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Abstract

The development of virtual reality (VR), together with other technological innovations will shape the future of e-retailing. This research studies the effectiveness of different VR formats and devices in a virtual store environment, namely V-commerce. This study proposes and test a conceptual model that analyses the relations between sense of presence, brand recall and purchase intention, while also going deeper into their antecedents. Our findings suggest differences in purchase intention depending on VR format and device used. No differences are shown in sense of presence and affect by VR format and device. Our tested model suggests a dual route of influence of VR on consumers’ purchase intention in virtual stores: one through emotions and sense of presence and the other through the affect evoked by the virtual environment and brand recall. Lastly, some managerial implications and methodological issues are considered.

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... For example, using low-immersion VR such as virtual try on (VTO) systems [47], product presentation in retailing is more realistic and interactive compared to the text and images presentations in web-based e-commerce. High immersion VR was perceived to bring a real-world shopping experience into e-commerce and was applied to shopping, marketing, consumer behavior research, and so on [18,48,49]. Meanwhile, AR can present products in the context of a user's surrounding environment to enhance product experience [50]. ...
... Finally, ref. [95] studied consumer adoption of Virtual Try-on, which was an innovative tool back then. These results were summarized as consumer's attitudes toward innovative technology and depicted in Figure 8. Branding, as an important marketing activity in virtual commerce for nurturing consumer's purchase intention, was studied in seven papers [16,40,49,[96][97][98][99]. Ref. [96] qualitatively studied the affordances of VWs that enhanced brand equity [100,101] by creating flow, a mental state of engagement, and enjoyment of an activity [102,103]. ...
... Ref. [96] qualitatively studied the affordances of VWs that enhanced brand equity [100,101] by creating flow, a mental state of engagement, and enjoyment of an activity [102,103]. The re-sult from [49] revealed that sense of presence and brand recall contributed to purchase intention in VR shopping. Ref. [97] established a framework relating the affordances of the virtual shopping environment to a consumer's flow state, and subsequently relating it to a consumer's brand recall and return visit rate, while virtual agent was also identified to be important to a consumer's flow state. ...
Article
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Virtual commerce applies immersive technology such as augmented reality and virtual reality into e-commerce to shift consumer perception from 2D product catalogs to 3D immersive virtual spaces. In virtual commerce, the alignment of application design paradigms and the factors influencing consumer behavior is paramount to promote purchase of products and services. The question of their relation needs to be answered, together with the possible improvement of application design. This paper used a systematic literature review approach to synthesize research on virtual commerce from both application design and consumer behavior research, considering the promotion of purchase in virtual commerce settings. Throughout the review, influential factors to purchase and preeminent design artifacts were identified. Then, the research gaps were discovered by mapping the design artifacts to the influential factors, which can inspire future research opportunities on the synergy of these two research directions. Moreover, the evolution of virtual commerce research along with multiple directions were discussed, including the suggestion of meta-commerce as a future trend.
... Significant research recognizes the opportunity for VR to create telepresence and flow (Animesh et al., 2011;Domina et al., 2012;Han et al., 2020;H. Li et al., 2003;Martínez-Navarro et al., 2019;Pizzi et al., 2019;Pleyers and Poncin, 2020;Spielmann and Mantonakis, 2018;Willems et al., 2019;Yim et al., 2012) that leads to beneficial intentions and attitudes. Consumers' ability to control the product evaluation using VR-content enhances their flow, but more importantly, their ability to make consumption decisions (Jiang and Benbasat, 2004). ...
... This study informs a wider understanding of VR's influence on intentions, by realizing the signal effects separate from flow and telepresence, commonly recognized in the literature. It may explain why Martínez-Navarro et al. (2019) find that the VR format may not impact cognitive and affective evaluations but can still influence purchase intentions. By realizing how the technology itself may be a heuristic for quality, even in absence of emotional connections, this conceptualization offers an additional understanding of VR's effects when used as a promotional tool. ...
... Evident even within this data set, this compliments others' arguments of the importance of consumers' perceptions versus the firm or industry (Kunz et al., 2011;Rubera and Kirca, 2012;Szymanski et al., 2007). Although past literature has predominantly perceived VR as enhancing experiences and improving behavior (Manis and Choi, 2019;Martínez-Navarro et al., 2019;Spielmann and Mantonakis, 2018), this study adds to the limited research that finds the effects of this technology are not always consistent (Deng et al., 2019;Peukert et al., 2019). The lens of consumers' perceived innovativeness of VR-content explains why the medium is successful for some consumers, but not for all. ...
Virtual reality (VR) is an exciting technology that offers great promise as a novel promotional tool. The notion that promotional tools can signal brand quality to consumers is supported in the literature, but the impact for products when brand signals are not paramount is less understood. We use a mixed-method approach to explore how VR-content influences consumers' quality perceptions for products where branding is less relied upon. Findings from a qualitative study reveal that the perception of VR-content's innovativeness acts as a heuristic to signal product quality for unbranded property products. Results from two quasi-experimental studies reveal that while industry-perceived innovative VR-content may not signal consumers' product quality perceptions, consumers' perception of media innovativeness can signal product quality for the offering and increase purchase intentions. Theoretical and managerial implications are discussed.
