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Узунов Й.И., Протасов А.А. Концепция экосистемных услуг в приложении в водным экосистемам //Гидробиол.журн. 2018, т.54. №5. С. 3-19./ Uzunov I.I., Protasov A.A. The concept of ecosystem services in the application in aquatic ecosystems // Hydrobiol. J. 2018, V.54. №5. p. 3-19./



ECOSYSTEM SERVICES CONCEPT AND ITS APLICABILITY TO WATER TECHNOECOSYSTEMS The concept of ecosystem services applied to the anthropogenic ecosystems, and in particular to the freshwater techno-ecosystems, is discussed in this article. Available reference sources showed that ecosystem services (ESS) defined as given benefits which man obtain/receive form ecosystem functioning, are regarded mostly in relation to the natural ecosystems. In the same time, considerable part of the biosphere already presents aggregations of numerous heavily modified or artificial aquatic ecosystems. Ecosystems’ functioning, and of techno-ecosystems in particular, may create definite problems to the human activities and well-being. A concept of “ecosystem anti-service or disservice” is introducing here as aggregation of consequences of ecosystems processes, which are regarded as undesirable, even harmful, dangerous to the humans and society. Key words: ecosystem services, ecosystem functions, techno-ecosystem, biodiversity, disservices В статье рассмотрена концепция экосистемных услуг в приложении к антропогенным экосистемам, в частности, к водным техноэкосистемам. Анализ имеющиеся литературных данных показал, что экосистемные услуги (ЭСУ), как определенная польза, которую человек получает от функционирования экосистем, рассматривается практически только применительно к природным экосистемам. В то же время, значительная часть биосферы уже представляет собой совокупность множества разнообразных сильно измененных или искусственных экосистем. Функционирование экосистем, в особенности техноэкосистем, кроме ЭСУ может создавать и определенные проблемы для деятельности человека и его благосостояния. Предлагается понятие «экосистемной антиуслуги», то есть совокупности последствий экосистемных процессов, которые рассматриваются как нежелательные и даже вредные, опасные для человека. Ключевые слова: экосистемные услуги, экосистемные функции, техноэкосистема, биоразнообразие, антиуслуги
... Many studies consider ES (as benefits of ecosystems to humans) almost exclusively in relation to natural ecosystems. At the same time, a large part of the biosphere is already represented by a variety of altered ecosystems, which can create certain problems for humans (Uzunov and Protasov 2018). Some authors note the undervaluation of ES for urban areas, where the largest industries, heat and power facilities, roads, and households are located (Derkzen et al. 2015). ...
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Generally, areas affected by natural desertification remain virtually untouched by economic activities. However, they can provide numerous ecosystem services (ES) with significant societal benefits. This is especially important for Mongolia, where desertification processes have intensified considerably over the years. This article presents the results of an integrated spatial environmental and economic assessment and mapping of ES for various types of natural resources. We conducted the assessments in the model areas of Mongolia (Bulgan, Orkhon, Darkhan-Uul, Dundgovi, and Umnugovi aimags). To value the eight types of ES, we used the following methods: market price-based evaluation, indirect valuation methods (sociological surveys), a travel cost method, InVEST software, and others. Official statistical data and field survey data were used in calculations. According to our results, the areas, affected by desertification are significant in terms of ES they could provide. We estimated the total economic value of the ES of the model areas of Mongolia at 1885 million USD in 2019. Further research will entail improved methodological approaches.
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