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Abstract The objective of this study is to investigate the impact of a training program based on the visual words composition techniques on the development of reading comprehension skills among the students of primary stage in Abha. This is an attempt to suggest suitable solutions to the learning disabilities pupils problems. The sample of the study consisted of (104) learning disabilities pupils. A questionnaire that was developed by the researcher was used as a measuring instrument. The results indicated that a statistically significant differences between the mean of performance of the experimental and the control groups in the reading comprehension skills development posttest in favor of the experimental group that was taught using the training program based on the visual words composition techniques. The study concludes that there visual words composition techniques should be integrated with the Arabic language curriculum to develop the language skills among people with learning disabilities. Key words: Visual Words, Reading Comprehension Skills, Learning Disabilities.
International Journal of Academic Research
ISSN: 2348-7666; Vol.4, Issue-1(1), January, 2017
Impact Factor: 4.535; Email: drtvramana@yahoo.co.in
The Impact of a Training Program Based on the Visual
Words Composition Techniques on the Development of
Reading Comprehension Skills among the Students of
Primary Stage
Dr Mohammad Khasawaneh, King Khalid University Saudi Arabia
Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of a training
program based on the visual words composition techniques on the development of
reading comprehension skills. The sample of the study consisted of (104) learning
disabilities pupils. A questionnaire that was developed by the researcher was used as a
measuring instrument. The results indicated that there were statistically significant
differences between the mean of performance of the experimental and the control
groups in the reading comprehension skills development posttest in favor of the
experimental group that was taught using the training program based on the visual
words composition techniques. The study concludes that visual words composition
techniques should be integrated with the Arabic language curriculum to develop the
language skills among people with learning disabilities.
Key words: visual words, reading comprehension skills, learning disabilities
Introduction
Reading is a psychological mental process
that entails the ability to transform
written symbols into verbal symbols. It is
one of the basic psychological activities
requiring the use of various mental
processes to be employed in the various
contexts. It is also one of the basic skills in
the cognitive dimension of child
development, a major focus of teaching
and learning in the early school stages, a
significant means for acquiring
knowledge. Reading represents the third
level of the hierarchical model for
language development containing five
levels: Receptive language, expressive
language, reading, writing and employing
written and verbal language in daily life.
Reading comprehension is one of the most
important reading skills, the main
objectives of reading cannot be achieved
without it. Reading comprehension has
become a major characteristic of good
readers who are able to be a significant
contributor in the development of society.
It is an activity requiring accuracy,
autonomy while reading, deep
understanding, comprehension speed,
enjoying reading, the variation in reading
purposes, being involved with the
different events, giving opinions, being
critical and creative (Al Khasawneh,
2015). It can be noticed, then, that
comprehension is the basic component of
reading. Without comprehension, reading
cannot be described as a mental process.
Reading comprehension is not an innate
ability as it is not an easy facilitated skill
ending when the reader can recognize the
written symbols and say them. Indeed, it
is a complex process falling in variant
levels, requires mental abilities and
potentials, needs practice and drill and
the use of several thinking, explanation,
analysis, critique and contrasting skills
(Jad, 2013). The significance of the study
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International Journal of Academic Research
ISSN: 2348-7666; Vol.4, Issue-1(1), January, 2017
Impact Factor: 4.535; Email: drtvramana@yahoo.co.in
stems from the special attention
educational systems pay for developing
students' reading skills to improve their
reading comprehension. The current
study can be described as one of the new
studies examining the effect of visual
words formulation on reading
comprehension.
While reviewing related previous
literature, Casalis, Quemart and Duncan
(2015) examined the effect of language at
the derived grammar use in the visual
words and children's words' processing
and found that some of the morphological
grammar children possess may facilitate
children's words recognition, limit their
ability to recognize inaccurate words in
both English and French.
In another study, Francis, Camacho and
Lara (2014) studied levels of frequency in
the translated words from Spanish to
English and from English to Arabic and
their effect on single word comprehension.
The results of study found an effect for
word frequency levels on reading
comprehension, that the presentation of
repeated words within various reading
and writing language contexts had more
effect on reading comprehension
compared to single words presentation.