... Previous studies have shown that VR authenticity and efficiency induce affective responses, directly influencing consumer behavior (Huang et al., 2016;Yung and Khoo-Lattimore, 2019;Kim et al., 2020a). Numerous studies have shed light on consumer response to VR technology and its importance in the context of marketing (Loureiro et al., 2019;Martínez-Navarro et al., 2019;Wedel et al., 2020). In addition, other scholars called for additional empirical research on customer VR experience in developing countries to identify the key factors that influence consumer behavior. ...
... We verified that affective responses, such as enjoyment, EI, and flow state, significantly mediate the relationships between the drivers (i.e., TAM dimensions and authenticity) and customer loyalty [i.e., continued use, recommendation, and willingness to pay premium (WPP)]. Third, scarce research focused on customer loyalty behaviors in the VR domain; to the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate customer loyalty to VR-enabled services, going beyond most research on adoption purchase intention (Tavakoli and Mura, 2015;Loureiro et al., 2019;Kim et al., 2020a), and VR technology adoption in the context of marketing (Loureiro et al., 2019;Martínez-Navarro et al., 2019;Wedel et al., 2020). The study also provides insights for VR practitioners and businesses. ...
... Despite the considerable attention given to VR technology, research on the drivers of VR-enabled services that affect customer loyalty in the context of marketing is limited. However, researchers have addressed consumer response to VR technology adoption in the context of marketing (Loureiro et al., 2019;Martínez-Navarro et al., 2019;Wedel et al., 2020). This research integrates the TAM, authenticity experience of VR with affective responses, including flow, enjoyment, and EI, to understand customer loyalty to VR-enabled services. ...
Article
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The accelerating growth of virtual reality (VR) technology and evolving customer needs make multifarious challenges and opportunities for service industries. Based on the Technology Acceptance Model and Theory of Affection Responses, we explored the key drivers of customer loyalty in virtual reality-enabled services through a large-scaled survey data collected from VR users in four major cities of Pakistan. The study employs the partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) approach. We verified that the authenticity of the VR experience and TAM dimensions (ease of use, usefulness of VR) are the key drivers of customer loyalty behavior in VR-enabled services. Furthermore, results revealed that Affective responses (i.e., enjoyment, emotional involvement, and flow state) significantly mediated the relationships between the drivers and customer loyalty (continued use, recommendation, willingness to pay premium). Implications for researchers and VR practitioners were also provided.
... We can easily conclude that it is rather difficult for consumers to immerse themselves both physically and mentally in a virtual shopping environment based on traditional desktop-based VR technology since it can only provide a small portion of the field-of-view (FOV). However, it is undeniable that due to the limitations of technologies and equipment, a few studies have used bigger or multiple screens/monitors to simulate the immersive shopping environment by expanding visual range (e.g., Altarteer et al., 2016;Liu & Uang, 2011;Martínez-Navarro et al., 2019). Thus, literature related to the early stages of VR technology that did not offer a consideration of providing an immersive experience in the virtual retail environment were excluded from this study. ...
... Additionally, 12 studies used clothing as purchase objects in the VR shopping environment. In 6 studies, alcohol beverages such as beer (e.g., Bigné et al., 2016;Martínez-Navarro et al., 2019) and wine (e.g., were used as specific products that consumers could interact with, in order to investigate their shopping psychology and behavior. Products such as stationeries (n = 4), luxury bags (n = 3), electronics (n = 3) and car devices (n = 2) have been investigated in the minority of studies. ...
... According to Table 9, in extant research the organism-related psychological aspects related to VR shopping can be divided into areas of affection, immersion, cognition, attitude, and usability. Generally speaking, consumers can gain positive affective experiences in the VR environment such as enjoyment (n = 11, see e.g., Israel et al., 2019;Ketoma et al., 2018), emotion arouse (n = 5, see e.g., Dzardanova et al., 2017;Martínez-Navarro et al., 2019) and hedonic experiences (n = 3, see Kang et al., 2020;. Additionally, due to a visual output that covers the user's entire FOV and interactive device, most consumers can easily immerse themselves in the VR shopping environment, which leads to a highly perceived presence and immersion (n = 14), perceived level of realism (n = 5), and perceived novelty (n = 3), etc. ...
Article
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Virtual reality (VR) refers to technologies for substituting the perceived reality. With the recent proliferation of consumer-grade head-mounted VR displays, several industries have started to wake up to the possible potential of virtual reality. One typical area in the early stages of the adoption of these technologies is marketing, and especially its sub-areas of retail and shopping. However, there has been a dearth in our understanding of how VR technology has been investigated in retail-related literature. This study systematically reviewed a body of 72 research papers that investigated the application of VR in shopping. The corpus was reviewed for covered research methods, theories, investigated output and input devices, tracking technologies, products and simulated environments, antecedents and consequences. Based on experiment-based studies in the corpus, we assessed the effects of VR and related stimuli on consumer psychology and behavior in the context of shopping. Based on the review, we propose 16 future research avenues pertaining to concepts, themes, methodologies and technologies.
