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Abstract

Bangladesh is highly disaster-prone, with drought being a major hazard which significantly impacts water, food, health, livelihoods, and migration. In seeking to reduce drought vulnerabilities and impacts while improving responses, existing literature pays limited attention to community-level views and actions. This paper aims to contribute to filling in this gap by examining how an indigenous group, the Santal in Bangladesh’s northwest, responds to drought through local strategies related to water, food, and migration which in turn impact health and livelihoods. A combination of quantitative data through a household survey and qualitative data through participatory rural appraisal is used. The results suggest that the Santal people have developed and applied varied mechanisms for themselves to respond to drought. The categories of responses found are water collection and storage, crop and livestock selection, and migration. These responses might not be enough to deal with continuing droughts, yielding lessons for Bangladesh and beyond.

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... Drought is a frequent occurrence in the north and northwestern Bangladesh (Ahmed et al. 2019a;Shahid 2008Shahid , 2010 where the northwest is referred to as "dry weather" (Shahid and Salleh 2009). A study conducted by Ahmed et al. (2019a) deals with how an indigenous group, the Santal, living in Northwest Bangladesh reacts to droughts' impacts on water, food, health, livelihoods, and migration using their traditional coping strategies. ...
... Drought is a frequent occurrence in the north and northwestern Bangladesh (Ahmed et al. 2019a;Shahid 2008Shahid , 2010 where the northwest is referred to as "dry weather" (Shahid and Salleh 2009). A study conducted by Ahmed et al. (2019a) deals with how an indigenous group, the Santal, living in Northwest Bangladesh reacts to droughts' impacts on water, food, health, livelihoods, and migration using their traditional coping strategies. People of the study area generally use pond water for various household tasks like cooking, drinking, bathing, dishwashing, and livestock management. ...
... Since they use pond water for drinking, they face cholera and dysentery diseases very frequently. Nevertheless, with the promotion of water sources by NGOs and government institutions, the reported scarcity of drinking water reduced from 100% before 2012 to 35% after 2012 (Ahmed et al. 2019a). In another mixedmethod study, Ahmed et al. (2019a) mention various reasons for occurring drought, i.e., lack of precipitation, groundwater loss, excessive demand rather than supply, climate change, etc., and examine their response to drought. ...
Chapter
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Climate change is a big challenge now. Currently, researchers, academics, and policymakers focus on coping with and dealing with the adverse effects of climate change. However, due to climate change impacts, it is impossible to determine the number of coping strategies, primarily when the appropriate coping and adaptation strategies depend on the socioeconomic and cultural context of vulnerable communities facing climate change-related extreme events. Therefore, we cannot deny the current debate between coping strategies and climate change adaptation. In this case, the chapter addresses existing definitions, discussions, and pieces of evidence on coping strategies and adaptations for dealing with the adverse impacts of climate change. It also discusses with examples how the various relationships between climate change-related events and coping strategies or adaptations are different. Researchers present theoretical backgrounds in understanding the nexus between climate change and coping strategies and adaptation contextually. The chapter also includes some discussions of the above linkage in Bangladesh’s context. Finally, various empirical studies provide thoughts that the connection between climate change, tackling strategies, and adaptation varies in terms of the severity and types of climate change-related events in which socioeconomic, sociodemographic, and cultural aspects mediate the relationship.
... Apesar dessa situação, poucos estudos, sobre povos indígenas, permitem as pessoas a participarem de seu próprio desenvolvimento, incorporando conhecimento e opiniões no planejamento e gerenciamento de informações sobre problemas e potencialidades da realidade social comunitária, conduzindo sua própria análise, planejamento e forma de agir, como possibilita o desenvolvimento do Diagnóstico Rural Participativo (Chambers, 1997;Ahmed et al., 2019;Aguiar et al., 2020). ...
... Uma pesquisa traz novos conhecimentos ou saberes como preconiza Pereira et al. (2018) Esta pesquisa de abordagem qualitativa (Godoy, 1995;Pereira et al., 2018), na qual os fatos integram um contexto sociocultural, compreendeu condições de vida e soluções de problemas das pessoas indígenas, usando técnicas do método Diagnóstico Rural Participativo (DRP). Por meio da aplicação de ferramentas desse método, as pessoas da comunidade investigada são encorajadas a participarem e se tornarem hegemônicas na condução do planejamento local e na tomada de decisões e medidas que melhorem as suas condições de vida (Chambers, 1997;Ahmed et al., 2019 Research, Society and Development, v. 9, n. 7, e291973791, 2020 (CC BY 4. Venn e árvore de problemas (Chambers, 1997;Ahmed et al., 2019). Todos os participantes foram incentivados a refletir sobre a infraestrutura (recursos), estrutura (organização social), relações institucionais da comunidade com órgãos externos e superestrutura (cultura e valores que definem o padrão de vida local), assim como a respeito de como eles têm se organizado em seus espaços vivenciais e como têm evoluído ao longo dos últimos tempos. ...
... Uma pesquisa traz novos conhecimentos ou saberes como preconiza Pereira et al. (2018) Esta pesquisa de abordagem qualitativa (Godoy, 1995;Pereira et al., 2018), na qual os fatos integram um contexto sociocultural, compreendeu condições de vida e soluções de problemas das pessoas indígenas, usando técnicas do método Diagnóstico Rural Participativo (DRP). Por meio da aplicação de ferramentas desse método, as pessoas da comunidade investigada são encorajadas a participarem e se tornarem hegemônicas na condução do planejamento local e na tomada de decisões e medidas que melhorem as suas condições de vida (Chambers, 1997;Ahmed et al., 2019 Research, Society and Development, v. 9, n. 7, e291973791, 2020 (CC BY 4. Venn e árvore de problemas (Chambers, 1997;Ahmed et al., 2019). Todos os participantes foram incentivados a refletir sobre a infraestrutura (recursos), estrutura (organização social), relações institucionais da comunidade com órgãos externos e superestrutura (cultura e valores que definem o padrão de vida local), assim como a respeito de como eles têm se organizado em seus espaços vivenciais e como têm evoluído ao longo dos últimos tempos. ...
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In response to the unsustainable development in indigenous communities, which does not improve their living conditions and threatens their native culture, the aim of the present study is to analyze local development and the living conditions of the Catu indigenous community, located between Goianinha and Canguaretama, in Rio Grande do Norte state, Brazil. To that end, the knowledge of the indigenous people regarding the problems and solutions related to sustainability was relied upon. This qualitative research investigated the living conditions of the native people and the solutions to the problems they proposed using the tools of the Participatory Rural Appraisal method. The results of the study in Catu showed that the participants of the appraisal were fully aware of the community’s potentials and problems. Despite the potentials described by the indigenous people, there are problems such as low education level; absence of land demarcation, technical assistance and help from the producer cooperative; inadequate disposal of solid wastes; poor access roads and most importantly, the socioenvironmental pressure caused by the commercial planting of sugarcane and current urbanization, both of which threaten sustainability. With a view to introducing more sustainable strategies, a community action plan against exogenous actions was formulated. Given the indigenous customs, these actions are unsustainable because they endanger the lives and traditions of the community, in addition to their right to a long and prosperous life in their own land.
... About 48% (537.2 km 3 ) is contributed by the Brahmaputra, 47% (525.0 km3) by the Ganges, 4% (48.4 km 3 ) by the Meghna/Barak, and nearly 1% (11 km 3 ) by other minor rivers [33,34]. Moreover, Bangladesh is bestowed with huge rainfall during rainy season which ranges from 1500 mm/year in the west to 5000 mm/year in the northeast, as shown in Fig. 6 [35]. Since Bangladesh holds a huge promise for small and/or micro-hydro power generation, the potentiality of the hydro power has already been studied by several organizations. ...
... Average rainfall in Bangladesh[35] ...
Article
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Bangladesh earned lower middle-income country status in 2015 due to satisfactory level of (previous) continuous economic growth. Later the country entered into the United Nations' list of Least Developed Countries (LDC) in 2018 and is on track to achieve the middle-income country status by 2024. Key criteria for this achievement will be the nationwide rapid sustainable economic growth in coming years. Economic advancement of the country will be largely depended on its energy sector flourish, more explicitly on electricity generation. At present more than 90% of the electricity in Bangladesh is produced from fossil fuels (from imported and national reserve) such as diesel oil, furnace oil, natural gas, and coal. Irrational burning of these fossil fuels expedites the rapid depletion of national coal and natural gas reserve as well as put additional burden on national economy due to oil import, threatening continuous electricity supply for the future economic prosperity. At the same time deterioration of environmental quality as a whole is also associated with this fossil fuels usage. Thus, to ensure an unremitting supply of electricity in coming days, the country needs to have both sustainable and environment friendly energy sources and technologies. Hence, this article discusses the potentiality of various renewable energy resources (solar, hydro, biomass, and wind), their current contribution in country's energy sector, and relevant challenges for utilization. In addition, this paper includes the future government policies for renewable energy integration with the conventional energy generation for overall energy security attainment and economic development of Bangladesh.