In another study, Abdelhaleem, Naser,
LutfAllah and Al Dughiadi (2013)
examined the effect of a Mazarano Model
based blended electronic instruction
program on improving pictures reading
skills among preparatory stage students
with learning disabilities. The results of
the study found statistically significant
differences between students' means
scores on the pictures reading skills test
(recognition, description, analysis,
synthesis, meaning inference), in favor of
experimental group students compared to
controls. Abdelnabi (2012) studied the
effect picture reading based teaching
strategy on developing creative writing
among 5th grade students. The results of
the study indicated that there were
statistically significant differences
between students' means scores on the
creative writing pre-posttests, in favor of
posttest; confirming the effectiveness of
picture reading based teaching strategy on
developing creative writing among 5th
grade students.
There is paucity in previous studies
targeting visual words formulation
techniques. Several studies showed low
reading comprehension levels among
students. This low level was attributed to
several reasons such as traditional
reading instruction methods common in
schools, the weak reading curricula, and
the absence of listening skill instruction
(Al- Qatawneh, 2005). The current study
attempted to integrate the visual words
formulation techniques in Arabic
curricula for students with learning
disabilities at Abha Region to develop
their skills in reading comprehension. To
the researcher's limited knowledge, this is
one of the first studies integrating visual
words formulation techniques in Arabic at
Abha Region.
Questions of the Study
The study addressed the following
questions:
1-What is the effect of visual words
formulation techniques based
instructional program on the development
of reading comprehension skills among
students with learning disabilities at Abha
Region?
2-Is there an interaction between
visual words formulation techniques
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International Journal of Academic Research
ISSN: 2348-7666; Vol.4, Issue-1(1), January, 2017
Impact Factor: 4.535; Email: drtvramana@yahoo.co.in
based instructional program and gender
on the development of reading
comprehension skills among students
with learning disabilities at Abha Region?
Significance of the Study: The
significance of the study stems from the
enormous attention the school pays to
promoting reading skills among students
with learning disabilities, particularly
their reading comprehension competence.
The current study can be described as one
of the latest studies in the field that
examines the effect of visual words
formulation skills on reading
comprehension. The significance of the
study can be noticed in the following:
The current study provides a teaching
guide employing visual pictures
technologies and this may help teachers
address the weaknesses found in students
with learning disabilities acquisition of
reading comprehension skills. The current
study is based on the assumptions of
educational reform requirements calling
the need for the use of new technologies
and software to be tools for promoting
students with learning disabilities
competences and abilities. The current
study provides Arabic curriculum
developers an opportunity to employ
visual words formulation technologies and
implement them in teaching Arabic.
Limitations of the Study: The study
sample was confined to learning
disabilities students in the 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th
grades enrolling in the schools at Abha
Region educational district in the second
semester of the school year 2015//2016.
Methods and Procedures
Sample of the Study: The subjects of
the study were 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th basic stage
graders enrolled at the resourcerooms in
the schools affiliated to Abha educational
district in the first semester of the school
year 2015/2016. Table (1) shows the
distribution of the sample according to
their gender and teaching method
Table (1): The distribution of the sample according to their gender and teaching
method
Group
Gender
Male Female Total
Experimental
26
26
52
Control
26
26
52
Total
52
52
104
Instruments of the Study : To
achieve the objectives of the study, the
following instruments were employed:
An achievement test measuring reading
comprehension among students with
learning disabilities, the suggested
instructional program based on the
visual words formulation techniques
suggested to improve reading
comprehension skills.
First Instrument:
Reading Comprehension
Achievement Test: The researcher
developed the reading comprehension
achievement test based on a thorough
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International Journal of Academic Research
ISSN: 2348-7666; Vol.4, Issue-1(1), January, 2017
Impact Factor: 4.535; Email: drtvramana@yahoo.co.in
review of related literature to identify
the differences between the
pretest/posttest performance of students
with learning disabilities to develop
their reading comprehension skills. In
the development of the achievement
test, the researcher employed a list of
reading comprehension skills based on a
review of related previous literature.
The achievement reading
comprehension test consisted of (30)
items, as (10) of these items measure
one of the reading comprehension levels
(literal, inferential and critical). The
main objective of the achievement test
was to measure the subjects'
achievement and mastery of reading
comprehension skills before the
implementation of the instructional
program. The reading comprehension
skills list was the key for the
development of the achievement test
items (appendices 2,3).
Validity of the Achievement Test:
The achievement test was given in the
preliminary format before
implementation to experts of faculty
members as they were asked to give
their opinions about the items of the
achievement test in terms of the
following:
1.Content validity.
2.The ability of the items to
measure reading comprehension skills
that should be mastered by learning
disability students.
3.Language structure and items
clarity.