... Thus, we may expect no differences between the real and the digital content in terms of psychological realism; instead, both contents are expected to differ in terms of perceived factual realism. Specifically, 360-degree videos, rather than being digitally constructed, are filmed in the real world and display factual situations (Martínez-Navarro, Bigné, Guixeres, Alcañiz, and Torrecilla, 2019). Consequently, we expect that this type of content takes users to real environments (Wagler and Hanus, 2018), leading to higher perceptions of presence than digital content, as users may sense that they are placed in real locations (Willems, Brengman, and Van Kerrebroeck, 2019). ...
... Despite verifying that the rooms displayed in the experimental conditions were perceived as similar and equally likeable, future studies should use real and digital contents about the same stimulus/object. As for the real content, 360-degree videos were considered due to their wide availability and variety, which has increased its popularity among users, turning them into the benchmark in current XR experiences (Martínez-Navarro et al., 2019). Regarding the digital content, a digital representation of the hotel room was displayed. ...
Article
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Virtual and augmented reality are changing how companies interact with customers. However, previous research has paid little attention to compare their effectiveness. This study focuses on the perceptions of presence elicited by different types of contents (real or digital) and embodied devices (head-mounted display or smartphone), and their impact on user’s pre-experiences with hotels. Results from a lab experiment show that contents with high levels of factual realism (360-degree videos) have a positive influence on perceptions of presence, ease of imagination, and visual appeal, and on booking intentions. These effects are stronger when high embodied devices (head-mounted displays) are applied. Additionally, presence positively influences ease of imagination and visual appeal, which mediate the impact of content on booking intentions. These findings stress the importance of inducing presence as a key driver for behavioral intentions in hospitality. The comparative influence of conventional VR and AR experiences is also discussed. Highlights • VR and AR are compared by distinguishing between content and device. • Content with high factual realism (real higher than digital) enhances presence. • Presence favors booking intentions through visual appeal and ease of imagination. • Real contents with headsets is the best combination for empowering pre-experiences. • When using digital contents, smartphones are more effective than headsets.
... Aside from technical issues, this lack of implementation can, in part, be explained by knowledge gaps in the literature, and hence a lack of guidance about how to best apply AR and VR. Research has mainly focused on comparing AR or VR to conventional marketing media such as text, images, or videos (e.g., Mishra et al., 2021), often in the context of pure online retailing (e.g., Hilken et al., 2017;Martínez-Navarro et al., 2019) or in-store retail experiences (e.g., Pizzi et al., 2019;Poncin & Mimoun, 2014). The use of AR and VR for experiential retail with an online-to-offline customer journey (Herhausen et al., 2019) is less studied (e.g., Pleyers & Poncin, 2020) and has yielded equivocal support for the technologies' benefits (Deng et al., 2019). ...
... In Table 1 Smink et al., 2020). Furthermore, research has mainly studied AR or VR in online settings (e.g., Hilken et al., 2017;Martínez-Navarro et al., 2019) or to a lesser extent in offline settings (e.g., Pizzi et al., 2019;Poncin & Mimoun, 2014). The online-to-offline customer journey that experiential retailers seek to leverage has received less attention (e.g., Pleyers & Poncin, 2020) and yielded equivocal findings (Deng et al., 2019). ...
Article
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Despite the promise of augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) to help experiential retailers align online and offline experiences, guidance on choosing or combining these technologies is lacking. In three experiments, we address this research gap by investigating the individual and combined impact of AR and VR on key marketing objectives. First, we establish that AR is more effective in stimulating purchase intentions than VR, due to its ability to support customers in fluent product‐focused mental imagery. Second, we demonstrate that VR is better suited for improving brand attitudes than AR, as it helps customers to form fluent context‐focused mental imagery. Third, we show that AR and VR, in combination, can improve both purchase intentions and brand attitudes, but only when the order of deployment is sequenced as AR then VR. This is due to greater alignment with the customer's online‐to‐offline journey in experiential retail. When deployed the other way around, we observe a detrimental impact on purchase intentions and a potential harmful impact on brand attitudes. Our research offers a nuanced theoretical perspective of AR and VR in marketing and provides experiential retailers with evidence‐based guidelines for leveraging AR and VR within their online retailing strategy.
... The applications of VR technology for visualization and marketing has also gained more attention in the real estate industry (Sihi, 2018). Although this technology have been proven to transform consumer experience in various industries especially retail (Martínez-Navarro, Bigné, Guixeres, Alcañiz, & Torrecilla, 2019;Pizzi, Scarpi, Pichierri, & Vannucci, 2019) and tourism (Huang, Backman, Backman, & Chang, 2016), more research attention has been called for the impact of VR towards consumer's behaviour in the high involvement purchase context in real estate (Sihi, 2018). Andrew and Larceneux (2018) argues that emotional attachment from visualization could be influential in an apartment purchase. ...
