imidacloprid and malathion insecticides, and
entomopathogenic M. anisopliae (Thompson et al. 1993, Baldwin
and Koehler 2007, Syed etal. 2014, Gutierrez etal. 2016, Tahir etal.
2017). Certainly, a lot of studies need to be done in the future. Unlike
the American cockroaches, there are numerous studies performed in
the eld of insecticide resistance against the German cockroaches.
Currently it is well documented that the German cockroaches are
being emerged resistant to a wide groups of insecticides including
organophosphates, carbamates, pyrethroids, phenyl pyrazoles, spi-
nosad, neonicotinoids, and oxadiazines (Nasirian et al. 2006a–e;
Nasirian etal. 2009; Limoee et al. 2010; Nasirian 2010; Nasirian
etal. 2011; Paksa etal. 2011, 2012; Ladonni etal. 2013; Naqqash
etal. 2016; Nazari etal. 2016; Sanei Dehkordi etal. 2017).
Although the commercially available formulations of cleaners
and dishwashing liquids were equally toxic to adult B. germanica
cockroaches getting 83–100% mortality with 100% cleaner via an
immersion application and 92–100% mortality at 1% dishwashing
liquid. However, they were not effective against the adult American
cockroaches except for immersion application of dishwashing liquid
resulted in a 0.24% LC50 (Baldwin and Koehler 2007).
During recent years, LLINs, treated at factory level with insec-
ticide either coated around or incorporated into bers, have been
started to conquer the problems of low retreatment rates, washing,
and erratic dose of the insecticide resulting in the dilution of efcacy
of the conventional insecticide-treated mosquito nets. Excluding bed
bugs, 100% mortality was detected in nontarget household insects
including the American cockroaches by cone bioassay tests. In addi-
tion to LLINs are highly effective against malaria vectors they mod-
erately impact against non-target household insects (Sharma etal.
2006).
Sewers are being sought to use approved strategies of Integrated
Pest Management (IPM) and the materials with minimal envi-
ronmental impact and low mammalian toxicity can be used. The
persistence and efcacy of insecticides in sewers depend on sev-
eral factors like the rate of organic matters, formulation type, the
kind of active matter, the type of cockroach populations, and cli-
matic conditions. It seems emerging of insecticide resistance is the
most factors that affects the persistence and efcacy of insecticides.
Microencapsulated diazinon and aqueous sprays of wettable pow-
der chlorpyrifos provide an excellent control of cockroaches for at
least 9 mo. Emulsiable concentrate and microencapsulated and
chlorpyrifos sprays provide >94.0% reductions of cockroaches for
a year (Rust etal. 1991). The product combining piperonyl butox-
ide with tetramethrin and alfacipermetrin (pyrethroids) also achieve
excellent results with cockroach control while the insecticide persis-
tence effects achieve during 1 mo in sewers. These results concord-
ance with outcomes of the other former studies (Rust etal. 1991,
Fahiminia etal. 2010, Bueno-Marí etal. 2013). Obviously, the effec-
tiveness of the insecticide formulations for 1-mo control is very little
time that this time should be increased. Diazinon and clorpyrifos
(organophosphate) insecticides reduce the cockroach populations
for only 1wk (Bueno-Marí etal. 2013). It may be due to insecticide
resistance (Tahir etal. 2017) and inadequate insecticide doses.
Application of Dust Formulations
A great way to treat cockroach in the crevices and small cracks is
to be dust. Various powders, dusts, and dusters for control of cock-
roaches are to be boric acid, Delta Dust, Drione Dust, bellow dust-
ers, and electric dusters. Pyrethrins, the active ingredients of the
pyrethrum insecticide, are very effective in killing insects but are
quite harmless to mammals. When combined with silica gel to form
Drione powder, they can be applied for long-term against insects
(Schoeld and Crisafulli 1980). Drione dust is a very safe product
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and also very effective which remains effective as long as it stays dry.
An appropriate proprietary dust formulation as little as 50–100g/
manhole including boric acid 35.5%, diatomaceous earth 50%,
piperonyl butoxide 10.0%, and pyrethrins 2.0% blown into the
system with a commercial DeVilbis sprayer provide >98% control
for at least 3 mo (Reierson et al. 2005). Apowder of synergized
pyrethrins plus silica gel mixture, boric acid and bendiocarb resulted
in an excellent control for at least 1 mo; however, cockroach infesta-
tion returned after 3–6 mo of treated shafts. Obviously, the effective-
ness of the insecticide formulations for 1 mo control is very little
time that this time should be increased. As in the fall populations of
the adult cockroaches being the lowest, treatments provide the best
results (Rust etal. 1991).