... Hazards, either natural, biological, technological or anthropogenic in origin, can trigger disasters and dramatically expose the vulnerabilities within which people live in our societies (Kelman 2020). Disaster vulnerability sits at the intersection of poverty, lack of awareness and political instability (Ahmed et al. 2019). Disasters in low-and middle-income countries can set back hard-won development gains for a generation (Davis & Alexander 2015) while exacerbating pre-existing trends of economic migration from rural to urban areas and internationally (Mbaye 2017). ...
... Bangladesh has reduced death rates to zero in the Barind tract region, and poverty reduction has been significant. The farmers now produce diverse crops three to four times a year because of access to irrigation water and agricultural innovation, and they have alternative livelihood opportunities (Ahmed et al. 2019). ...
Article
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Globally, disasters from natural and anthropogenic hazards or humanitarian crises can reverse development gains and weaken resilience. In recent years, some countries have made significant progress towards building resilience to disaster risks, including those driven by the climate crisis. Bangladesh is a leading example as it is well-known as one of the most vulnerable countries for its multifaceted hazard risks projected to intensity under climate change. Today, the scale of loss of human life from both rapid and slow-onset disasters (e.g. cyclone, flood and drought) is significantly lower than in the 1970s. This remarkable achievement was made possible by independence and the government’s proactive investment in development and societal changes through education, technologies and reduction in poverty and inequalities. However, the climate crisis is threatening these development and disaster risk reduction gains. In addition, disaster displacement is a major challenge. The COVID-19 pandemic has unveiled both strengths and weaknesses in our societies. The article argues that disaster management plans need to adapt to the climate crisis and human displacement and reduce migrants’ vulnerability while responding to infectious disease transmission.
... Nevertheless, they have remained generally static, engaging relatively little with the recent literature on climate migration (e.g. Ahmed et al., 2019;Ingham, 2019;Kelman et al., 2019;Parsons, 2019;Porst and Sakdapolrak, 2018;Suliman, 2019, pp. 1-21;Tuitjer, 2019;Zander et al., 2019) despite growing calls by scholars to engage with power in a similar manner. ...
Article
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As successive reports have predicted tens or even hundreds of millions of people displaced by climate change in the coming decades, the politics of climate migration has moved to the forefront of contemporary public discourse. In particular, those least able to adapt and most vulnerable to exploitation have garnered media and policy attention. Nevertheless, analysis of this phenomenon is inhibited by the large scale, predominantly unidirectional nature of the phenomenon's social scientific analysis, leaving the power laden nature of resource and infrastructure persistently underplayed. In particular, how the geography of natural resources produces different patterns of (im)mobility in response to environmental change, even within the same community, remains poorly understood. Drawing on data gleaned from a multi-sited study of rural and migrant livelihoods in Cambodia, this paper highlights how the small scale, power-laden geography of water resources and irrigation shapes migration in response to the changing climate. Using brick workers as a case study of 'hyper-precarious' migrant labour, it uses quantitative, qualitative and spatial data to show how the socioeconomically situated geography of water influences both perception of the climate, and mobility in response to it. Viewing this resource landscape as a form of hydrosocial power, the paper overarchingly makes a case for enhanced communication between the climate migration and hydrosocial power literatures, in order to better conceptualise the role of power in articulating the linkages between water geographies and climate mobility.
... Increased climate variability has resulted in a rise in the severity and occurrence of drought (Baudoin et al., 2017). Sixty percent of Sub-Saharan Africa is susceptible to drought with 10 million people facing hunger due to the impacts of drought (Ahmed et al., 2018). There has been a trend of increasing occurrences of drought in South Africa with much of the 1960s, 1980s and 1990s being characterized by severe and widespread drought (Masih et al., 2014). ...
Article
Drought is a major challenge threatening agricultural productivity in uMsinga. The occurrence of drought is expected to increase in coming decades, intensifying in severity, duration and the way people are affected by drought. The objective of this study is to understand small-scale farmers’ and rural communities’ perceptions of drought, its environmental and socio-economic impacts, adaptive and mitigation measures at household level and their satisfaction with the government’s role in drought management in the community. The study utilized a combination of quantitative and qualitative research methods, in the form of questionnaires, focus groups and key informant interviews. The sample size for the research study was 180 respondents for the questionnaire component and a total of 30 respondents for the focus groups and key informant interviews. The results show that increased levels of poverty, food insecurity and increased migration were the main socio-economic impacts perceived by respondents. Water scarcity, crop failure, forest degradation and an increase in average temperatures were perceived by respondents as the main environmental impacts caused by drought in uMsinga. Respondents perceived drought as a serious threat to agricultural production and adopted various indigenous adaptive strategies. A majority of respondents adopted a reactive approach to drought management, and therefore did not adopt many mitigation measures.
... Bangladesh experiences diverse threats including oods, cyclones, hurricanes, waves, sea level rise, and landslides invariably in various locations, and accordingly, has been underlined as one of the most vulnerable countries in the world towards climate change [30,31,64]. The northwest part, focus of this research, experiences extreme weather, recurrent drought and irregular precipitation [2,5,23], which is also in line with the evidenced a rmation made by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) about global warming and climate change [21,22]. Since extreme dry and drought weather regulates agricultural production, which plays pivotal role in food security and national economy, impact of temperature on weather is much required investigation to explore local climate [1,60]. ...
Article
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Seasons are the divisions of the year into months or days according to the changes in weather, ecology and the intensity of sunlight in a given region. The temperature cycle plays a major role in defining the meteorological seasons of the year. This study aims at investigating seasonal boundaries applying harmonic analysis in daily temperature for the duration of 30 years, recorded at six stations from 1988 to 2017, in northwest part of Bangladesh. Year by year harmonic analyses of daily temperature data in each station have been carried out to observe temporal and spatial variations in seasonal lengths. Periodic nature of daily temperature has been investigated employing spectral analysis, and it has been found that the estimated periodicities have higher power densities of the frequencies at 0.0027 and 0.0053 cycles/day. Some other minor periodic natures have also been observed in the analyses. Using the frequencies between 0.0027 to 0.0278 cycles/day, the observed periodicities in spectral analysis, harmonic analyses of minimum and maximum temperatures have found four seasonal boundaries every year in each of the stations. The estimated seasonal boundaries for the region fall between 19-25 February, 19-23 May, 18-20 August and 17-22 November. Since seasonal variability results in imbalance in water, moisture and heat, it has the potential to significantly affect agricultural production. Hence, the seasons and seasonal lengths presented in this research may help the concerned authorities take measures to reduce the risks for crop productivity to face the challenges arise from changing climate. Moreover, the results obtained are likely to contribute in introducing local climate calendar.
... Bangladesh experiences diverse threats including oods, cyclones, hurricanes, waves, sea level rise, and landslides invariably in various locations, and accordingly, has been underlined as one of the most vulnerable countries in the world towards climate change [30,31,64]. The northwest part, focus of this research, experiences extreme weather, recurrent drought and irregular precipitation [2,5,23], which is also in line with the evidenced a rmation made by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) about global warming and climate change [21,22]. Since extreme dry and drought weather regulates agricultural production, which plays pivotal role in food security and national economy, impact of temperature on weather is much required investigation to explore local climate [1,60]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Seasons are the divisions of the year into months or days according to the changes in weather, ecology and the intensity of sunlight in a given region. The temperature cycle plays a major role in de ning the meteorological seasons of the year. This study aims at investigating seasonal boundaries applying harmonic analysis in daily temperature for the duration of 30 years, recorded at six stations from 1988 to 2017, in northwest part of Bangladesh. Year by year harmonic analyses of daily temperature data in each station have been carried out to observe temporal and spatial variations in seasonal lengths. Periodic nature of daily temperature has been investigated employing spectral analysis, and it has been found that the estimated periodicities have higher power densities of the frequencies at 0.0027 and 0.0053 cycles/day. Some other minor periodic natures have also been observed in the analyses. Using the frequencies between 0.0027 to 0.0278 cycles/day, the observed periodicities in spectral analysis, harmonic analyses of minimum and maximum temperatures have found four seasonal boundaries every year in each of the stations. The estimated seasonal boundaries for the region fall between 19-Since seasonal variability results in imbalance in water, moisture and heat, it has the potential to signi cantly a ect agricultural production. Hence, the seasons and seasonal lengths presented in this research may help the concerned authorities take measures to reduce the risks for crop productivity to face the challenges arise from changing climate. Moreover, the results obtained are likely to contribute in introducing local climate calendar.
... Bangladesh experiences diverse threats including oods, cyclones, hurricanes, waves, sea level rise, and landslides invariably in various locations, and accordingly, has been underlined as one of the most vulnerable countries in the world towards climate change [30,31,64]. The northwest part, focus of this research, experiences extreme weather, recurrent drought and irregular precipitation [2,5,23], which is also in line with the evidenced a rmation made by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) about global warming and climate change [21,22]. Since extreme dry and drought weather regulates agricultural production, which plays pivotal role in food security and national economy, impact of temperature on weather is much required investigation to explore local climate [1,60]. ...