... In the retail and marketing field, past literature has investigated that the application of VR is focused on consumers' behaviour and shopping efficiency (Scarpi, Pizzi, & Visentin, 2014). In producing positive customer feedback, the benefits of virtual stores over physical stores have been shown (Martínez-Navarro et al., 2019). Their research found that virtual stores are more effective in generating customer behavioural and evaluative responses. ...
Conference Paper
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Virtual reality (VR) technology has gained more attention in recent years where most industries, including the real estate sector are striving towards digitalization of their services. Furthermore, the advent of Covid-19 pandemic has caused a substantial shift towards digital marketing approaches. Despite the exuberance to incorporate VR as part of the marketing strategy for real estate, little is known for the impact of this technology towards potential homebuyers' emotions and purchase intention compared to conventional marketing method using physically built environment. Research in consumer behavioural studies suggests that atmosphere in physical stores or service providers plays an important role in evoking emotions that leads to positive purchase behaviour among consumers. This study proposed a theoretical framework based on the SO -R framework and hypothesized on the relationships between atmosphere towards pleasure and arousal emotion, which subsequently influences house purchase intention in the virtual environment for the digital real estate marketing using VR. An experiment with 60 real potential homebuyers was conducted to evaluate the differences of participants' evaluation of the atmosphere, pleasure, and arousal emotions, as well as the purchase intention between a real environment with a virtual environment. Partial least squares-structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) was employed to test the hypothesized relationships. Results indicate that there is a significant difference in potential homebuyers' evaluation of the atmosphere and purchase intention between the real environment and the virtual environment. PLS-SEM results proved that atmosphere significantly influence pleasure and arousal emotions, and pleasure emotion was revealed to significantly influence house purchase intention. The findings in this study contributes substantially towards enhancing the application of VR for effective marketing strategies for the residential real estate sector.
... In a VR setting, the positive relationship between a VR virtual environment and an increased feeling of "being there" was proved in several studies (e.g. Klein, 2003;Mart ınez-Navarro et al., 2019;Oh et al., 2004). From an interactive marketing perspective, VR is one of the most propitious revolutions in retailing (Mart ınez-Navarro et al., 2019). ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of the study is to investigate the effects of interactivity and vividness on perceived usefulness and perceived enjoyment and their consequent impacts on consumer behavioral responses in a retail furniture VR store context. Considering the lack of VR empirical research, the indirect effect of interactivity and vividness on perceived usefulness and perceived enjoyment through telepresence and the moderating effect of consumer previous experience with VR are also included. Design/methodology/approach A commercial IKEA VR store was chosen for the study. Head-mounted display (HMD) VR headsets were employed for the VR shopping experience. The study was conducted at a laboratory at a large university in the southeastern United States. A total of 146 college students participated in the study. Findings Vividness had significant positive effects on perceived usefulness and perceived enjoyment, which in turn influenced attitude towards VR and behavioral intentions. Interactivity did not have positive impacts on perceived usefulness and perceived enjoyment. However, it indirectly affected perceived usefulness and perceived enjoyment through telepresence. The findings also proved the moderating effect of consumer previous VR experience between interactivity and perceived usefulness and between interactivity and perceived enjoyment. The relationship between attitude and behavioral intentions was also positive. Originality/value Notwithstanding the benefits of VR in relation to its utilitarian, hedonic, and behavioral values, little is known about consumers' responses towards the usage of VR as a shopping tool. The present study can be considered as a starting point in understanding the usefulness of VR from consumer and managerial perspectives. The findings of VR indicated in the study will help practitioners understand the urgency of adopting VR in a retail setting.
... In current e-commerce stores, one of the recorded fraudulent activities is the delivery of an ordered item different from that itemized in the e-commerce store [14][15][16][17]. Needless to say, a virtual store can spark a revolution in the e-commerce industry by not only altering the way of shopping but also by making it secure. ...
Article
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In view of the problem of e-commerce scams and the absence of haptic interaction, this research aims to introduce and create a tele-weight device for e-commerce shopping in smart cities. The objective is to use the proposed prototype to provide a brief overview of the possible technological advancements. When the tele-weight device is affixed over the head-mounted display, it allows the user to feel the item’s weight while shopping in the virtual store. Addressing the problem of having no physical interaction between the user (player) and a series game scene in virtual reality (VR) headsets, this research approach focuses on creating a prototype device that has two parts, a sending part and a receiving part. The sending part measures the weight of the object and transmits it over the cellular network to the receiver side. The virtual store user at the receiving side can thus realize the weight of the ordered object. The findings from this work include a visual display of the item’s weight to the virtual store e-commerce user. By introducing sustainability, this haptic technology-assisted technique can help the customer realize the weight of an object and thus have a better immersive experience. In the device, the load cell measures the weight of the object and amplifies it using the HX711 amplifier. However, some delay in the demonstration of the weight was observed during experimentation, and this indirectly altered the performance of the system. One set of the device is sited at the virtual store user premises while the sending end of the device is positioned at the warehouse. The sending end hardware includes an Arduino Uno device, an HX711 amplifier chip to amplify the weight from the load cell, and a cellular module (Sim900A chip-based) to transmit the weight in the form of an encoded message. The receiving end hardware includes a cellular module and an actuator involving a motor gear arrangement to demonstrate the weight of the object. Combining the fields of e-commerce, embedded systems, VR, and haptic sensing, this research can help create a more secure marketplace to attain a higher level of customer satisfaction.