Application of Bait Formulations
Although there is a report using baits failed to provide consistent con-
trol of the American cockroaches due to application problems (Rust
etal. 1991) or the insect growth regulators (IGRs) are not be recom-
mended as an active materials for the control of the American cock-
roaches in sewers (Bueno-Marí et al. 2013). However, the results of
eld studies have been indicated that the baits are effective against
the cockroaches (Nasirian et al. 2006b, Nasirian 2007, 2008; Wan-
Norakah etal. 2017; Davari etal. 2018) and also the American cock-
roach species in sewers.
Neonicotinyl and abamectin baits provided rapid success effec-
tive control of P. americana and relatively inexpensive in sewers.
MaxForce FC Roach Killer (pronil 0.05%) and Pre-Empt, IMAGEL
(imidacloprid 2.15%) gel baits provide ≥96% control for 6 mo or
longer (Reierson etal. 2005).
Granular ant bait formulations (containing abamectin B1,
orthoboric acid, or propoxur) are clearly toxic to the American and
German cockroaches. The gel bait formulation of pronil 0.03%
(Goliath) when exploited at the adequate dosages on cement, mud,
thatch and wood surfaces could cause >80% mortality of P.ameri-
cana cockroaches in places possessing these types of surfaces. The
American cockroaches greatly preferred the commercially available
gel baits (0.05% pronil and 0.6% indoxacarb) for feeding over dog
food. The gel bait of indoxacarb 0.6% was highly effective against
the American and German cockroaches. Periplaneta americana cock-
roaches ingest the potassium alum affecting mortality. Laboratory
and eld studies demonstrated the high efcacy of a B. bassiana
bait formulation against the American and German cockroaches.
Although it is important to maximize the bait consumption, the fac-
tors enhancing secondary mortality and contacting toxicity should
also be considered (Koehler etal. 1991, Appel etal. 2005, Reierson
etal. 2005, Srinivasan etal. 2005, Bayer et al. 2012, Anikwe etal.
2014, Salama 2015, Wang etal. 2016).
Baits compared with spray applications possess benets being
inexpensive, ready and easy to use, widely available, having low
toxicity and negative side effects, and not needing to apply by a
technician (Davari et al. 2018). The applied insecticidal bait for-
mulations provided sustained cockroach elimination during 12 mo
and resulted in reduction of asthma morbidity (Rabito etal. 2017).
Compared with controls, a eld trial placement of boric acid gran-
ules to a courtyard eliminate cockroaches with a signicant cock-
roach antigen reduction of buildings (Carlson etal. 2017).
Toxic gel baits are one effective control method for cockroach
control. Periplaneta americana are thought to prefer toxic baits over
other food sources (Porusia etal. 2017). According to the labora-
tory experiments, the baits were accepted by cockroaches as a food
source (Varadínová etal. 2015). However, eld P.americana strains
tended to visit natural foods more often, and laboratory strains vis-
ited insecticide baits more frequently. Field and laboratory strains
of P.americana cockroaches are not fully attracted to the gel baits
when other foods are available around their harborage. Therefore,
it needs to be minimized the availability of other food sources when
applying gel baits around the cockroach harborage (Porusia etal.
2017). Areasonable manner is using a combination of IPM strate-
gies with strong vector control management such as reforming and
cleaning of the environment, spraying, and applying the bait formu-
lations recommending for effective cockroach pest control including
P.americana (Nasirian 2016, Davari etal. 2018).
To achieve an effective treatment, the gel baits must be applied as
a narrow band restricted just below the cover, not deep within. Solid
and granular baits administrating by devices or gel baits distributing
by cards lower in the manholes of sewers are not as effective. Gel
baits which were covered with fungus retrieved from sewer man-
holes months later stayed toxic indicating prolonged success efcacy
against nymphs emerging afterward. Regardless of active ingredient
degradation, revival of cockroach populations in some manholes of
sewers appearing as a result of the baits may be consumed (Reierson
etal. 2005). Therefore, there is a need for replacement of the baits.
Application of Inesfly Paint Insecticide Formulations
An Inesy paint insecticide is a contact insecticide, specically formu-
lated for effective, economic, and long-term control. Today, however,
insecticidal paints are receiving renewed interest for their potential
use against disease vectors. This interest can be attributed to several
factors, of which safety of Inesy paint insecticides, low concentra-
tion of active ingredients, organic solvent free, active ingredient grad-
ual releasing, and low application frequency, along with the concerns
that should be addressed before this intervention tool achieves wide-
spread application (Hazra 2018). When sewer cockroaches come
in contact with Inesy paint insecticide the mucus secreted by the
insect’s feet will dissolve the polymers designed to hold the insecti-
cide micro-particles on the treated surface, and the insecticide is then
absorbed into the insect’s feet killing them typically within 24 to 48h.
