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Local crime and psychological distress in Scotland: a multilevel record-linkage study

Authors:
changes in symptoms of depression, anxiety, and hostility over
the survey years.
Results:
Compared to men who had no past-year stressful life event,
those who endorsed any past-year stressful life event had a
greater increase in depression (+0.05; 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.10).
Relationship-related events and living-situation related events
were associated with increases in depression (+0.07), and
anxiety (+0.05).
Conclusions:
Relationship related events have an effect on depression and
anxiety. Greater awareness of this potential determinant might
facilitate effective intervention programs.
Local crime and psychological distress in Scotland: a
multilevel record-linkage study
Gergo
00 Baranyi
G Baranyi
1
, J Pearce
1
, C Dibben
1
, S Curtis
1,2
1
CRESH, School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
2
Geography Department, Durham University, Durham, UK
Contact: gergo.baranyi@ed.ac.uk
Background:
Although there is an increasing amount of research on the
effect of residential neighbourhoods on mental health, the
causal pathways through which place influences health are not
well understood. The aim of this study is to investigate whether
local crime is associated with psychological distress and how
area deprivation influences this relationship.
Methods:
We draw data from the Scottish Longitudinal Study, a census-
based nationally representative 5.3% sample of the Scottish
population. We included anonymized data for over 150,000
individual adults in our analysis. The primary outcomes were
self-reported mental health condition (2011 Census), as well as
prescriptions for antidepressant and anxiolytics medications
between 2009 and 2015 (NHS Scotland). Individual data were
linked with data on levels of crime and Carstairs Deprivation
Index for the person’s place of residence in 2011. Crime was
ranked in quintiles for data zones (populations of 500-1000
per zone). Multilevel logistic regression models were applied to
estimate the effect of local crime at data zone level.
Results:
ompared to the lowest crime neighbourhoods, increasing
crime rates were strongly associated with all measures of
psychological distress, even after controlling for individual
characteristics in the model. When models were further
adjusted for area level deprivation, the effect of crime
decreased, but remained significant for reported mental
health and antidepressant medication in the higher crime
quintiles (p < 0.05).
Conclusions:
Local crime level in the neighbourhood is associated with self-
reported mental illness and with prescriptions for common
mental disorders. It may act as a ‘wider determinant’ of mental
distress, independently of economic poverty and it may also
mediate the link between area deprivation and mental illness.
Community-based public health interventions and violence
prevention programmes should be prioritised in order to
tackle the collateral damage of crime.
Changing labour market conditions during the ‘great
recession’ and mental health in Scotland 2007-2011:
an example using the Scottish Longitudinal Study and
data for local areas in Scotland
Jamie Pearce
J Pearce
1
, S Curtis
1,2
, M Cherrie
1
, C Dibben
1
, N Cunningham
2
,
C Bambra
3
1
CRESH, School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
2
Geography Department, Durham University, Durham, UK
3
Medical School, Newcastle University, Newcastle, UK
Contact: jamie.pearce@ed.ac.uk
Background:
The recent economic recession affecting many countries,
including the UK, has prompted a renewed focus on the
links between labour market trends and population health.
This paper examines how trends in local labour market
conditions in Scotland around the time of the ‘great recession’
relate to reported mental illness for individuals.
Methods:
We report research using the Scottish Longitudinal Study
(SLS), a large (5.3%) representative sample of the Scottish
population. The SLS combines individual-level census infor-
mation collected since 1991 as well as data from other sources
relating to the SLS sample. Census data from 2011 in Scotland
include self-reported mental health, providing information on
this health outcome for an unusually large sample of the
general population. These data were combined with informa-
tion on spatio-temporal trends in labour market conditions
(calculated using trajectory modelling) in the 32 local
authority areas in Scotland.
Results:
Results suggest that for groups of local authorities in Scotland
over the period 2006-2011, trends in employment varied.
These geographically variable trends in employment rates were
associated with inequalities in self-reported mental health
across the country, after controlling for a number of other
individual and neighbourhood risk factors. For residents of
regions that had experienced relatively high and stable levels of
employment the odds ratio for reporting a mental illness was
significantly lower than for those in areas with persistently low
employment rates, while in areas where employment declined,
the odds ratio was greater.
Conclusions:
The findings emphasize how changes in the local economic
conditions may influence people’s health and wellbeing
independently of their own employment status. We conclude
that, during the recent recession, the economic life course of
places across Scotland has been associated with individual
mental health outcomes.
1.N. Workshop: Regulating Digital Marketing to
Children to Prevent Chronic Diseases and Promote
Children’s Rights
Organised by: NIJZ Slovenia, WHO EURO
Chairpersons: Mojca Gabrijelc
ˇic
ˇBlenkus, Slovenia, Joao Breda, WHO
Regional Office for Europe
Contact: mojca.gabrijelcic@nijz.si
There is growing evidence that marketing, and digital
marketing specifically, has impact on children’s choices and
purchase preferences. Through ongoing data collection and
tracking, marketers can create personalized marketing and
sales appeals based on a customer’s unique preferences,
behaviours, and psychological profile. Digital marketing is by
its nature engaging and therefore the consequences of
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more profound than in traditional marketing. Digital
11th European Public Health Conference: Parallel Programme 25
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