... In this study, we adopt the C-A-C framework as our core theoretical framework because it provides a multi-layer perspective for understanding the mechanisms responsible for translating a customer's experience through affect into action. First, this model has been employed and empirically validated in online retail (Chang and Chen, 2008;Dai et al., 2020a) and further in the context of reality (e.g., Martínez-Navarro et al., 2019;McLean and Wilson, 2019;Flavián et al., 2021). More importantly, the C-A-C framework provides a theoretical foundation to integrate technology characteristics and value creation in the context of MAR; hence it enables us to examine the effects of technologies in a consumer decision-making process. ...
Augmented reality (AR) is rapidly gaining attention in practice, and research as the adoption of smartphones and technological advancements persist. The focus of current literature on AR has been on its use for improving visual and display quality. However, limited guidance is offered on how consumers evaluate their experience and how that, in turn, influences their behaviors, especially in the smartphone context. This study seeks to extend this line of research by applying the cognition-affect-conation framework to examine how mobile augmented reality (MAR) experiences shape the consumer decision-making process. Data collected from 316 users in the United States were analyzed using partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). The results reveal that consumers’ cognitive evaluation of MAR applications stimulates their affective reactions, which eventually create conative behaviors. Thus, this study offers an integrated perspective for investigating continuous use and purchase intentions jointly in one research model. In addition, it examines how perceived value, a cognitive trait variable, influences consumer conative responses directly and indirectly through affective responses. The results confirm the relationships proposed in the cognition-affect-conation framework and empirically support the direct and indirect influence of perceived value on conative efforts in the MAR context. The findings contribute to AR theory building, application design, and marketing strategy development.
... The ability of VR to simulate real scenarios and the physical world offers researchers the opportunity to analyse human behaviour in a controlled environment (Diemer et al., 2015). The sense of immersion and presence provided by VR has allowed for various research studies regarding consumer behaviour in retail and marketing fields (Mart ınez-Navarro et al., 2019;Scarpi et al., 2014). These studies found that virtual stores are effective in generating customer behavioural and evaluative responses. ...
Article
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Purpose This paper aims to investigate the potentials of virtual reality (VR) for residential real estate marketing to influence house purchase intention. Design/methodology/approach Based on the relevant literature in consumer behaviour, this study hypothesised the relationships between atmosphere with pleasure and arousal emotions and the subsequent influence of emotions towards house purchase intention in a virtual environment. A within-subjects experimental design was conducted with 60 real potential homebuyers to test the hypotheses. Data were analysed using paired samples t -test and partial least squares-structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM). Findings Results revealed that there is a significant difference in the atmosphere and house purchase intention between real and virtual environments. On the other hand, pleasure and arousal emotions evoked in real and virtual environments showed no significant difference. The results show that the atmosphere significantly affects pleasure and arousal, where pleasure, in turn, has a significant effect on purchase intention, and arousal showed an insignificant effect on purchase intention in the virtual environment. Research limitations/implications Due to budget limitation, this study was constrained to the use of HTC Vive as the VR equipment and evaluation of only one type of housing design. Practical implications This study contributes to facilitating the revitalisation of real estate marketing with the integration of VR by providing notable empirical results and recommendations based on the research findings. Originality/value This study extends the current knowledge from the stimulus-organism-response framework for a smart real estate marketing strategy using VR.
... It produces meaningful experiences and sufficient information, enabling customers to evaluate the targeted products (Kim and Forsythe, 2008;Sahana et al., 2021) and helps them make viable decisions with more certainty (Oh et al., 2008;Yuan et al., 2018). This two-way mirror with an electronic display behind the glass can also be called a magic mirror, interactive mirror, digital mirror or SMFT (Martínez-Navarro et al., 2019;Dongare et al., 2020). Swan and Gabbard (2005) noted that SMFT is an augmented enhancement machine with a collection of viewing features. ...
Article
As the digitalisation of businesses continues to change customers’ purchasing habits, brick-and-mortar retail SMEs (Small and Medium Enterprises) are confronted with unprecedented challenges. The proliferation of e-commerce and digital businesses is not only changing the rules of business but disrupting them by introducing new possibilities, especially with the integration of new technology. Studies that have attempted to measure technology-based service quality in retail settings are limited to online service experiences, creating a significant gap in the literature. The primary purpose of this paper is to explore how the service quality of brick-and-mortar clothing retail chains can be improved using innovative technology such as smart mirror fashion technology (SMFT), something academic research has not yet specifically addressed. This study used a qualitative approach with Soft System Methodology (SSM), based upon interviews triangulated with observations and field notes. It focused on the top five UK clothing retail chains, measured by market capitalisation. We found that the quality of service received is currently perceived as low when compared to customers’ expectations; however, use of technology enhanced service quality and influenced customer satisfaction. There was a positive relationship between service quality, customer satisfaction and the use of SMFT. The contribution of this study lies in the development of a new framework that integrates SMFT with traditional in-store transaction processes, resulting in improvements in service delivery and managerial practices of the offline clothing retail service providers. The study concludes that embracing SMFT can help provide high-quality service, creating value for customers.