Among several insecticides with different formulations and
active substances including Bio-blaticida 100SC (containing dif-
lubenzuron), Diptron EC20 (containing clorpyrifos), Ecorex alfa
(containing alphacypermethrin, tetrametrin, and piperonyl butox-
ide), Empire 20 (containing clorpyrifos), Inesy 5 AIGR (contain-
ing diazinón, clorpyrifos, and pyriproxyfen), Serpa D60 (containing
diazinón), and Sumilarv 10 EC (containing pyriproxyfen) apply to
sewer shafts for controlling the American cockroaches. The paints
with and without insecticide, Inesy, provide an optimal reduction
for up to 3 mo (P<0.001) observing the best products for P.ameri-
cana cockroach populations control. Therefore, it should be noted
that the cockroach population reductions, as well as the insecticide
persistence effect, were similar in both types of paints in sewers
(Bueno-Marí etal. 2013). Paints with insecticide also provide inter-
estingly an optimal control of the American cockroach populations
for 3 mo (Bueno-Marí etal. 2013).
One single application of 50–70g Inesy paint 5 AIGR per spot
provided long-term control of Blatta orientalis cockroach popula-
tions for 9 mo at this pest infestation of Zaragoza areas in Spain
(Delacour-Estrella etal. 2014).
Application of Plant Essential Oils as Insect
Repellents
DEPA (N,N-diethylphenylacetamide) displayed residual repel-
lency for 4 wk against P. americana cockroaches at 0.5 mg/cm2
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concentration (Prakash et al. 1990). Essential oils, produced by
plants, have been exhibited to have insecticidal, attractant or repel-
lent properties. These effects are presumed to produce through their
interaction with receptors of octopamine. In insects which octopa-
mine is an important biogenic monoamine the functions are as
neurohormones, neurotransmitters and neuromodulators (Gross
etal. 2014). Briey essential oils of Alpinia calcarata (Zingiberales:
Zingiberaceae) freshly cut rhizomes which identied as camphene,
camphor, fenchyl acetate 1,8-cineole, β-pinene and α-pinene showed
repellant properties in P.americana. Essential oils of Allium sativum
(Lamiales: Lamiaceae), Brassica nigra (Brassicales: Brassicaceae)
plant and allyl isothiocayanate monoterpenoid component have
potential as fumigant insecticidal effects against the American cock-
roaches (Paranagama and Sujantha Ekanayake 2004, Yilmaz and
Tunaz 2013). To achieve practical use, these results need to be evalu-
ated by the eld studies.
Recently it has been proved that the Pogostemon cablin
(Lamiales: Lamiaceae) essential oil of leaves, Artemisia arborescens
and A. santolina (Asterales: Asteraceae), Apiaceae (Apiales) plants,
and their major components have good potential as repellents or
natural insecticide sources (Yeom etal. 2012, Liu etal. 2015, Yeom
et al. 2015) for the German cockroach control, until they will be
legally and ofcially used, take a lot of time (Nazari etal. 2016).
The German cockroaches also exhibited high values of repellency
exposing to treated lter paper with catnip plant, Nepeta cataria
(Lamiales: Lamiaceae), the individual nepetalactone isomers or
essential oil. Of the two evaluated nepetalactone isomers (Z,E- and
E,Z-nepetalactone), B. germanica were the most responsive to the
E, Z isomer (Schultz etal. 2006). These studies should also be tested
in P.americana and to achieve practical use the results need to be
evaluated by the eld studies.
Biocontrol
It is well-known that control with natural enemies is less aggressive
and can currently be exploited with less risk than other methods
such as chemical control which is the main technique used world-
wide to control post-embryonic pest stages (Baggio-Deibler et al.
2018). Chemical control also provide only temporary control, it is
recommended that it should be accompanied by other control meth-
ods (Ross and Cochran 1992).
Although there was a report that the natural enemies may be
inappropriate in the sewer environment. There was no measurable
effect on populations of cockroaches in sewer environments after
releasing of Aprostocetus hagenowii (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)
parasitoid which was reportedly effective on the American and
smokybrown cockroaches (Periplaneta fuliginosa), but it may be
inappropriate due to lack of effectiveness in sewer environment here
(Reierson etal. 2005).
So far, natural enemies of P.americana including Evania appendi-
gaster (Hymenoptera: Evaniidae) and A.hagenowii, the parasitoids
of P. americana oothecae; Steinernema carpocapsae (Rhabditida:
Steinernematidae) entomopathogenic nematodes; and Metarhizium
anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae)
entomopathogenic fungi have been successfully used to control
P.americana cockroaches (Hwang and Chen 2004, Reierson et al.
2005, Fox and Bressan-Nascimento 2006, Hernández-Ramírez etal.
2007, Maketon etal. 2010, Tee etal. 2011a, Hubner-Campos etal.
2013, Gutierrez etal. 2016, Tee and Lee 2017, Baggio-Deibler etal.
2018). But when the natural enemies were applied in the form of
baits or along with the baits achieved more successfully results than
natural enemies alone (Hwang and Chen 2004, Hernández-Ramírez
etal. 2007, Maketon et al. 2010). The application of E. appendi-
gaster parasitoid of the American cockroaches oothecae habitats
such as sewers accompanied with baits resulted in effective reduction
of the American cockroach populations (Hwang and Chen 2004).