... The month of minimum temperatures occur in January (about 10 °C) and range from 10 to 20 °C. Average annual rainfall ranges between 1500 mm to 3000 mm with a regional average of around 1583 mm in this area (Ahmed et al. 2019). The maximum and minimum rainfall in the dry (November-March) season are 2000 and 1580 mm, respectively. ...
Article
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The study examined the spatiotemporal variability of land use/land cover changes (LULC), land surface temperature (LST), and heat island (HI) in northwestern Bangladesh. Landsat images were used for evaluating LULC, LST, and HI for the years 1990, 2002, 2014, and 2018. Unsupervised and index-based classification approaches were used for mapping LULC. The mono-window algorithm was employed to identify the spatiotemporal variability of LST and HI. The analysis suggested that water bodies, forests, and bare land dwindled during these 28 years with an average of about 40%, 70%, and 45%, respectively. Agricultural land had been expanded from 1990 to 2002 and gradually stabilized in recent decades. Settlement areas increased alarmingly from 1990 to 2018. The water bodies, forests and bare lands were reduced due to the widening of agricultural land and rapid growth of urban area. The extents of the HI were found to be spreading out and became most extensive in 2018. LST had risen by around 5.5 °C from 1990 to 2018. The lower temperature zones prevailed in the water bodies, forests and agricultural lands whereas higher temperature zones were visible in the river sand bars and highly urbanized areas. The method used in this study is very successful in sparse built-up areas. The outputs of the study will be a great input in the city masterplan for landscape optimization and urban ecological balance in the study area and provide baseline information for future researches looking for inspecting the impacts of LULC change on a regional scale in plainland regions. Highlights • Spatiotemporal dynamics of LULC were evaluated in the northwest region of Bangladesh • Heat islands were delineated successfully indicating the rapid growth of urbanization • Enlargement of the urban area is the main cause for the increasing LST phenomenon • The rate of HI expansion validated by the changing thematic areas of LULC • Trends of urbanization and HI growth are alarming within the district town areas.
... Drought affects millions of people and causes tremendous environmental degradation, social crisis, livelihood problems, economic disruption, and loss of lives (Habiba and Shaw 2012;Islam and Khan 2018;Pei et al. 2018;Tasnuva et al. 2020;Salam et al. 2021). Drought is a major threat to reduce and loss crop production in Bangladesh (Ahmed et al. 2019), which has been influenced by regional climate change in recent times (Habiba et al. 2014;Islam et al. 2014;Mardy et al. 2018;Zinat et al. 2020). Furthermore, the northern region covering the Teesta River Basin is one of the largest crops producing regions of Bangladesh, of which more than 40% of the area are rain-fed agriculture, and this Basin has experienced different levels (e.g., moderate, severe) of drought risk (Mainuddin et al. 2015). ...
Article
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Disaster risk perception and risk appraisal are essential in formulating an appropriate disaster risk reduction policy. This study examines the actual vs perceived drought risks by constructing risk indices at the household and expert levels using survey data from the lower Teesta River Basin in northern Bangladesh. The survey data were collected from 450 farmers using a structured questionnaire conducted between August and September 2019. A composite drought risk index was developed to understand households’ perceived and actual risks in the designated areas. The results show that the actual and perceived risk values differ significantly among the three case study sites locally known as Ganai, Ismail, and Par Sekh Sundar. The risk levels also differ significantly across the households’ gender, income, occupation, and educational attainment. People with insolvent socioeconomic status are more prone to drought risk compared to others. Results also reveal that the mean level of perceived risk agrees well with the actual risk, whereas females perceive comparatively higher risk than their male counterparts. Expert views on drought risk are similar to the individual household level perceived risk. The outcomes of this study would assist the policymakers and disaster managers to understand the concrete risk scenarios and take timely disaster risk reduction actions for ensuring a drought-resistant society.
... Traditionally, they plant trees on the southwestern side of their farms to limit cyclones' speed and drainage around settlements to quickly remove saltwater, quickly rebuild their homes, and store dry food and water. There are other human, social, cultural, and financial strategies that people adopt to reduce vulnerability in coastal regions of Bangladesh: training facilities to develop awareness about the warning systems and the dangerous nature of disasters, covering them with the government old-age pension scheme, and facilitating migration with younger family members (Malak et al. 2020;Ahmed et al. 2019;Alam 2018). ...
Chapter
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The Sustainable Development Goal (SDG-1) aims to “end poverty everywhere” by strengthening people’s resilience, reducing climate-related vulnerabilities and other socioeconomic shocks, and providing access to essential services, including financial inclusion. This chapter shows how financial inclusion, financial resilience, and climate change resilience are linked. The term “resilience” describes the adaptability of individuals, communities, and societies as a whole. “Financial inclusion” explains access to appropriate financial products and services for the public, while “financial resilience” describes the ability to meet urgent financial needs. Additionally, “climate change resilience” is a state in which an individual can successfully adapt despite environmental disturbances, stress, or adversity. This chapter draws a regulatory conceptual framework in understanding the nexus between financial inclusion, financial resilience, and climate change resilience. Existing literature confirms that financially integrated individuals are more financially resilient than those who are excluded. The findings of the extensive literature review also confirm that climate change resilience can be achieved through financial inclusion and financial resilience. Moreover, climate change resilience could be an inclusive solution against climatic and non-climatic stressors. Drawing examples from South Asian countries, we conclude that the inclusion of financial services enhances the resilience against the adverse effects of climate change. This study suggests integrated approaches to the management of risks related to climate extremes and disasters.
... Alam (2015) assessed droughts in the northern part of Bangladesh for the period 1971-2008 using an agriculture drought index and showed that the agricultural drought conditions are most devastating during the rabi (winter and pre-monsoon) season. Ahmed et al. (2018a) characterized agricultural water stress in Bangladesh using surface and groundwater data. Both the studies were limited to mostly characterization of the existing condition of agricultural droughts or water stress in Bangladesh. ...
Article
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The Palmers’ crop moisture index (CMI) was used to assess the changing pattern of crop water stress of Bangladesh. Daily rainfall and temperature data for the period 1961–2010 recorded at eleven meteorological stations distributed across the country were used to estimate the time series of CMI. The run theory was used to estimate a set of metrics from CMI to define different characteristics of annual and seasonal crop water stress. The Mann–Kendall trend test was used for the assessment of the significance of the changes in crop water stress indicators at 95% and 99% level of confidence. The results showed that crop water stress in Bangladesh has increased in recent years, particularly in the pre-monsoon season. The annual and pre-monsoon cumulative crop water stress index was found to increase significantly in 5 and 4 out of 11 stations, respectively. As the major portion of total crop in Bangladesh is grown during pre-monsoon season, increasing crop water stress can affect agriculture and food security of Bangladesh. The set of matrices developed in this study can be to understand the different characteristics of water stress and adopting necessary mitigation measures in the context of climate change.
... The results suggests that the PCA conducted was tting appropriately with the data used in the study (Table 4). This study of drought induced food insecurity and people responses to drought in Tharparkar corroborates many literatures, such as from South-western Uganda (Twongyirwe et al., 2019), Bangladesh (Ahmed et al., 2018), South Africa (Bahta et al., 2016) and Nigeria (Hassan et al., 2019). FAO's (Food and Agricultural Organization) Resilience Index Measurement and Analysis (RIMA ) has been utilized for the sake of measuring resilience of drought-prone district, Tharparkar. ...
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The resilience of the rural household to food insecurity has been assessed in two districts of Tharparkar desert, Sindh-Pakistan. The main aim of the study was to assess the prospects of the local community to cope with droughts. Drought has been the most threatening risk for the study area due to its severe effects on the food, income, health, adaptability of the people, and survival of livestock. The resilience of locals to the serious dry conditions was estimated by using a Resilience Index. The household resilience index from ten latent variables: income and food access, agricultural assets, non-agricultural asset, access to basic services, social safety nets, sensitivity, adaptive capacity, climate change, agricultural practices and technology and enabling institutional environment were calculated. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was conducted for checking the appropriateness of data as a whole and along with ten components of resilience index. Data samples were measured by the KMO Test of Sampling Adequacy (0.512) which indicates that the components used for PCA were relevant as the standard value was greater than equal to 0.5. The results state that overall Tharparkar region was vulnerable due to having more livelihood from natural resource dependency. The availability of the water resources by any community aided their survival even in the worst conditions. Nagarparkar being close to the openly accessible water was comparatively more resilient then Islamkot which had no water in close proximity. Evitable attention is needed by the policy makers to tackle food insecurity of local community.
... Bangladesh is considered to be one disaster-prone country, which is affected almost every year by some form of natural disaster [1]; Fordham et al., 2017; [2,3]. The historical trend of seismic activities and recent tremors that occurred in Bangladesh and surrounding regions dictate that Bangladesh is highly vulnerable to earthquakes [4]. ...