... In 2019 alone, AR research surged in terms of interest for marketers (e.g. Caboni and Hagberg, 2019;Cowan and Ketron, 2019;Farah et al., 2019;Flavián et al., 2019;Huang et al., 2019;Martínez-Navarro et al., 2019;McLean and Wilson, 2019;Yim and Park, 2019). ...
Article
Purpose Augmented reality (AR) apps offer a great opportunity for brands to provide better service to customers by creating augmented customer service. However, not every AR app is equally effective in improving customer experience. Investigation of underlying processes and brand-related outcomes of AR marketing remains scarce and it is unclear how different types of AR apps influence brand perceptions, such as brand personality. This paper aims to fill in this knowledge gap and provide practical insights on how different AR apps can improve service brand personality. Design/methodology/approach Using an experimental plan, the authors investigate how attitudes towards AR apps contribute to customer perceptions of brand personality (i.e. excitement, sincerity, competence and sophistication) according to two different variables, namely, the location of the AR app (location-specific vs non-location-specific) and its orientation (augmenting the product, brand or store experience). The authors also examine the effect of expected customer experience with the AR app (i.e. playfulness and pleasure) and customer technological innovativeness and shopping orientation as predictors of attitudes towards the AR app. Findings The findings show that non-location-specific and product-oriented AR apps (i.e. virtual try-on apps) receive more positive evaluations and lead consumers to perceive the brand as more exciting, sincere, competent and sophisticated. Moreover, the playfulness and pleasure experienced with the AR app determine consumers’ attitudes towards the app. Additionally, AR apps improve brand personality perceptions amongst more innovative and adventure-focussed shoppers. Originality/value The authors show that brand announcements on high-technology, customer-oriented service offerings are an effective branding tool. Thus, AR apps perceived as pleasant and playful can signal and improve brand personality.
... An integration of digital information and actual world [11] A complete 3D virtual representation of actual world [11] A merger of computergenerated constructs with real-world virtual constructs [11] Electronic Tool Webcam or smartphone camera, or smart glasses [11] Monitors, screens, smartphone, Head Mounted Display, and cubes [12] Head Mounted Display [13] Human Involvement Still find themselves in actual, physical world [11] Fully Immersive [11] Still find themselves in actual, physical world [11] III. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This paper uses SLR guidelines proposed by Kitchenham [14] and Kitchenham and Charters [15] with three main steps. First, it identifies the research problem and builds a research protocol for defining research questions, boolean search, database source, inclusion and exclusion criteria, and assessment criteria. ...
... This is based on forecasting data from Superdata Research in 2020, the sales from the VR technology was 21 times higher than in 2016 (from US$2.9 billion to US$ 61.3 billion) [10]. The VR technology This technology also has attracted the marketers based on the novelty, uncertainty, complexity and its potential conflict it presents for marketing [11], [12], [13], [14], [15]. The Marketers want to utilize this technology in their marketing strategy for their products, such as software application products and movie products, to create a new user experience for their customer target [16]. ...
Article
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Virtual Reality technology can provide new experiences and different points of view of activities, events, or products for the users. In line with advances from VR technology, YouTube initiates to support the spread of VR videos by creating a VR feature on their platform. A hundred videos about a dangerous activity, Horror activity, and Marketing video of software or a movie product are found on the YouTube platform. Meanwhile, it is still not yet known how the effectiveness of an advertisement using VR video via the YouTube platform on the people desires to buy a product, especially in Indonesia, which then became the purpose of this study. In carrying out this study, a quantitative study was used by creating a digital questionnaire and distributed it with Google Forms. Then the data obtained will be processed by the respondent demographics and the 4 types of analysis, such as the Validity analysis, the Reliability analysis, the Ranking of VR applications on product promotions, and the Correlation analysis. Afterward, the study found that the B1 and B2 variables refer to Advertising, making it easy for us to understand the product has the most correlation coefficient. Moreover, 80% of the respondents stated that they like the VR advertisement product. It means that people are interested in trying and feel something new in the way VR technology is given to them. Ultimately, the respondents agree that VR advertising has informed them well about the product.
... This led to the creation of a new multidisciplinary field: consumer neuroscience (CN). CN has been poorly addressed using VR interfaces; most studies have used 2D non-immersive stimuli to examine CN (van Herpen et al., 2016;Ploydanai et al., 2017;Martínez-Navarro et al., 2019). The present study addresses this gap in the literature by using 3D immersive stimuli in a virtual environment using a consumergrade HMD. ...