The addition of 3 and 5% boric acid to the cockroach diets along
with B. bassiana produced 82.0 and 92.0% of mortality, respec-
tively which had a good acceptance by the American cockroaches
(Hernández-Ramírez et al. 2007). Releasing of A. hagenowii par-
asitoid were also more effective when releases were made at high
and middle levels of sewer manholes than at a low level which was
placed at the sewer manhole midpoint (Tee etal. 2011a).
The American cockroach oothecae parasitism is affected by host
density and days of E.appendigaster parasitoid lifetime. The greatest
reproductive efciency of E.appendigaster females happened in the
rst 14 d of their lifetime. The parasitism rates decrease with increas-
ing the host density (Fox and Bressan-Nascimento 2006). Reduced
progeny survival of E.appendigaster parasitoid due to host canni-
balism did not alter the parasitoid’s oviposition of females priority
for newly cockroach eggs (Tee and Lee 2017). Therefore, in overall
to achieve more successful results the releases of parasitoid or natu-
ral enemies need frequently to be repeated with appropriate time
intervals or it accompanied with the baits, the baits also replaced
with the appropriate time intervals.
The Challenges of Finding Environmentally Safe
Treatments
The challenges of nding environmentally safe treatments that
do not affect urban waters is a very controversial topic. Although
valuable researches and reviews about removing the pollutants and
insecticides from the urban waters have been implemented. There
are valuable treatment technologies and strategies for removal and
degradation of persistent and toxic pesticides using nanoparticles
and nanotechnology-based multifunctional and highly efcient pro-
cesses (Kumar Reddy and Lee 2012, Amin et al. 2014, Angelakis
and Snyder 2015, Rani et al. 2017). The unique characteristics of
nanomaterials such as large surface areas, size, shape, and dimen-
sions making them particularly attractive for urban water treatment
applications (Amin etal. 2014). The degradation techniques of insec-
ticides are now advanced using nanomaterials of various kinds such
as TiO2 and Fe and found to be excellent adsorbents and efcient
photocatalysts for degrading more or less whole insecticides as well
as their toxic metabolites. It is noteworthy that such methodologies
are economic, fast and very efcient (Rani etal. 2017).
While it would seem that is wiser to use the strategies that do
not lead to environmental contamination from the beginning, in
order to solve the problems that human being faced. The actions of
these kinds are eliminating of potential cockroach food, water, and
shelter sources, closing of crevices or cracks (Orkin 2018), applying
materials with minimal environmental impact and low mammalian
toxicity (Reierson etal. 2005), having low toxicity and negative side
effects including baits (Davari etal. 2018) as well as achieving more
successfully results by using natural enemies in the form of baits or
along with the baits than natural enemies alone (Hwang and Chen
2004, Hernández-Ramírez etal. 2007, Maketon etal. 2010).
Futuristic Actions
Integrating Health Into the Future Buildings
For promoting healthy environments and behaviors, and mitigat-
ing adverse health outcomes, the building designers must redesign,
renovate, and reconstruct the future buildings. A key priority in
Journal of Medical Entomology, 2019, Vol. 56, No. 1186
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designing, building, and operating of new and existing buildings also
should be based on the health and wellbeing of building occupants.
Strategies of green infrastructures, smart buildings, and larger sys-
tems should be changed serving and supporting public health goals.
To promote health at the level of individual buildings, interventions
are also in a manner of enhancing indoor environmental quality and
providing opportunities for physical activity.
To measure a building’s health impacts and navigate the various
programs with using metrics, a ‘healthy building’ is being built with
multiple co-benets relating to the energy efciency, environment,
economy, planning, society, and transportation (Heidari etal. 2017).
Future Techniques for Control of Cockroaches
Facultative parthenogenesis which may be observed in many animal
phyla is an asexual mode of reproduction that females generate off-
spring without mating with male partner (Katoh etal. 2017) and play
an important role in the evolution of insect sex, sociality, and strate-
gies of reproduction (Tanaka and Daimon 2018). Parthenogenesis is
frequently more popular than sexual reproduction in some eusocial
and subsocial insects (Katoh etal. 2017). As American cockroaches
belong to the superfamily Blattoidea diverging into eusocial termites
and showing facultative parthenogenesis, it is well-suited to address
this reproductive issue (Katoh etal. 2017). Atype of parthenogen-
esis which offspring are produced by females without fertilization
named as thelytoky are being exhibited in some cockroach species.
Astudy result demonstrates that the American cockroaches exhibit
automixis-type thelytoky in which diploidy restoring by gamete
duplication or terminal fusion (Tanaka and Daimon 2018).