Article
Dhaka, Bangladesh is one Asian city that is at high risk of earthquakes. Persons with physical disabilities, particularly movement-challenged persons (MCPs), is highly vulnerable to earthquakes because of their mobility impairment. This study aims to explore risk perceptions of earthquakes and knowledge about the response to earthquakes among MCPs in Dhaka through a 2020 survey of 455 respondents. Four risk perception measures are developed: the perceived probability of an earthquake, fear, perceived threat to life and perceived damage to property in the event of an earthquake. Subsequent factor analysis reveals that these four measures are loaded on one factor named risk perception. Measures of knowledge about the response to earthquakes include knowledge of where to seek shelter while being inside and outside of the home during an earthquake, location of critical facilities, and the existence of evacuation route in the locality as well as their knowledge about National Plan for Disaster Management (NPDM) of Bangladesh. This study finds that mobility aid, age, income, education, building structure, previous experience with an earthquake are significantly related to risk perceptions. MCPs who have participated in the training know what they should do in the event of an earthquake irrespective of being outside or inside of the home. MCPs with more education are more likely to know about NPDM and the existence of fault lines in Bangladesh. Lack of accessibility in training centers and lack of dissemination of information about training are key reasons behind MCPs not participating in the training.
... The lower Teesta basin (LTB) of northern Bangladesh is susceptible to drought, earthquake, and flood due to its geographic location, physical characteristics, and socio-economic characteristics of the people of that area (Haque 2015;Mardy et al. 2018;Haque et al. 2019;Islam et al. 2021a, b). Prolonged shortage of groundwater along with surface water for a considerable period due to rainfall deficiency, extensive withdrawal of groundwater, and deforestation causing extensive structural, environmental, agricultural, and socio-economic disruption of a certain community regarding as drought Islam et al. 2017;Mardey et al. 2018;Ahmed et al. 2019). Earthquake is the most unpredictable and overwhelming geo-tectonic hazard in the earth history defined as the sudden vibrating of the surface of the earth due to the intension of severe energy Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. ...
Article
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Understanding household disaster risk perception is crucial to formulate and apply disaster risk reduction strategies. Using survey data from 300 households from three highly disaster prone areas of the lower Teesta River basin in Bangladesh, this study explores house-holds' risk perception of drought, earthquake, and flood at the local level. The ordered probit regression model was applied to identify the factors influencing household disaster risk perception. Most of the respondents perceived the likelihood of occurring drought, earthquake, and flood hazards on a large scale in the selected areas which cause negative impacts on their quality of life and financial losses. They have lack knowledge on miti-gation actions which makes them unable to control the devastating impacts of disasters. Econometric results show that households' age, gender, education, and income-generating sources had significantly influenced the respondent's drought, earthquake, and flood risk perception. Female participants have less knowledge on mitigations actions and are less capable of controlling the hazards than their counterparts making them more vulnerable to the impacts of hazards. Urgent action is required to improve their socioeconomic conditions , and to reduce the knowledge gap between males and females as well as to improve the household's understanding of mitigation and preparedness for disaster risk.
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Climate change effects cause major socioeconomic challenges for marginalized groups, particularly women, in Bangladesh. Specifically, drought increases resource scarcity, causing social problems that impact women, which can be described as the gendered sociocultural construction of vulnerabilities. Given this constructed dimension of gender-based vulnerability, this paper explores the effects of drought on marginalized women in one local case study, namely Badlagaree village in Gaibandha district, Bangladesh. To examine this linkage, we collected qualitative primary data using ethnographic research methods, primarily focus group discussions. Findings show that gender based vulnerability is increasing due to growing drought effects, including agricultural production loss. Marginalized women, because of their gender identity, encounter these drought effects through unemployment, food insecurity, illiteracy, early marriage, dowry costs and violence. While further national-scale research is required, this paper argues that in order to overcome such gender-based vulnerability, current development policies, social programs, and adaptation strategies should better recognize such social dynamics. Further, a gender-specific understanding requires incorporation into adaptation policies through greater collaborative governance as an important prerequisite for sustainability.
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Understanding household disaster risk perception is crucial to formulate and apply disaster risk reduction strategies. Using survey data from 300 households from three highly disaster-prone areas of the lower Teesta River basin in Bangladesh, this study explores households’ risk perception of drought, earthquake, and flood at the local-level. The ordered probit regression model was applied to identify the factors influencing household disaster risk perception. Most of the respondents perceived the likelihood of occurring drought, earthquake, and flood hazards on large-scale in the selected areas which cause negative impacts on their quality of life and financial losses. They lacked knowledge on mitigation actions which makes them unable to control the devastating impacts of disasters. Econometric results show that households’ age, gender, education, and income-generating sources had significantly influenced the respondent's drought, earthquake, and flood risk perception (p < 0.01). Female participants perceived more risks, less knowledge on mitigations actions, and are less capable of controlling the hazards than their counterparts making them vulnerable group to the impacts of hazards. Urgent action is required to improve their socioeconomic conditions, to reduce the knowledge gap between male and female, as well as to improve the household’s understanding of mitigation and preparedness for mitigating disaster risk.
Chapter
This chapter aims to do a Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) of Ethnic tension in Bangladesh, and the constitutional provision's on the Santal 'Indigenous' community in establishing social justice. First, why are Indigenous groups instead 'ethnic groups in Bangladesh, and how many are groups? This chapter then tries to answer, 'who is justifying whose social justice in ethnic tension, and, essentially, what is the guiding philosophy? ' This chapter picks Education Policy and the constitutional provision of state inventions policy on ethnic groups in Bangladesh the Santal's space in it. Along with (CDA), the argument leans on Bio-politics, Historical Ontology (Foucault), Indigenous Research Paradigm. The findings show that this Community is historically subjugated under ontological guidance and understanding. So, it recommends adopting Santal Indigenous Standpoint for establishing a right-based harmonized society. ABSTRACT: SOCIAL JUSTICE, BANGLADESH,INDIGENOUS, SANTAL, DEVELOPMENT,CDA,ETHNIC TENSION,EDUCATION
Chapter
This chapter aims to do a critical discourse analysis (CDA) of ethnic tension in Bangladesh and the constitutional provisions on the Santal Indigenous community in establishing social justice. First, why are Indigenous groups instead ethnic groups in Bangladesh, and how many are groups? This chapter then tries to answer who is justifying whose social justice in ethnic tension, and, essentially, what is the guiding philosophy. This chapter picks education policy and the constitutional provision of state inventions policy on ethnic groups in Bangladesh the Santal's space in it. Along with CDA, the argument leans on bio-politics, historical ontology (Foucault), Indigenous research paradigm. The findings show that this community is historically subjugated under ontological guidance and understanding. So, it recommends adopting Santal Indigenous standpoint for establishing a right-based harmonized society.
Article
This research has presented a drought index, the harmonic mean of vertical and horizontal standardized precipitation indices obtained from two different cumulative rainfall distributions. The recent estimations of droughts in northwestern Bangladesh are highly inconsistent and not adequately aligned with the agricultural productions. This study has identified the reasons behind these inconsistencies. Firstly, the previous studies did not consider the effects of very low seasonal rainfall distributions, and secondly, they made improper uses of time scales in the computations of standardized precipitation index. The proposed drought index has overcome the limitations of the earlier standardized precipitation index and properly addressed the reasons, and estimated the meteorological droughts in the study area. Results show that various areas in northwestern Bangladesh were under moderate droughts in 1992, 1994, 2010, 2012, and 2016, and Dinajpur was close to severe drought in 1994. These droughts are not found to significantly impact agricultural production in the region and have not left any reasonable signatures on production losses. The findings obtained are well supportive of the agricultural production statistics. The drought index presented in this study is a more accurate way of determining droughts in regions with low seasonal rainfall and identifying problems with smooth agricultural production. Moreover, the high-frequency mild meteorological droughts have been estimated as a common feature of the study period though these mild droughts may turn to severe or extreme droughts.
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Changing mobility patterns combined with changes in the climate present challenges and opportunities for global health, requiring effective, relevant, and humane policy responses. This study used data from a systematic literature review that examined the intersection between climate change, migration, and health. The study aimed to synthesize policy recommendations in the peer-reviewed literature, regarding this type of environmental migration with respect to health, to strengthen the evidence-base. Systematic searches were conducted in four academic databases (PubMed, Ovid Medline, Global Health and Scopus) and Google Scholar for empirical studies published between 1990–2020 that used any study design to investigate migration and health in the context of climate change. Studies underwent a two-stage protocol-based screening process and eligible studies were appraised for quality using a standardized mixed-methods tool. From the initial 2425 hits, 68 articles were appraised for quality and included in the synthesis. Among the policy recommendations, six themes were discernible: (1) avoid the universal promotion of migration as an adaptive response to climate risk; (2) preserve cultural and social ties of mobile populations; (3) enable the participation of migrants in decision-making in sites of relocation and resettlement; (4) strengthen health systems and reduce barriers for migrant access to health care; (5) support and promote optimization of social determinants of migrant health; (6) integrate health into loss and damage assessments related to climate change, and consider immobile and trapped populations. The results call for transformative policies that support the health and wellbeing of people engaging in or affected by mobility responses, including those whose migration decisions and experiences are influenced by climate change, and to establish and develop inclusive migrant healthcare.