Article
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Virtual reality (VR) is a useful tool to study consumer behavior while they are immersed in a realistic scenario. Among several other factors, personality traits have been shown to have a substantial influence on purchasing behavior. The primary objective of this study was to classify consumers based on the Big Five personality domains using their behavior while performing different tasks in a virtual shop. The personality recognition was ascertained using behavioral measures received from VR hardware, including eye-tracking, navigation, posture and interaction. Responses from 60 participants were collected while performing free and directed search tasks in a virtual hypermarket. A set of behavioral features was processed, and the personality domains were recognized using a statistical supervised machine learning classifier algorithm via a support vector machine. The results suggest that the open-mindedness personality type can be classified using eye gaze patterns, while extraversion is related to posture and interactions. However, a combination of signals must be exhibited to detect conscientiousness and negative emotionality. The combination of all measures and tasks provides better classification accuracy for all personality domains. The study indicates that a consumer’s personality can be recognized using the behavioral sensors included in commercial VR devices during a purchase in a virtual retail store.
... Biometric data collected in VR has immense potential outside of healthcare applications too. Many researchers predict that v-commerce, a new term describing stores existing exclusively in digital space, similar to websites but designed specifically for virtual reality are the future of commerce (Martínez-Navarro et al., 2019). The ability to record features such as movement or eye tracking can help identify consumer behaviour and patterns to improve the experience. ...
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... The early concepts approached VR mainly from technology-driven perspectives, that components of a VR platform may include hardware systems or sensory stimuli (i.e., a set of stereoscopic head-mounted displays (HMD), CAVE system, monitors/projectors, power wall, mirrors, helmets, glasses, position/body/eye-tracking sensors, motion-tracked controllers, haptic devices, auditory modalities … ) and technology displays or virtual content formats (i.e., 3D interfaces, 360-degree photos/videos, mobile-based apps). Among these VR applications, HMD devices (e.g., Oculus Rift, HTC Vive, Gear VR) are the most recognized VR systems that effectively drive user experiences and purchase decisions (Mart ınez-Navarro et al., 2019;Xi & Hamari, 2021). In this streamline of literature, VR is thus widely described as a simulation system or "a computer-mediated environment in which objects that do not actually exist are 'displayed' on a device and where users interact in real-time through a technological interface" (Flavi an et al., 2019). ...
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... Our study procedure expands upon previous studies comparing LSE virtual product presentation modes for web shops using a traditional desktop computer with non-immersive 2D screens (Jiang & Benbasat, 2003;Lee et al., 2012). Furthermore, in contrast to previous research that investigated HSE virtual product presentation modes for shopping (Martínez-Navarro et al., 2019;Peukert et al., 2019), we did not replicate a typical brick-and-mortar shopping scenario in the HSE mode, instead creating a natural extension of the online shop presentation. Our HSE virtual product presentation mode using the natural application context of products shows that it is not necessary to create a brick-and-mortar representation of a shop to harness the positive outcomes of immersive technologies for consumers. ...
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... Comparable results were highlighted by Wang and Chen (2019), who suggest that product placements in VR videos foster interest in the products' brands and purchase intentions. In another study, Martínez-Navarro et al. (2019) showed the positive effect of VR in an e-commerce context on brand recall and purchase intention. Table 12.2 summarises recent research on VR in marketing. ...
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“Sponsorship: Practices and Benefits in Emerging Markets” details the strategic sponsorship activities and mechanisms that can be implemented to communicate with customers and other stakeholders.
... Previous studies have demonstrated that a VR ad can have a direct and positive effect on consumers' intentions toward purchasing an advertised product (e.g., outdoor gear of The North Face; Van Kerrebroeck et al., 2017a) or service (e.g., tourist destination; Willems et al., 2019). Besides the power of VR brand communications to enhance purchase intentions, the sensory dimension of any type of customer experience (i.e., in a physical or digital environment) has also been related to increases in consumers' inclination to purchase (e.g., Lemon and Verhoef, 2016;Moreira et al., 2017;Flavian et al., 2019;Martínez-Navarro et al., 2019). Therefore we expect that the sensory experience of a sensory enriched VR ad will have a direct positive effect on purchase intentions. ...
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... This technology brings with it a history of success and applications in multiple fields such as e-Commerce [22]; in education [23]; and many others. What makes it particularly interesting in our view is its ability to lead us to a parallel world through devices that are frequently enhanced [24]; and to the extent that more senses are stimulated, a greater sense of immersion is achieved through multisensory experience [25]; achieving the sensation of interacting in that virtual environment. ...
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... Comparable results were highlighted by Wang and Chen (2019), who suggest that product placements in VR videos foster interest in the products' brands and purchase intentions. In another study, Martínez-Navarro et al. (2019) showed the positive effect of VR in an e-commerce context on brand recall and purchase intention. Table 12.2 summarises recent research on VR in marketing. ...