The content validity of the
achievement test was (90%) noting that
the researcher took the remarks of the
experts into consideration to increase
the content validity of the achievement
test to be in the final format as shown
in appendix (2).
Difficulty and Discrimination:
Difficulty and discrimination
coefficients for the test items were
calculated as shown in the following
table
Table (2): Difficulty and
discrimination coefficients for the
test items
Item Difficulty Discrimination
1
0.667
0.667
0.548
0.556
0.563
0.556
0.667
0.444
0.618
0.444
6
0.686
0.556
0.639
0.667
0.676
0.556
0.816
0.444
10
0.692
0.556
11
0.550
0.667
12
0.634
0.444
13
0.833
0.667
14
0.674
0.778
15
0.591
0.556
16
0.711
0.556
17
0.783
0.444
18
0.766
0.444
19
0.667
0.778
20
0.673
0.333
21
0.780
0.556
22
0.824
0.333
23
0.654
0.556
24
0.755
.889
25
0.796
0.556
26
0.836
0.778
27
0.804
0.556
28
0.825
0.667
29
0.759
0.556
30
0.831
0.778
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International Journal of Academic Research
ISSN: 2348-7666; Vol.4, Issue-1(1), January, 2017
Impact Factor: 4.535; Email: drtvramana@yahoo.co.in
As seen in the previous table, item
discrimination coefficients ranged
between (0.333-0.889) and all of these
values are acceptable, indicating that
the discriminative ability of these items
was adequate. This statistical procedure
measure item characteristics, its
discriminative ability between
examinees from high and low levels.
The item reporting an average of (0.30)
discrimination coefficient value is
acceptable.
The difficulty coefficients values was
between (0.548) and (0.836) and all of
these values are acceptable as the item
is accepted if reporting a difficulty
coefficient ranging between (0.150) and
(0.850).
Reliability of the Achievement
Test: To check the reliability of the
achievement test, Cronbach alpha and
split half reliability for the test items
were calculated as seen in the following
table:
Table (3): Cronbach alpha and split half
reliability for the test items
Cronbach alpha
coefficient Split half
coefficient
0.825 0.895
Table (3) shows that Cronbach alpha
and split half reliability coefficients
values were high and this ensures high
reliability levels. Second Instrument:
The proposed training program for
developing reading comprehension skills
The objectives of the program
The program aims to develop reading
comprehension skills among students
with learning disabilities and to achieve
the following:
1- Develop expression and reading
comprehension skills among elementary
stage students with learning disabilities.
2- Increase students with learning
disabilities achievement level in reading
comprehension skills.
The conceptual framework for the
program; The starting point for the
development of this model is the low
reading comprehension skills among
average students in the elementary
stage in general, and students with
learning disabilities in particular. There
is also a need for developing programs
that can promote reading
comprehension skills among this
students population. The current model
is based on the following rationales:
-Students report low reading
comprehension levels in the different
school stags in general and among
students with learning disabilities in
particular. This was documented in
several previous studies examining
students reading comprehension level in
Arabic, the results of reported studies
in Arabic indicating that students
report low achievement levels in Arabic
skills acquisition.
-The information developments
and the changes in the Saudi society
dictates the need for developing
performance in Arabic teaching so as
Arabic becomes a viable and developed
languages in the minds and hearts of
society members.
-
Program implementation: The
researcher implemented the program on
the students in the experimental group
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at King Abdel Aziz Elementary School
at Abha. The program contained (30)
session, each lasting for (25) minutes
during the first chapter of the school
year 2015/2016.
Results of the Study: To answer the
first and second questions of the study,
means and standard deviations for the
two study groups performance on the
reading comprehension pre-posttests
performance in light of the instructional
program and gender. The following
table shows this:
Table (4): Means and standard deviations for the two study group’s performance on
the reading comprehension pre-posttests performance in light of the instructional
program and gender.
Program Gender N Language
reading
comprehension
skills pretest
Language
reading
comprehension
skills posttest
M* SD M* SD
Language
instruction Male
26
11.77
2.566
25.7
5
2.219
Female
26
12.23
3.253
25.71
2.920
Total
52
12.00
2.910
25.73
2.568
Control Male
26
11.85
2.796
19.23
2.471
Female
26
12.81
2.800
18.62
2.351
Total
52
12.33
2.813
18.92
2.408
*Maximum grade= 30.