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Migration induced by disasters has gained attention across the globe. Several international agencies have already highlighted the extent of disaster-induced migration and called for interventions. Though these agencies present a broad perspective, either at international, national, or regional level, the status of existing empirical studies on migration induced by specific disaster events is somewhat unknown. Hence, this paper reviews the existing empirical literature on disaster-induced migration with a special emphasis on the spatio-temporal variability in migration types and patterns in response to both slow onset and rapid onset disasters. Using the Web of Science database, PRISMA framework is followed to select 43 research articles to conduct bibliometric analysis and systematic review. The review findings demonstrate a prevalence of studies on migration due to rapid onset disasters like flood, landslides and earthquakes compared to slow onset disasters like droughts. Also, migration from rural areas to urban areas are found to be the most common spatial pattern of migration irrespective of the type of disaster. The existing studies are found to concentrate on the economic drivers that induced disaster-induced migration with very less or no focus on other social or political drivers or an interplay of drivers that may lead to migration. The review demonstrates that apart from considering migration as an adaptation strategy, it is important to conduct more extensive studies on the dynamics, types and patterns, and interaction mechanism of different drivers of migration for future disaster preparedness.
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“While the climate-migration nexus raises crucial questions of mobility and climate justice, it is commonly understood through simplistic narratives that reify a complex set of relations. The spectre of environmentally-induced exodus is recurrent in media, policy and activist circles, in spite of numerous studies that reveal the empirical flaws and noxious normative implications of such narratives. This article explores this insistence and the desire(s) for there to be a reified relation between climate and migration such insistence reveals. The article proceeds in three movements. First, it situates discourses on climate migration in relation to the crisis of humanism the Anthropocene signifies. Second, it operates a symptomatic reading of climate migration discourses, drawing on two understandings of symptom elaborated by Lacan – as ‘return of the repressed’ and as ‘Sinthome’. Read as a symptom, the figure of the climate migrant/refugee appears as the return of fundamental contradictions that carve contemporary regimes of socioecological (re)production. Through the concept of ‘Sinthome’, discourses on climate migration can be read as (illusory) attempts to shore up for the waning consistence of modern forms of ‘being human’. Finally, the article proposes a symptomatic reading of the Anthropocene itself, and elaborates on what the dissolution of this symptom/ Sinthome would entail.“
Article
Drought is becoming a common phenomenon in the north western (NW) region of Bangladesh. To address this problem, the government has taken multiple initiatives such as the construction of deep tube wells, re-activation of abandoned deep tube wells, re-excavation of canals, construction of cross dams and digging wells to hold water during monsoon. However, the construction of medium to large-sized water reservoirs is somewhat overlooked or missed, which can hold large quantities of surface water and, at the same time, can recharge groundwater. Finding suitable sites for water reservoirs is a challenge. The present study aims to fulfil these gaps. We have applied a spatial multi-criteria technique called the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) to identify suitable sites for water reservoir construction in the drought-prone north western region of Bangladesh. A total of 12 criteria such as settlement, land use, slope, soil, groundwater depth, road network, river network, vegetation cover, rainfall, geology, protected areas and aquifer depth were selected. The study shows that 17% of the area is highly suitable for reservoir construction, followed by 24% moderately suitable and 25% marginally suitable. In contrast, approximately 30% of the area is unsuitable for reservoir construction. Among 16 districts of north-west region, areas of Rangpur district are mostly suitable (30%), followed by Gaibandha district (16%). Construction of water reservoir in the identified areas will lower irrigation water pumping costs and will raise groundwater levels in land adjacent to the reservoir in dry season.
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As climate change accelerates, the popularity of adaptive social protection over conventional social assistance programmes is on the rise for they are seen to enhance people's resilience and wellbeing outcomes. Despite this upsurge, little is known about the impacts of adaptive programmes on resilience and wellbeing outcomes compared to conventional programmes. We analyse the economic functions that social protection programmes offer through empirical studies in two climate-vulnerable zones in Bangladesh. By operationalising a simplified analytical framework to understand subjective resilience, the qualitative data show the adaptive programme to be more effective in enhancing beneficiaries' perceived resilience to climate risks. Regrettably, neither programme is found to contribute much significantly in terms of enabling beneficiaries to achieve desired wellbeing outcomes that one might expect to see from social protection. The analysis offers rich insights about the design components of the programmes, affording an on-the-ground understanding of their implications for resilience and wellbeing.
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With the phenomenal increase in the use of groundwater in recent years, the need has arisen for better understanding and functioning of groundwater reservoirs in response to natural and manmade conditions. Groundwater resource although replenishable is not inexhaustible. The wide and uneven distribution of groundwater thus necessitates detailed study in specific areas for the conservation of this vital resource. The study area, a part of the Barind Tract, lies in the western part of greater Rajshahi district. In the present work, an attempt has been made to delineate the groundwater potential zones. In this regard, the borehole and water well observatory data of Bholahat, Shibganj, Gomastapur, Nachole, Nawabganj, Godagari, Tanore and Niamatpur upzilas are analyzed and interpreted. Computer aided groundwater maps have been prepared for qualitative and quantitative assessment of the aquifer system. The transmissivity and specific drawdown maps prepared with their estimated values support the potentiality of the eastern and western sides for well development. Map of composite sand thickness has also been presented for qualitative study of groundwater potentiality in different regions of the area investigated. The natural groundwater flow directions have been determined and the flow rate in different parts of the area has also been estimated. Finally, in the investigated area, the potential zones have been delineated for groundwater development.
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Drought is an extreme and frequent event in the north-west region of Bangladesh and it adversely affects the livelihood of the farming community. Identifying the coping strategies that farmers use in the face of drought is crucial in order to understand how farmers minimize the effects of drought on their production, especially in the face of climatic changes that may impact the occurrence of extreme weather events. The purpose of this study was to assess farmers’ coping strategies for droughts by identifying which strategies are used and the influencing factors. A mixed methods approach using qualitative and quantitative data was employed. Preliminary data were collected using structured interviews and focus group discussions in which the findings were triangulated in order to design a questionnaire. The study respondents were 100 farmers operating in north-west Bangladesh. The findings were analyzed using descriptive statistics, coefficient of correlation, multiple linear and step-wise regressions. The results reveal that the respondents have limited drought coping strategies, even though the region is prone to frequent droughts. Among the fourteen identified drought coping strategies, the use of deep tube wells for irrigation water was the most widely reported and the farmers perceived it as the most important coping strategy. Shallow tube wells closely followed as the second most commonly used coping strategy reported by the respondents. Among the identified coping strategies, the least practiced was the use of treadle pumps. The findings from the study showed that age, education, farm size, annual family income, extension media contact, and organization participation were significantly associated with the choice of coping strategy that the farmers employed. Additionally, farm size, age, and education were identified as influential factors that affected the farmers’ choice of which drought coping strategies to use. The study identified important issues for policy makers engaged with governmental programs that aim to enhance the farmers’ drought coping mechanisms. The methods employed and the results of this study could be usefully applied in other districts of Bangladesh, or other areas of the world suffering from the negative effects of drought on agricultural production.
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We describe diachronic evidence of moisture reduction and its consequences for coastal irrigation, agriculture, and settlement at Quebrada Tacahuay, a large drainage south of the Osmore River in far southern Peru. These observations are the first for a drainage of this size and for one with occupation spanning over 12,000 years for southern Peru. Following several millennia of occupation by coastal foragers, farming populations settled the lower elevations of the drainage. Our analysis indicates that agricultural production was well developed in the fourteenth century prior to a previously documented, catastrophic El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) flood that took place sometime during the early-fourteenth century. Later in the fifteenth century the Inca conquest of the region and establishment of a coastal tambo and village was accompanied by agricultural expansion and the creation of new terraces. Subsequent Spanish colonization took place during the Little Ice Age and a period of increased coastal moisture. The historic and modern contraction of a large olive grove document the ongoing reduction in the coastal aquifer.
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One of the most serious resource and health issues in coastal communities of Bangladesh is the scarcity of safe drinking water, triggered by the combined effects of salinity, arsenic, and drought. This article explores community perception of vulnerabilities in daily life, livelihood, and environment, and investigates how communities and institutions cope with or adapt to drinking water scarcity. This study outlines community expectations for support from government and non government organizations to overcome this problem. The findings reveal that nearly all respondents from the drinking water scarcity area perceive that salinity is the primary reason for the lack of safe drinking water compared to arsenic and drought hazards. Despite a number of socioeconomic factors and a geographical location that aggravates the coastal communities’ vulnerability, these communities have established their own adaptation mechanism to cope with this crisis.Government and non government organizations have also supported community efforts to cope with the problem. By emphasizing both community adaptation methods and efforts of institutions, this article illustrates an integrated community-based approach, which would be effective for reducing drinking water scarcity in the southwestern coastal region of the country.
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Natural disasters are a major concern in Bangladesh, particularly drought which is one of the most common disaster in Bangladesh. Drought needs to be explained spatially to understand its spatiotemporal variations in different areas. In this paper, the meteorological drought has been shown by using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) method and illustrated through the Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) method across Bangladesh. We used rainfall data of 30 meteorological stations in Bangladesh during the study period of 1981–2010. The results indicate that drought has been fluctuating and it has become a recurrent phenomenon during the study period. The SPI depicted the drought conditions that plunged dramatically in 1981, 1982, 1985, 1987, 1989, 1992, 1994, and 1996 and then gradually improved in 2004, 2006, and 2009 in the country. The present study demonstrated that drought occurred in Bangladesh on an average of 2.5 years. Drought was more prominent in the northern, south-western, and eastern regions in Bangladesh compared to the rest of the areas of the country. The outcomes of the present study will help in during disaster management strategies, particularly drought, by initiating effective plans and adaptation remedies in different areas of Bangladesh.