... Comparable results were highlighted by Wang and Chen (2019), who suggest that product placements in VR videos foster interest in the products' brands and purchase intentions. In another study, Martínez-Navarro et al. (2019) showed the positive effect of VR in an e-commerce context on brand recall and purchase intention. Table 12.2 summarises recent research on VR in marketing. ...
... The quality and quantity of information that a company provides to its customers or makes decisions based on this information can determine the company's competitiveness (Chaffey et al., 2019). Online shopping can be seen as a sub-category of e-commerce, as it is mainly about transactions between companies and consumers, such as online retail sales or online auctions, which online shopping also refers to for online purchases from brick-andmortar retailers or Online retail company (Martínez et al., 2019). ...
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... -realistic images can display content or video in 360° or three-dimensional (3D) digital representation [127]; -offer home delivery and offer a wide variety of products [128]; -using new technologies, the companies may offer products and services across local, national, and international boundaries in real-time and at low cost [129]; -using the website for buying/selling online helps achieve loyalty in a virtual, digital, and electronic context, such as the world of e-commerce [92]. ...
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... Two different kinds of papers can be identified: those that, considering a significant number of e-servicescape cues, examine the online setting from a holistic perspective, such as [28,31,38]; those that have basically followed [10]'s indications, grounding their analyses on specific cues with the aim of understanding how e-servicescape influences customers' behaviour, such as [39][40][41][42][43][44]'s papers. ...
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Purpose The authors conducted an action research study with the aim of understanding current commercial offerings in modular designs in virtual environments and to explore modularity development based on consumer input for the purpose of personalizing three-dimensional (3D) virtual fashion stores. Design/methodology/approach Through five phases of diagnosing, action planning, action taking, evaluating and specifying learning, the authors attempted to diagnose the current commercial offerings of modular designs in virtual spaces and to identify the right type and the number of modules and modular options for personalizing 3D virtual stores based on consumers' actual designs and focus group input. The authors then further conceptualized modules to serve as an example for developing modularity in 3D virtual reality (VR) stores. Findings In the diagnosing phase, the authors investigated the modularity structure of cocreating a retail store in two popular virtual worlds: Second Life and The Sims 4. In the evaluation phase, the authors identified modules and modular options for personalizing 3D virtual stores based on a content analysis of consumers' post-design focus group discussions. In the last phase (specifying learning), the authors conceptualized a total of nine modules and 38 modular options for personalizing 3D virtual stores, including style, price point, product category, color, presence of avatar, virtual product try-on, music, product recommendation and product customization. Originality/value The significance of this study lies in the pioneering methodological work of identifying, creating and visualizing 3D VR modular store options based on consumer input and in improving the authors’ understanding of current commercial offerings. This study also enriches design theories on cocreation systems. The authors’ suggested modules for personalizing 3D virtual stores could inspire future evidence-based designs to be readily used by VR retailers as well extend the application of mass customization theory from the realm of product development to retail environments.
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Abstract Recent trends in marketing have demonstrated an increased focus on in-store expenditures with the hope of “grabbing consumers” at the point of purchase, but does this make sense? To help answer this question, the authors examine the interplay between in- ...
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The interest in 3D technology and Virtual Reality (VR) is growing both from academia and industry, promoting the quick development of virtual marketplaces (VMs) (i.e. e-commerce systems in VR environments). VMs have inherited trust problems, e.g. sellers may advertise a perfect deal but doesn’t deliver the promised service or product at the end. In view of this, we propose a five-sense feedback oriented reputation mechanism (supported by 3D technology and VR) particularly for VMs. The user study confirms that users prefer VMs with our reputation mechanism over those with traditional ones. In our reputation mechanism, five-sense feedback is objective and buyers can use it directly in their reputation evaluation of target sellers. However, for the scenarios where buyers only provide subjective ratings, we apply the approach of subjectivity alignment for reputation computation (SARC), where ratings provided by one buyer can then be aligned (converted) for another buyer according to the two buyers’ subjectivity. Evaluation results indicate that SARC can more accurately model sellers’ reputation than the state-of-the-art approaches.
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Purpose ‐ In order to cope with the challenge of developing successful fast moving consumer goods (FMCG) innovations, market research vendors offer several methodologies to test concepts. The purpose of this article is to examine the discrepancy between the well-established experimental real store methodology and the most recent of these alternative methodologies that is the virtual store. Design/methodology/approach ‐ A parallel testing of a new adult cereal was conducted in France with 200 shoppers in each store. Findings ‐ Results show that all attitudinal measurements are similar in terms of cognition and conation, but affect and behavior cannot be compared across both methodologies. In conclusion, virtual store testing is a new method that does not exactly fit with one of the previous. Research limitations/implications ‐ The study is limited to a single product and should be generalized to more product categories. Practical implications ‐ Virtual store should be used carefully in order to take capital expenditure decisions. It generates different attitudes and behaviors, but more research is needed in order to debate on predictability. Originality/value ‐ With the emergence of virtual stores to test FMCG innovations, this paper is of high value for practitioners who have to proceed to several tests, with different objectives, before a product launch.
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