As seen in the previous table, there were
substantial differences in the means
scores of the two study groups in the
reading comprehension pre-posttests in
light of the instructional program and
gender. To identify the significance of
the differences between the means cores
of the two groups in light of instructional
program and gender at the significance
level ( 0.05), Two way ANCOVA
analysis was employed. The results of the
Two way ANCOVA are shown in table
(5).
Table (5): Two way ANCOVA for the study groups performance on reading
comprehension pretest in light of instructional program and gender
Source of variance Total
squares
Degrees
of
freedom
Total
squares
average F value Sig.
Reading
comprehension pretest 19.040 1 19.040 3.100 0.081
instructional program 1183.391 1 1183.391
192.703
0.000
Gender
1.017
1
1.017
0.166
0.685
Program*gender
1.886
1
1.886
0.307
0.581
Error
607.960
99
6.141
Total
53680.000
104
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International Journal of Academic Research
ISSN: 2348-7666; Vol.4, Issue-1(1), January, 2017
Impact Factor: 4.535; Email: drtvramana@yahoo.co.in
The previous table shows that Fvalue
for the instructional program was
(192.703), with a significance level of
(0.000); indicating that there was a
statistically significant difference
between the means scores of the two
study groups performance on the reading
comprehension achievement posttest.
This means that the first null hypothesis
stating:" there is no statistically
significant differences at the significance
level ( 0.05) between the means
scores of students with learning
disabilities grades on the reading
comprehension skills at Abha Region due
to the instructional program (language
instructional program, traditional
instructional program) is rejected.
Moreover, the previous table shows that
F value for the interaction between the
instructional program and gender was
(0.307), with a significance level of
(0.581); indicating that there was no
difference in the effect of the
instructional program due to the
subjects' gender. that the second null
hypothesis stating: there are no
statistically significant differences at the
significance level ( 0.05) between the
means scores between the means scores
of reading comprehension skills
development level among students with
learning disabilities due to the
interaction between the instructional
program and gender. The modified
means were calculated as shown in the
following table:
Table (6): Modified means and standard deviations for the two study groups
performance on the reading comprehension skills test due to instructional program
and gender
Program gender N. Modified
Means* Standard error
Language
program
Male 26 25.67 0.487
Female
26
25.74
0.486
Total
52
25.71
0.486
Traditional Male 26 19.18 0.487
Female 26 18.71 0.489
Total 52 18.95 0.488
*Maximum grade= 30.
It can be seen from the previous table that
the modified means scores for the
experimental group taught using the
language instructional program was
(M=25.71), and this value is higher than
the one reported among control group
students as the modified means scores for
the this group was (M=18.95). This
indicates that the difference between the
two study groups was in favor of the
experimental group aught using the
language instructional program in the
reading comprehension skills development.
Discussion
The results of the current study may be
explained from the fact that the
instructional program developed based
on the visual words formulation
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International Journal of Academic Research
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techniques motivated students with
learning disabilities and they were driven
to learning when they encountered a new
instructional method respecting their
abilities, affirming their self- concept and
the need for their interaction while
working on the assigned learning task.
This led to higher self- confidence when
engaging in the learning task. Moreover,
the new methods employed in the
instructional process, addressing the
problems from different and various
perspectives resulted in broaden
students' horizons and helping them
regulate their information in new ways
different from the traditional thinking
styles. Students were able to formulate
visual pictures for words, use them in
promoting their reading abilities and
adopt various alternative solutions.
Also, the current study results are
consistent with the findings reported in
Casalis, Quemart and Duncan (2015),
Francis, Camacho and Lara (2014)
study, Abdelhaleem, Nasr LutfAllah and
Dhogaidi (2013) study, Abdelnabi and Al
Hamadani (2007) study, Hasan (2006)
study and Al-Qatawneh (2005) study.
The fact that there was no interaction
between the instructional program and
gender can be explained from various
perspectives. The instructional program
may be have taken into consideration
students learning styles and their
development level. The presented
reading texts and exercises conformed to
their cognitive experiences and
backgrounds; the reading content was
very close to students' and appropriate
to their age group. In addition, the use of
visual pictures techniques in presenting
the words may have played a role in
motivating students, encouraging them
to engage in the learning tasks. It was
also a driver for students for more effort
and progress.
Students with learning disabilities in the
current study were given organized and
ordered learning task and assignments as
the instructional program was based on
visual pictures techniques in presenting
the targeted words. In addition, the
instructional program included well-
defined and achievable objectives,
learning activities, teaching tolls and
instruments and evaluation tools taking
into consideration students' ability levels
and had the same effect on students from
both genders.