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Drought, the result of regional climatic variability is one of the dominant threats to environment. This study focuses on the biophysical, environmental and health issues concerning drought occurrence in northwest region of Bangladesh. Using both primary and secondary data, the analysis revealed that, during the drought period, rainfall as the dominant factor of supplying surface water and normalizing the dryness of the nature was almost 46% lower than the previous (normal) years. Similarly, average monthly sunshine hours in the drought year was about 7% higher compared to that of the normal year. On an average, groundwater level declined more than one meter compared to the previous years. Thus, many of the tubewells turned dry or failed to supply the required quantity of water for household and irrigation purposes. A significant number of surface water bodies including ponds, ditches, canals and streams had little volume of low quality water. In normal years, almost all households used hand tubewells (HTWs) as the major source of drinking water, while in the drought period only 90% households could use HTW water since substantial proportion of the HTWs turned dry. People had to collect drinking and domestic water from far distance to meet the basic requirements. Increase in temperature and prevalence of severe dust during drought periods compared to the normal years caused different health hazards including dysentery and diarrhoea due to unsafe drinking water. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3329/jesnr.v4i2.10141 J. Environ. Sci. & Natural Resources, 4(2): 89-97, 2011
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This paper is an investigation of life style of Santal community, one of the largest tribal communities in Bangladesh. Participatory rural appraisal (PRA), participant observation, focus group discussions (FGD), and informal and semi-structured interviews were used to collect information. Santals are the descendants of Austric-speaking Proto-Australoid race, and worship the supernatural powers. Village as a territorial unit, a collection of some homesteads form an administrative unit where they also tightly bond to a kinship. Even they are very sincere in abiding the rules and regulations of their own society, social problems i.e., poverty, inequality, resource scarcity, illiteracy, maladjustment are more severe. Respecting the national constitution, Bangladesh should generate a multi-ethnic leadership to bring glory and protect Santal from all sorts of hazards and discriminations.
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Landslides are a common hazard in the highly urbanized hilly areas in Chittagong Metropolitan Area (CMA), Bangladesh. The main cause of the landslides is torrential rain in short period of time. This area experiences several landslides each year, resulting in casualties, property damage, and economic loss. Therefore, the primary objective of this research is to produce the Landslide Susceptibility Maps for CMA so that appropriate landslide disaster risk reduction strategies can be developed. In this research, three different Geographic Information System-based Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis methods—the Artificial Hierarchy Process (AHP), Weighted Linear Combination (WLC), and Ordered Weighted Average (OWA)—were applied to scientifically assess the landslide susceptible areas in CMA. Nine different thematic layers or landslide causative factors were considered. Then, seven different landslide susceptible scenarios were generated based on the three weighted overlay techniques. Later, the performances of the methods were validated using the area under the relative operating characteristic curves. The accuracies of the landslide susceptibility maps produced by the AHP, WLC_1, WLC_2, WLC_3, OWA_1, OWA_2, and OWA_3 methods were found as 89., respectively. The verification results showed satisfactory agree-ment between the susceptibility maps produced and the existing data on the 20 historical landslide locations.
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Water scarcity and droughts pose serious threats to the livelihood of farming communities and the economy in many parts of the world. Using a survey of 546 farming households and employing multinomial logit regression, this study investigates rice farmers’ adaptation to water scarcity in a semi-arid climate in Bangladesh. It identified factors determining farmers’ adaptation responses to addressing water scarcity. The analysis shows that farmers with more experience of farming, better schooling, more secure tenure rights, better access to electricity and institutional facilities and an awareness of climatic effects are more likely to adopt alternative adaptation strategies. Farmers’ alternative adaptation choices are examined in comparison to the traditional approach of groundwater irrigation. This study raises issues of sustainability of agricultural adaptation practices in the context of an increasing dependence on groundwater irrigation. The results provide an insight to sustainable irrigation practices and an understanding of the characteristics of farms and farming households to frame better strategies to cope with water-stressed regimes in drought-prone environments.
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Bangladesh is considered one of the countries most likely to be affected by negative impacts of climate change. Indeed, a wide range of climate-induced threats endangers national food security. Furthermore, the peculiar environmental characteristics of Bangladesh make it particularly difficult to design and implement comprehensive policies to support agricultural development. At present, national policy-makers need to plan adequate strategies to ensure food security for the growing population while facing biophysical constraints and new challenges (e.g. climate change) that may jeopardize their efforts. Some scientists call for a second Green Revolution (GR) to reach this goal, even though the net effects of the first GR in Bangladesh are still widely debated. The article analyses the practicability of a second GR in Bangladesh by combining a quantitative analysis of the past dynamics of national rice production and a qualitative assessment of key sectorial issues with local stakeholders. The study concludes that to merely re-apply the standard GR pattern would be neither sustainable nor entirely effective, and new research approaches are needed to plan adequate policies for a climate-proof food security.
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Indigenous Knowledge (IK) has been practiced in communities over time. There is news after major disasters on how IK has been effective in the protection of the lives and properties of people and communities. Some IK has been orally transmitted, and some are documented by local organizations sporadically. People and communities have developed their coping mechanisms over time, which is reflected in the form of IK. While many organizations recognize the importance of IK for Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR), there have been few systematic studies that analyze the principles of IK and its applicability to the modern context. This unique book is one of the first attempts of systematic study of IK in DRR. The key challenge will start after the publication of this book: to make it a useful reference material for decision making, research, implementation, and documentation. The target audience of the book consists of professionals, practitioners, researchers, and graduate students in the related field.
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Satellite monitoring of changes in terrestrial water storage provides invaluable information regarding the basin-scale dynamics of hydrological systems where ground-based records are limited. In the Bengal Basin of Bangladesh, we test the ability of satellite measurements under the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) to trace both the seasonality and trend in groundwater storage associated with intensive groundwater abstraction for dry-season irrigation and wet-season (monsoonal) recharge. We show that GRACE (CSR, GRGS) datasets of recent (2003 to 2007) groundwater storage changes (ΔGWS) correlate well (r = 0.77 to 0.93, p value < 0.0001) with in situ borehole records from a network of 236 monitoring stations and account for 44% of the total variation in terrestrial water storage (ΔTWS); highest correlation (r = 0.93, p value < 0.0001) and lowest root-mean-square error (<4 cm) are realized using a spherical harmonic product of CSR. Changes in surface water storage estimated from a network of 298 river gauging stations and soil-moisture derived from Land Surface Models explain 22% and 33% of ΔTWS, respectively. Groundwater depletion estimated from borehole hydrographs (-0.52 ± 0.30 km3 yr-1) is within the range of satellite-derived estimates (-0.44 to -2.04 km3 yr-1) that result from uncertainty associated with the simulation of soil moisture (CLM, NOAH, VIC) and GRACE signal-processing techniques. Recent (2003 to 2007) estimates of groundwater depletion are substantially greater than long-term (1985 to 2007) mean (-0.21 ± 0.03 km3 yr-1) and are explained primarily by substantial increases in groundwater abstraction for the dry-season irrigation and public water supplies over the last two decades.
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In Bangladesh, drought is seasonal and can destroy crops, causing hardship to poor agricultural labourers and others who cannot find alternative sources of income. Droughts most commonly affect the northwestern region, which generally has less rainfall than the rest of the country. In this context, this study attempts to measure the existing level of drought resilience with indicators related to Socio-economic, Institutional and Physical (SIP) conditions in two of the most drought-prone districts, namely Rajshahi and Chapai-Nawabganj. The results of 14 sub-districts (upazilas) show a variation of 2.41 (lowest resilience) and 3.61 (highest resilience) in a scale of 1–5. Some of the critical areas that need improvement include education and awareness, conflict resolution on water usage, policy enhancement, coordination among different stakeholders and proper land-use pattern. SIP methodology can be used as a rapid planning tool at the district level, and as a micro-level planning and improvement tool at the sub-district level. The tool has potential application for a participatory and process-based approach of engaging local stakeholders in minimizing drought risks in future.