Bringing together various elements of different pest management
strategies and providing a framework for their effective deployment
are tactics of push–pull strategies. In the push strategy, stimuli like
alarm pheromones, anti-aggregation pheromones, antifeedants, ovi-
position deterrents, non-host volatiles, and visual distractions are
used to mask host apparency or repel or deter the pests away from
the resource. In the pull strategy, highly apparent and attractive
stimuli like aggregation or sex pheromones, host volatiles, gustatory
or oviposition stimulants, and visual stimulants are simultaneously
used to attract the pests to other areas such as traps or trap crops
concentrating and facilitating elimination there (Cook etal. 2007).
Due to P. americana exhibits automixis-type thelytoky, use of
this P.americana advantage, push–pull strategies and an automated
sewer robot, and integrating health into the future buildings (Cook
etal. 2007, Heidari etal. 2017, Vaani etal. 2017, Tanaka and Daimon
2018), they may be new approaches of P.americana control strate-
gies in the future as futuristic actions. It is well documented that the
cockroaches are threatening human health (Nasirian 2010, Nasirian
2016, Davari et al. 2017a, Nasirian 2017a, Schapheer etal. 2018),
similar leishmaniosis, mosquitoes, myiasis, tick-borne diseases,
pediculosis, and scabies (Poudat and Nasirian 2007; Telmadarraiy
etal. 2007; Soleimani-Ahmadi etal. 2009; Nasirian etal. 2014a,b;
Shayeghi et al. 2016; Davari et al. 2017b; Martínez-Girón etal.
2017; Gholamian-Shahabad etal. 2018). Cockroach exposure is an
important asthma trigger (Rabito etal. 2017), particularly for chil-
dren with asthma living in homes of cockroach infested. Integrating
health into the future buildings and the described below future tech-
niques are the futuristic actions for control of cockroaches.
Although sanitation has been proved not to possess a direct
relationship with the domiciliary cockroach infestation levels (Lee
and Lee 2000). While cockroaches produce some allergens to be
accumulated within their tiny feces and may be persisted invisible
in the environment (Varadínová etal. 2015). Buffer environmental
conditions of urbanization allow pest insects expanding their distri-
bution. Several various pest insects, such as synanthropic cockroach
organisms, have expanded their distributions by human-modied
habitats. Suitable microhabitats for domiciliary cockroaches are gen-
erated by human settlements to help them for surviving and estab-
lishing to overall of the climatic restrictions (Schapheer etal. 2018).
In addition, the buildings of the future must redesign, renovate, and
reconstruct for promoting healthy environments and behaviors, and
mitigating adverse health outcomes (Heidari etal. 2017). They will
be designed and constructed in a way that they are cockroach-proof
or impossible to their entering and the survivals are inconceivable.
As P.americana has a unique reproduction exhibiting automixis-
type thelytoky which diploidy is remade by gamete duplication or
terminal fusion (Tanaka and Daimon 2018), in the future it may be
a new approach as a P.americana control. The new investigations in
this context through articial feeding (Nasirian and Ladonni 2006,
Nasirian etal. 2008) may be experimentally performed.
A challenge to locomote animals and engineer seeking in design-
ing agile robots is the information integration from structures of
dynamic sensory operating on a moving body. The sensor mechani-
cal tuning is critical for effective control as a tactile sensor is a physi-
cal linkage mediating mechanical interactions between environment
and body (Mongeau etal. 2014). Asewer automated robot conduct-
ing any inspection of sewer lines for cracks, corrosion obstacles, etc.
and clearing any blockage within (Vaani etal. 2017) are needed. It
is hoped that the robot will be used for control of cockroaches in
the future. The tactics of push–pull strategies are bringing together
various elements of different pest management strategies and provid-
ing a framework for their effective deployment (Cook etal. 2007).
They are the future techniques which may be used for control of the
American cockroaches in sewers.
Finally a reasonable manner is using a combination of IPM strat-
egies with strong vector control management such as reforming and
cleaning of the environment, spraying, and applying the bait formu-
lations recommending for effective cockroach pest control includ-
ing P.americana (Nasirian 2016, Rabito etal. 2017, Davari et al.
2018). Asuccessful tactic to eliminate cockroach allergen exposures
is elimination of cockroaches (Sever etal. 2007). Implementing an
IPM intervention including education of residents, intensive profes-
sional sanitation and extensive insecticidal bait applications resulted
in signicant reductions of cockroach infestation levels and allergens
(Arbes et al. 2003). Environmental and multifaceted interventions
have also demonstrated improvement in asthma health outcomes
(Arbes etal. 2003, Morgan etal. 2004, Eggleston etal. 2005, Sever
etal. 2007, Rabito etal. 2017).
Conclusion
It is well documented that the cockroaches are threatening human
health. Cockroaches have proved as potential carriers of the patho-
genic or opportunistic bacteria and fungi discovered in nosocomial
infections, food-borne poisoning and diseases mostly being drug-
resistant, human intestinal parasites and intermediate hosts, and
play a role as a major source of allergens causing asthma and other
human long-term health issues.