Conclusion
In light of the results found in the
current study, the following
recommendations were developed: To
employ the instructional language
program based on visual pictures
techniques in presenting words in
teaching students with learning
disabilities at Abha Region reading
comprehension skills. Train teachers to
use the instructional language program
based on visual pictures techniques in
teaching students with learning
disabilities. To capitalize the developed
reading comprehension skills list
proposed in the current study. The study
concludes that visual words composition
techniques should be integrated with the
Arabic language curriculum to develop
the language skills among people with
learning disabilities.
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International Journal of Academic Research
ISSN: 2348-7666; Vol.4, Issue-1(1), January, 2017
Impact Factor: 4.535; Email: drtvramana@yahoo.co.in
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Article
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Developing readers have been shown to rely on morphemes in visual word recognition across several naming, lexical decision and priming experiments. However, the impact of morphology in reading is not consistent across studies with differing results emerging not only between but also within writing systems. Here, we report a cross-language experiment involving the English and French languages, which aims to compare directly the impact of morphology in word recognition in the two languages. Monolingual French-speaking and English-speaking children matched for grade level (Part 1) and for age (Part 2) participated in the study. Two lexical decision tasks (one in French, one in English) featured words and pseudowords with exactly the same structure in each language. The presence of a root (R+) and a suffix ending (S+) was manipulated orthogonally, leading to four possible combinations in words (R+S+: e.g., postal; R+S−: e.g., turnip; R−S+: e.g., rascal; and R-S-: e.g., bishop) and in pseudowords (R+S+: e.g., pondal; R+S−: e.g., curlip; R−S+: e.g., vosnal; and R−S−: e.g., hethop). Results indicate that the presence of morphemes facilitates children's recognition of words and impedes their ability to reject pseudowords in both languages. Nevertheless, effects extend across accuracy and latencies in French but are restricted to accuracy in English, suggesting a higher degree of morphological processing efficiency in French. We argue that the inconsistencies found between languages emphasize the need for developmental models of word recognition to integrate a morpheme level whose elaboration is tuned by the productivity and transparency of the derivational system.
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Previous research with words read in context at encoding showed little if any long-term repetition priming. In Experiment 1, 96 Spanish-English bilinguals translated words in isolation or in sentence contexts at encoding. At test, they translated words or named pictures corresponding to words produced at encoding and control words not previously presented. Repetition priming was reliable in all conditions, but priming effects were generally smaller for contextualized than for isolated words. Repetition priming in picture naming indicated priming from production in context. A componential analysis indicated priming from comprehension in context, but only in the less fluent language. Experiment 2 was a replication of Experiment 1 with auditory presentation of the words and sentences to be translated. Repetition priming was reliable in all conditions, but priming effects were again smaller for contextualized than for isolated words. Priming in picture naming indicated priming from production in context, but the componential analysis indicated no detectable priming for auditory comprehension. The results of the two experiments taken together suggest that repetition priming reflects the long-term learning that occurs with comprehension and production exposures to words in the context of natural language.
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The objective of the study was to further elucidate the potential mechanisms underlying left hemiparalexia induced by a splenium lesion in corpus callosum. A patient KY, who had infarctions in the splenium and the left ventral medial occipitotemporal area, was examined with neuropsychological tests and fMRI. KY presented left hemiparalexia when he read aloud characters presented in central foveal field tachistoscopically as well as in free-view field. KY also showed left hemialexia for characters in left visual field, while no left hemiparalexia occurred when characters were presented in the right visual field. KY performed poorly in lexical decision tasks. He could judge the directions of Landolt's rings gaps in the left or right visual field equally. The result of fMRI indicated that characters in the left visual field could not activate the visual word form area (VWFA), such as left mid-fusiform cortex. All the above neuropsychological and fMRI findings have provided evidences against the assumption of left hemineglect dyslexia. Instead, they support the mechanism of disconnection of visual word form processing pathway. In conclusion, the evidences suggested that the visual information transmission of characters in the left visual field from right occipital area to the VWFA in the left hemisphere was interrupted by the splenium lesion.
Impact Factor: 4.535; Email: drtvramana@yahoo.co.in disabilities
Vol.4, Issue-1(1), January, 2017 Impact Factor: 4.535; Email: drtvramana@yahoo.co.in disabilities. Journal of Faculty of Education. 2013;25(1): 73-99.
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