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Spatial and temporal characteristics of droughts in the western part of Bangladesh have been analysed. Standardized precipitation index method is used to compute the severity of droughts from the rainfall data recorded in 12 rainfall gauge stations for the period of 1961–1999. An artificial neural network is used to estimate missing rainfall data. Geographic Information System (GIS) is used to map the spatial extent of droughts of different severities in multiple time scales. Critical analysis of rainfall is also carried to find the minimum monsoon and dry months rainfall require in different parts of the study area to avoid rainfall deficit. The study shows that the north and north-western parts of Bangladesh are most vulnerable to droughts. A significant negative relationship between multiple ENSO index and rainfall is observed in some stations. Analysis of seasonal rainfall distribution, rainfall reliability and long-term rainfall trend is also conducted to aid prediction of future droughts in the area. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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The proactive approach to drought management is based on measures devised and implemented before, during, and after the drought event, according to a planning strategy rather than within an emergency framework. The measures taken before the initiation of a drought event consist of long-term measures oriented to improve the reliability of the water supply system to meet future demands under drought conditions. The measures taken after a drought is forecasted or starts are short-term measures that try to mitigate the impacts of the particular drought on the basis of a contingency plan. Selection of the preferable mix of long-term and short-term measures can be accomplished through multicriteria decision analysis MCDA, which enables the comparison of alternatives on the basis of appropriate quantitative and/or qualitative assessment criteria. In this paper, a methodology for the assessment of drought mitigation measures based on a combined use of simulation models and MCDA is applied to a water supply system located in eastern Sicily, Italy. The system comprises two reservoirs and several diversion dams and hydropower plants, and its main uses are irrigation and municipal water supply. First, a simulation model is applied to evaluate the effects of several drought mitigation alternatives consisting of a mix of long-and short-term measures. Then, MCDA is applied to rank the different alternatives on the basis of economic, environmental, and social criteria, taking into account the process of coalition formation among stakeholders on the basis of their different point of view. The results confirm the applicability of the proposed multicriteria methodology for a transparent comparison of drought mitigation measures to be adopted as a support for the decision making process.
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Though drought is a recurrent phenomenon in Bangladesh, very little attention has been so far paid to the mitigation and preparedness of droughts. This article presents a method for spatial assessment of drought risk in Bangladesh. A conceptual framework, which emphasizes the combined role of hazard and vulnerability in defining risk, is used for the study. Standardized precipitation index method in a GIS environment is used to map the spatial extents of drought hazards in different time steps. The key social and physical factors that define drought vulnerability in the context of Bangladesh are identified and corresponding thematic maps in district level are prepared. Composite drought vulnerability map is developed through the integration of those thematic maps. The risk is computed as the product of the hazard and vulnerability. The result shows that droughts pose highest risk to the northern and northwestern districts of Bangladesh.
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Prolonged absence of groundwater within the operating range of shallow tube-wells during dry season is a common problem in the northwestern districts of Bangladesh in the recent years. In this paper, groundwater scarcity and drought in three northwestern districts of Bangladesh have been investigated. The Cumulative Deficit approach from a threshold groundwater level has been used for the computation of severity of groundwater droughts. Monthly groundwater fluctuation data collected from 85 sites is used for the study. The study shows that groundwater scarcity in 42% area is an every year phenomenon in the region. Analysis of groundwater hydrographs and rainfall time-series reveals that ever increasing groundwater extraction for irrigation in the dry season and recurrent droughts are the causes of groundwater level drop in the region. KeywordsGroundwater droughts-Cumulative deficit-Standardized precipitation index-Groundwater hydrographs-GIS-Bangladesh
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Since 1960, South Asia has emerged as the largest user of groundwater in irrigation in the world. Yet, little is known about this burgeoning economy, now the mainstay of the region's agriculture, food security and livelihoods. Results from the first socio-economic survey of its kind, involving 2,629 well-owners from 278 villages from India, Pakistan, Nepal Terai and Bangladesh, show that groundwater is used in over 75% of the irrigated areas in the sample villages, far more than secondary estimates suggest. Thanks to the pervasive use of groundwater in irrigation, rain-fed farming regions are a rarity although rain-fed plots within villages abound. Groundwater irrigation is quintessentially supplemental and used mostly on water-economical inferior cereals and pulses, while a water-intensive wheat and rice system dominates canal areas. Subsidies on electricity and canal irrigation shape the sub-continental irrigation economy, but it is the diesel pump that drives it. Pervasive markets in tubewell irrigation services enhance irrigation access to the poor. Most farmers interviewed reported resource depletion and deterioration, but expressed more concern over the high cost and poor reliability of energy supply for groundwater irrigation, which has become the fulcrum of their survival strategy.
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Groundwater levels in shallow aquifers underlying Asian mega-deltas are characterized by strong seasonal variations associated with monsoon rainfall. To resolve trend and seasonal components in weekly groundwater levels in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) Delta, we apply a nonparametric seasonal-trend decomposition procedure (STL) to observations compiled from 1985 to 2005 in Bangladesh. Seasonality dominates observed variance in groundwater levels but declining groundwater levels (>1 m/yr) are detected in urban and peri-urban areas around Dhaka as well as in north-central, northwestern, and southwestern parts of the country (0.1 to 0.5 m/yr) where intensive abstraction of groundwater is conducted for dry-season rice cultivation. Rising groundwater levels (0.5 to 2.5 cm/yr) are observed in the estuarine and southern coastal regions. This novel application of the STL procedure reveals, for the first time, the unsustainability of irrigation supplied by shallow aquifers in some areas of the GBM Delta and the hydrological impact of seawater intrusion of coastal aquifers associated with sea-level rise. Our findings provide important insight into the hydrological impacts of groundwater-fed irrigation and sea-level rise in other Asian mega-deltas where monitoring data are limited.
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This article has developed and implemented a method for incorporating and combining quantitative and qualitative data in measuring community vulnerability to environmental hazards. To illustrate the method in practice, a case study of landslides in Chittagong City Corporation (CCC), Bangladesh, is used. Quantitative information from household-level questionnaires is combined with qualitative maps and diagrams from participatory rural appraisal (PRA) surveying. Seven different PRA tools were implemented: social and resource mapping; transect mapping; vulnerability and dream mapping; mobility mapping; Venn diagrams; pair-wise ranking; and strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis. A convergent parallel design and weighted average decision support method is applied, covering community vulnerability indicators for physical, social, economic, ecological, institutional, and cultural aspects. The overall vulnerability on a scale of 0-1 of Motijharna, Batali Hill, and Golpahar communities in CCC is calculated respectively as 0.75, 0.68, and 0.56.
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Disaster injustices are reflected in disaster risk reduction (DRR) theories and practice. The dominant DRR literature promotes the binary between indigenous and scientific approaches by highlighting the differences between these two forms of knowledge that influence DRR practice. This differentiation disenfranchises indigenous knowledge, with scientific knowledge often preferred as the rational, objective and highly advanced response to disasters. This study presents some results of a critical ethnography of three indigenous communities in the Northern Philippines to explore this imbalance as a false dichotomy. The indigenous peoples’ narratives deconstruct this dichotomy by focusing on their experiences with typhoon early warning systems and analysing these with theories of power and power relations. Their stories reveal the agendas of power and domination behind the constructed binary and propose ways by which indigenous and scientific knowledges can be meaningfully integrated. The paper concludes with the possibilities and constraints of bringing these two forms of knowledge together to facilitate better and more empowering DRR outcomes.
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Local knowledge and practices can help people in drought prediction and extreme weather management. The study was carried out to elicit and document local knowledge use in drought prediction and weather extremes management. Focus group discussions were used for this study. The appearance of certain insects, birds, animals and indication of weather are all seen as important signals of change with respect to timing and seasonality of natural phenomena that are well understood in traditional knowledge systems. The lying of pigeon on the ground by spreading its feathers is considered as the sign of drought. The sound of wild cat with dhul was also indicates the notice of drought. If the west sky appeared with bright red colour during sunset, that also warn the drought. Termites den and mound in dry soil was thought as the hint of immense drought and termites den and mound in wet soil was looked as the indication of immediate rainfall. People from Hindu families organized frog’s marriage to end drought. They find that local knowledge and practices are very much useful in drought prediction and management. © 2017, National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR). All rights reserved.
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Numerous definitions of drought are reviewed to determine those characteristics scientists consider most essential for a description and an understanding of the phenomenon. Discusses the far-reaching impacts of drought on society, and suggests that definitions of drought are typically simplistic, and, in that way, often lead to a rather poor understanding of the dimensions of the concept.-from Authors
Article
Bangladesh has a large and growing population that will demand more food and place greater pressure on resources. Dry season irrigated Boro rice production is important for national food security. Dry season irrigation mainly uses groundwater, but the extent of its use is not well known. We assessed groundwater use and water productivity of Boro in the northwest region of Bangladesh using remote sensing based energy balance modelling, crop classification and secondary statistics. The energy balance modelling shows a large spatial variation in the actual evapotranspiration (ETa) from about 325 to 470 mm, with an overall spatial average of 365 mm during dry season. The estimated values of ETa correspond well with independent values from field and regional scale soil and water balance modelling results. From spatial estimates of ETa and effective rainfall, we computed regional net groundwater use for Boro production in 2009 as 2.4 km3. Groundwater is being used unsustainably in some areas, and a spatial time series (1990 to 2010) of pre- and post-monsoon groundwater depth changes in the northwest region of Bangladesh suggests that, with the current level of groundwater use, falling groundwater levels may pose a long term threat to the sustainability of irrigated agriculture in much of the region. Boro water productivity varies from 0.95 to 1.35 kg/m3, allowing the identification of high performing “bright” and low performing “hot” spots and the development of strategies to reduce crop yield/productivity gaps and ensure future food security.