Periplaneta americana is the most important synanthropic inva-
sive and hygienic urban pests. This pest species is an annoyance
to human associating with diseases and allergy, and damaging to
clothes and documents. Periplaneta americana species is also the
most important pests of sewer environments colonizing there with
high signicance of human public health and source of household
allergens that need to be controlled. To control P.americana, many
Journal of Medical Entomology, 2019, Vol. 56, No. 1 187
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studies have been conducted in various elds which has been pub-
lished in separate papers or notes describing from an angle of the
topics. Each of them can be a good lever of P. americana control
measures. Putting the all levers of its control on the table pro-
vide possible using in required conditions. Therefore this practical
approach systematic review perform internationally to highlight and
provide a detailed of the control of cockroaches in sewers.
Unlike the German cockroaches which its insecticide resistance
has been well studied, a few studies have been performed in the eld
of insecticide susceptibility or resistance against the American cock-
roaches needing to be done in the future. Arecommending manner to
achieve a successful P.americana cockroach control in sewers is using
a combination of IPM strategies with strong vector control manage-
ment such as masterly resident education, intensive sanitation, environ-
mental and multifaceted interventions, extensive insecticide spraying
and bait formulations resulted in reductions of cockroach infestation
levels, allergens and asthma health outcomes. As P. americana has a
unique reproduction and exhibits automixis-type thelytoky, use of this
P.americana advantage, push–pull strategies and an automated sewer
robot, and integrating health into the future buildings, it may be a new
strategy of P.americana control in the future as futuristic actions.
Acknowledgments
This work did not receive any technical or nancial support from any institu-
tion and was done by the rst author at his own personal expense. The authors
declare that they have no conict of interest.
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... The related papers about the global tick infestations for buffaloes, camels, cattle, goats, sheep, and the global domestic ruminants in the world countries, continents, hemispheres and tropical regions; tick infestations in age categories of domestic ruminants; tick infestations in attachment sites of domestic ruminant group body parts; tick infestations in relation to domestic ruminant group sexes and tick life stages; and seasonal and monthly tick infestations in domestic ruminant groups in the world hemispheres and tropical regions, were read carefully. For extracting, categorizing and analyzing the data of the related papers, the methods following Nasirian, Nasirian and Salehzadeh, Kassiri and Nasirian, and Nasirian and Zahirnia (Nasirian 2016(Nasirian , 2017a(Nasirian , b, 2019aNasirian and Salehzadeh 2019a;Nasirian 2020;Kassiri and Nasirian 2021;Nasirian and Zahirnia 2021) were used. Based on the literature search, the results of tick infestations of domestic ruminant groups were primarily categorized and summarized according to tick infestations in buffaloes, camels, cattle, goats, and sheep (Table 1), age category tick infestations in buffaloes, camels, cattle, goats, and sheep (Table 2), attachment sites of body part tick infestations in buffaloes, camels, cattle, goats, and sheep (Table 3), tick infestations in relation to buffaloes, camels, cattle, goats, and sheep sexes (Table 4), tick infestations by life stages in buffaloes, camels, cattle, goats, and sheep (Table 5), and seasonal (Table 6) and monthly (Table 7) tick infestations in buffaloes, camels, cattle, goats, and sheep. ...
... Microsoft Excel and SPSS were used for analyzing the data represented in Tables 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7. To calculate and estimate the global annually trend of tick infestations for each domestic ruminant group of buffaloes, camels, cattle, goats, sheep, and the global domestic ruminants in relation to the world countries, continents, hemispheres and tropical regions (Figs. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7), tick infestations in age categories of domestic ruminant groups (Fig. 8), tick infestations in attachment sites of domestic ruminant group body parts (Fig. 9), tick infestations of domestic ruminant groups in relation to animal sexes and tick life stages (Fig. 10), and seasonal and monthly tick infestations in domestic ruminant groups in the world hemispheres and tropical regions (Figs. 11,12), the methods following Nasirian, Nasirian and Salehzadeh, Kassiri and Nasirian, and Nasirian and Zahirnia (Nasirian 2016(Nasirian , 2017a(Nasirian , b, 2019aNasirian and Salehzadeh 2019a;Nasirian 2020;Kassiri and Nasirian 2021;Nasirian and Zahirnia 2021) were used. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc tests (Tukey) were used to compare tick and tick life stage infestations among domestic ruminant groups, domestic ruminant age categories, attachment sites of domestic ruminant group body parts, and seasonal and monthly tick infestations in relation to the world hemispheres and tropical regions, continents, countries, and years (Tables 8,9,10). ...
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... A systematic review and meta-analysis, following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines was performed [25]. Several years of experience and comments from the journal editors and reviewers in writing and administering the papers and especially systematic and meta-analysis reviews played a key role to achieve and write this global systematic and meta-analysis review [2,[26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38]. As a first step, keywords or preliminary phrases including CCHFV infected ticks or tick species; CCHFV infected ticks or tick species infested camels, cattle, goats, or sheep were used to search papers about CCHFV infected ticks or tick species and CCHFV infected ticks or tick species infested camels, cattle, goats, or sheep. ...
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Background There are many studies present in literature performed to isolate CCHFV from ticks. However, gaps in knowledge for estimating global annual CCHFV infection rates; global CCHFV infection rates and records; CCHFV infection trend in ticks and ticks infested animals; and lack a decision regarding the role of ticks as CCHFV vectors caused to conduct this review. Methods From 605 papers identified, 150 papers were selected to become the study meta-analysis (57 papers), detailed CCHFV infected ticks (63 papers), and systematic review (99 papers) parts. Results Since there are no significant differences between the annual tick CCHFV infection rates; tick CCHFV infection rates between continents; and CCHFV infection rates between tick species and gender of ticks, and ticks and tick species infested animals. Given that ticks are considered both as CCHFV reservoirs and vectors. It is possible a little burden of CCHFV in infected ticks in natural enzootic cycles to maintain and disseminate CCHFV in humans. The decision regarding the role of ticks as CCHFV vectors administrated based on the study and a separately literature search regarding the role of ticks as CCHFV vectors; CCHFV infection rates and records; and trend of CCHFV infection records in 31 tick species. The trend of CCHFV infection records in 31 tick species exhibited a decreasing trend indicating the degree and importance of their roles as CCHFV vectors. Conclusions Among 31 CCHFV infected tick species, 15 species have been enrolled as proven vectors and 16 species are suspected as potential vectors.
... In addition, house dust containing cockroach feces and body parts can trigger allergic reactions and asthma in certain individuals [81,82]. For these reasons, cockroach populations are controlled using insecticides [83]. With the characterization of the PaOctβ2R described here and in particular the production of a cell line that stably expresses this receptor, we now have an efficient tool to screen for potential and highly selective insecticides. ...
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... These scientific reports showed that S. collinsiae possessed contact toxicity that could eliminate pest and insect vectors. P. americana, an important medical insect vector that is resistant to insecticides and hard to kill [39][40][41][42][43] has never been tested with S. collinsiae root extracts. Nymphicidal and adulticidal activities of S. collinsiae against P. americana via topical administration are unknown. ...
Preprint
Contact toxicity against Periplaneta americana has never been tested with S. collinsiae root extract. Hexane, dichloromethane, ethanol and water extracts were tested in final-instar nymphs and adult P. americana by topical application method. The dichloromethane extract showed the high-est potency of contact toxicity against the final-instar nymphs (41-100% corrected mortality at 48 hours), lowest LC50 (1.5±0.2 %w/v at 48 hours), and lowest LT50 (36.1±0.8 hours at 10%w/v) while the water crude extract lacked the contact toxicity (0-0% corrected mortality at 48 hours). Signs of toxicity, such as excited movement, trembling body, motionlessness, and swollen abdomen segment including irregularly extended foregut were found at the both stages of P. americana dropping with solutions of dichloromethane extract. Detection of didehydrostemofoline distri-bution using IMS revealed that didehydrostemofoline distributed in the tissue of the dead fi-nal-instar nymph and adult P. americana contacting with dichloromethane extract, but it was not found in tissue of euthanized P. americana which exposed to the water extract. Didehydrostemo-foline in the extract was a cause of toxicity signs and death of P. americana via a contact route. Thus, dichloromethane extract and didehydrostemofoline could be used as an active ingredient and chemical marker in aerosol and spray formulations for cockroach control.
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Bait formulations are widely used for controlling the German cockroach, but cockroaches increasingly come into aversion and resistance to bait formulations. To optimize baits and delay insecticides resistance to Blattella germanica, five insecticides with different mechanisms of action were selected to test the stomach toxicity of B. germanica, and twelve nutrient-rich foods were selected to test the palatability of B. germanica in the research. The results revealed that flufiprole and dinotefuran had a significant effect on the decrease of B. germanica population, whereas hydramethylnon, permethrin did not work well in 72 hours stomach toxicity and acrinathrin had a short potency in pesticide formulation because of its semi-volatile physical properties. Furthermore, B. germanica prefers the poison bait to rat feed. This research represents the bait consisting of peanut powder and maltose (9:1) has the best palatability to B. germanica, and flufiprole and dinotefuran have a lot of potential in baits development and application.