Article
Being an agrarian region, the northwest part of Bangladesh frequently experiences recurrent droughts over the last decade. To cope with this insidious disaster, the farmers in this region practice various adaptation measures through their own efforts with institutional support. But these efforts and support are not sufficient for farmers to survive droughts. In this light, this study assesses the adaptive capacity of farmers along with institutions to develop suitable drought adaptation policy in the context of this region. The drought adaptive practices developed in this study are mainly adopted from the unique approach called socioeconomic, institutional and physical. Results reveal that establishment of mango orchard, vegetable gardening and community health care service would be helpful in enhancing drought resilience at community level. Moreover, an important policy message from this study suggests that validation of these practices through government offices, research institutes and other relevant organizations can help to develop an appropriate drought adaptation policy for this region. Similarly, by performing these practices from national to local level, farmers as well as communities in this region will be able to effectively sustain their livelihoods against droughts.
Article
This study was conducted with 718 farmers of owner, owner-cum-tenant and tenant farmers of irrigated and non-irrigated villages at 14 upazila (sub-district) in two severe drought-prone districts of northwestern Bangladesh through a semi-structured questionnaire. It assessed farmer's perception and awareness, impacts and adaptation measures of farmers towards drought. The results revealed that farmers in both areas perceived a changed climate in recent years. They not only identified that drought is the most prevalent disaster in the study area because of rainfall and temperature variation, but also groundwater depletion, lack of canal and river dragging, increased population, deforestation, etc. accelerate drought in this area. As a consequence of drought, agriculture as well as farmers' social life and health are threatened the most. To cope with drought, farmers have been adapting various practices mainly through agronomic management, crop intensification, water resource exploitation, etc. Among different farmer groups in both irrigated and non-irrigated areas, it has been seen that owner farmers have more capacity to adopt new technology than owner-cum-tenant and tenant farmer. In conclusion, this study recommended that interrelationship among different stakeholders, effective early warning system and improved water conservation systems are essential to sustain farmers livelihood in the event of drought.
Article
Droughts are recurrent features in Bangladesh, affecting plant growth and leading to loss of crop production, food shortages and, for many people, starvation. The main objective of this study is to examine the means by which residents of a drought-affected area of Bangladesh cope with this hazard. Data were collected during the summer of 1995 from 301 drought-affected households located in northwestern Bangladesh. Analysis suggests that respondent households practised an array of adjustments to mitigate adverse effects of the 1994/5 drought. While both high- and low-income households were affected by the drought, households belonging to the lower socioeconomic group suffered the most, receiving the least support from the national government. Government responses were delayed and inadequate in providing financial and other assistance to the drought victims. It is suggested that the government should be prepared for drought long before the occurrence of such an event.
Article
The range of As concentrations found in natural waters is large, ranging from less than 0.5 m gl 1 to more than 5000 m gl 1. Typical concentrations in freshwater are less than 10 m gl 1 and frequently less than 1 m gl 1. Rarely, much higher concentrations are found, particularly in groundwater. In such areas, more than 10% of wells may be 'affected' (defined as those exceeding 50 m gl 1) and in the worst cases, this figure may exceed 90%. Well-known high-As groundwater areas have been found in Argentina, Chile, Mexico, China and Hungary, and more recently in West Bengal (India), Bangladesh and Vietnam. The scale of the problem in terms of population exposed to high As con- centrations is greatest in the Bengal Basin with more than 40 million people drinking water containing 'excessive' As. These large-scale 'natural' As groundwater problem areas tend to be found in two types of environment: firstly, inland or closed basins in arid or semi-arid areas, and secondly, strongly reducing aquifers often derived from alluvium. Both environments tend to contain geologically young sediments and to be in flat, low-lying areas where groundwater flow is sluggish. Historically, these are poorly flushed aquifers and any As released from the sediments following burial has been able to accumulate in the groundwater. Arsenic-rich groundwaters are also found in geothermal areas and, on a more localised scale, in areas of mining activity and where oxidation of sulphide minerals has occurred. The As content of the aquifer materials in major problem aquifers does not appear to be exceptionally high, being normally in the range 1-20 mg kg1. There appear to be two distinct 'triggers' that can lead to the release of As on a large scale. The first is the development of high pH (> 8.5) conditions in semi-arid or arid environments usually as a result of the combined effects of mineral weathering and high evaporation rates. This pH change leads either to the desorption of adsorbed As (especially As(V) species) and a range of other anion-forming elements (V, B, F, Mo, Se and U) from mineral oxides, especially Fe oxides, or it prevents them from being adsorbed. The second trigger is the development of strongly reducing conditions at near-neutral pH values, leading to the desorption of As from mineral oxides and to the reductive dissolution of Fe and Mn oxides, also leading to As release. Iron (II) and As(III) are relatively abundant in these groundwaters and SO4 concentrations are small (typically 1mg l 1 or less). Large concentrations of phosphate, bicarbonate, silicate and possibly organic matter can enhance the desorption of As because of competition for adsorption sites. A characteristic feature of high groundwater As areas is the large degree of spatial variability in As concentrations in the groundwaters. This means that it may be difficult, or impossible, to predict reliably the likely concentration of As in a particular well from the results of neighbouring wells and means that there is little alternative but to analyse each well. Arsenic-affected aquifers are restricted to certain environments and appear to be the exception rather than the rule. In most aquifers, the majority of wells are likely to be unaffected, even when, for example, they contain high concentrations of dissolved Fe. # 2002 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Article
Since its birth in 1985, the Barind Multi-purpose Development Project (BMDP) has become a model of a sustainable rural development project in Bangladesh. The project maintains technical soundness by ensuring a high level of water use efficiency and a minimum well spacing. The project runs on full operating and maintenance cost recovery basis, which is achieved through an innovative prepaid water coupon system and the associated command area development scheme. Its governance structure is democratic and participatory. The project has several environmental enhancement programmes such as water conservation, homestead and social forestry, promotion of integrated pest control, and farmers' training. In addition, it has adopted an integrated planning approach that incorporates extending rural electrification, building rural infrastructure and an array of other support programmes. As a result, the BMDP has emerged as a model of sustainable groundwater-based rural development initiative in Bangladesh.
Article
Inverted wells, in which the solid casing extends over the full depth of the permeable aquifer, but with slotted screens projecting upwards alongside the solid casing, can provide high yields in moderately transmissive aquifers for which all permeable strata are within about 30 m of the non-pumping water level. The use of inverted wells has been pioneered in the Rajshahi Barind in northwest Bangladesh. Conceptual and computational models of inverted wells are developed. By examining a step-pumping test using a numerical model, the important flow processes are identified and quantified. The sustainability of the substantial groundwater abstraction in the Rajshahi Barind is examined by considering the recharge processes which depend on losses from flooded rice fields, the hydraulic conductivity of the overlying Barind Clay and the seasonal recovery of observation well water levels.
Article
The major risk facing rural households in Zimbabwe is that of drought. We use panel data to investigate responses of one set of households to this risk. The panel represents households resettled during the first two years of Zimbabwe's post-independence land reform program. The data are for a period (1983–1996) in which Zimbabwe experienced four major droughts (in 1982–1984, 1986–1987, 1991–1992 and 1994–1995). In three of the four droughts, state and nongovernmental organization (NGO) drought-relief schemes provided substantial support to help maintain consumption levels. In this context, households make little use of liquid assets (cash or jewelry) and only limited use of the financial system. The main private coping mechanism is the sale of cattle. Households most at risk during droughts are those without livestock. We show that this coping mechanism is consistent, contrary to what is sometimes suggested in the literature, with substantial accumulation of livestock wealth.
Article
Drought is a frequent occurrence in contemporary sub-Saharan Africa, and the existence of periodic drought can be documented over hundreds of years. As a consequence of the routine rainfall shortages that affect them, agricultural and pastoral societies have developed a number of social institutions and mechanisms for bridging temporary food production shortfalls caused by drought. Drawing on the literature and field data from southeastern Kenya, this paper discusses a number of regular indigenous responses to short-term drought in sub-Saharan Africa. Changes in these patterns in the present day are also discussed. It is concluded that market-based responses are now the most important strategies, but that traditional institutions remain significant and contribute to the viability of drought-affected societies.
Study on Livelihood Systems Assessment, Vulnerable Groups Profiling and Livelihood Adaptation to Climate Hazard and Long Term Climate Change in Drought Prone Areas of NW Bangladesh
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Enhancement of Drought Risk Management Policy and Actions Incorporating Farmer's Adaptive Practices in Northwestern Bangladesh
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Habiba, U., 2012. Enhancement of Drought Risk Management Policy and Actions Incorporating Farmer's Adaptive Practices in Northwestern Bangladesh (Doctorate Thesis). Kyoto University, Kyoto.
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Some observations on status of women among the Santal communities in Bangladesh. Grass
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Drought in Bangladesh Agriculture and Irrigation Schedule for Major Crops
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Impact of Land Degradation in Bangladesh: Changing Scenario in Agricultural Land Use
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Interpreting Santal migration and a quest of identity
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Methods of Community Participation: A Complete Guide for Practitioners
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