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É com grande satisfação que a Editora e-Publicar vem apresentar a obra intitulada “Saúde e aplicações interdisciplinares, Volume 3”. Neste livro, engajados pesquisadores da área de saúde contribuíram com suas pesquisas. A obra é composta por 34 capítulos que abordam múltiplos temas
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Ethanol extract (EE) from Periplaneta americana (PA) is the main ingredient of Kangfuxin, which is a popular traditional chinese medicine (TCM) and has long been used for the clinical treatment of burns, wounds and ulcers. We compared the wound-healing activities of three extracts of PA using cutaneous wound-healing in mice as the bioactivity model. These three extracts were EE, total polysaccharide and total protein. We also tracked bioactive fractions in the EE by organic reagent extraction, column chromatography and HPLC. Seven compounds were successfully identified from the water elution fraction of the EE of PA using UPLC-MS. Among these compounds, four compounds (P2, P3, P4, P5(1)) were first reported in PA. Some of these compounds have been previously reported to have various pharmacological activities that could contribute to the high wound-healing activity of PA.
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The Periplaneta americana species is an annoyance to man, causing allergies and damage to clothes and documents. It has the ability to spread pathogens and requires control measures. Control with natural enemies is less aggressive and can currently be applied with less risk than other techniques, such as chemical control, which is the main method used worldwide to control its post-embryonic stages. The potential microbial control of nymphs and adults of this pest has been shown, but little is known about its oothecae. There are isolates of fungal species that can be used to achieve this aim, but they may have innate differences in their virulence and ability to spread. This study aimed to identify fungal isolates JAB 68 and IBCB 35 through genetic sequencing of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region, analyze their ability to synthesize chitinase, and investigate and compare their aggressiveness against P. americana oothecae and their influence on nymph eclosion. Fungal suspensions were inoculated into minimal medium containing glucose (control) as the sole carbon source and 1% colloidal chitin to determine the chitinolytic activity on the 4th, 7th and 10th days and sporulation on the 10th day. To obtain mortality, extrusion and the compiled number of hatched nymphs, oothecae were sprayed with suspensions of the isolates as follows: T1 - no application; T2 - aqueous solution of Tween 80® 0.1% (vehicle suspension for treatments T3 to T8); T3 - 2 x 109 conidia/mL of the JAB 68 isolate; T4 - 2 x 108 con./mL of the JAB 68 isolate; T5 - 2 x 107 con./mL of the JAB 68 isolate; T6 - 2 x 109 con./mL of the IBCB 35 isolate; T7 - 2 x 108 con./mL of the IBCB 35 isolate; T8 - 2 x 107 con./mL of the IBCB 35 isolate. The JAB 68 and IBCB 35 isolates were identified as belonging to the species Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana, respectively. Chitinolytic activity and extrusion were good parameters for evaluating the fungi's action on oothecal control. The most aggressive entomopathogen was M. anisopliae isolate JAB 68, with shorter time for fungus extrusion at a concentration of 2 x 107 con./mL. B. bassiana reduced the number of hatched nymphs at a concentration of 2 x 108 con./mL. Both fungi are capable of infecting and killing P. americana's oothecae and reducing the number of nymphs hatched.
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Objective: Exposure to indoor allergens and pollutants is associated with worsened asthma morbidity. Previous research has examined indoor exposures in the home environment, but evaluation and understanding of the school environment is also needed. The objective of this article is to provide a comprehensive overview of common school exposures and the association between school exposures and pediatric asthma morbidity. Data sources: A comprehensive literature review was performed using PubMed scientific search engine. Study selections: Full-length, peer-reviewed studies published in English were considered for review. In vivo, in vitro, and animal studies were excluded. Studies of school exposure to cockroach, mouse, dust mite, dog, cat, molds, pollution, and endotoxin associated with asthma and asthma morbidity were considered. Results: The current literature establishes an association between school exposure and pediatric asthma morbidity. There is a need for ongoing research to evaluate the effects of school-based environmental interventions on asthma morbidity. Conclusion: It is evident that the indoor school environment is a significant reservoir of allergens, molds, pollutants, and endotoxin, and that there is a relationship between school exposure and pediatric asthma morbidity. School-based interventions have the potential for substantial individual, community, and public health benefit. It is important that researchers continue to study the health effects associated with school exposures and assess cost-effectiveness of multifaceted school-based interventions.
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Parthenogenesis is an asexual mode of reproduction that plays an important role in the evolution of sex, sociality, and reproduction strategies in insects. Some species of cockroach exhibit thelytoky, a type of parthenogenesis in which female offspring are produced without fertilization. However, the cytological and genetic mechanisms of parthenogenesis in cockroaches are not well understood. Here we provide the first molecular genetic evidence that cockroaches can reproduce through automixis. Using the American cockroach Periplaneta americana, we performed microsatellite analysis to investigate the genetic relationship between parthenogenetically produced nymphs and the parent virgin females, and found that all parthenogenetic offspring were homozygous for autosomal microsatellite markers, whereas the female parents were heterozygous. In addition, flow cytometry analysis revealed that the parthenogenetic offspring were diploid. Taken together, our results demonstrate that P. americana exhibits automixis-type thelytoky, in which diploidy is restored by gamete duplication or terminal fusion. These findings highlight the unique reproduction strategies of cockroaches, which are more varied than was previously recognized.