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... Unemployment does not only negatively affect individuals, it also destroys the development prospects of nations. A growing body of research has demonstrated the negative impact of unemployment on various aspects of human life and national development (Ahn et al., 2004;Extremera & Rey, 2016;Jin et al., 1995;Oluwajodu et al., 2015). For instance, Extremera & Rey (2016) discovered that lack of life satisfaction and happiness were associated with unemployment and, consequently, the increased suicide risks. ...
... The interplay between education and employability is questionable in the era of rising graduate unemployment. This challenge actually contradicts studies suggesting that higher education level relates to employability (Oluwajodu et al., 2015). While the causes of graduate unemployment have generally been addressed in the literature (Farah & Ali, 2018;Gupta et al., 2020;Hoxhaj, 2017;Nnatu & Ochuko, 2017;Singh, 2018), these studies did not address the determinants of graduate unemployment post-internship. ...
... Previous research also demonstrate the relationship between inexperience and graduate unemployment (Balwawz, 2012;Nattrass, 2002;Oluwajodu et al., 2015). In these studies, the lack of relevant work experience has been identified as a major disadvantage for new graduates searching for first employment. ...
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One of the pressing concerns for governments and policy makers across the world is youth unemployment. What is even more devastating is the growing graduate unemployment, particularly in developing countries, and South Africa is no exception. Graduate unemployment in South Africa continues to increase at an alarming rate. Without drastic interventions, this socio-economic problem may sadly double in size in the next decade. Work experience programmes, such as internships, are increasingly supported to address youth unemployment, particularly among graduates. However, the effectiveness of the current interventions to the unemployment problem are questionable. This paper draws from the perspectives of 50 participants to explore the determinants of post-internship graduate unemployment. In particular, this paper adopts the lenses of mismatch theory of unemployment to explain why young people are vulnerable in the labour market irrespective of their education and work experience. The examined perspectives revealed that, beyond limited labour market demand, there is also an increasing “work experience-job mismatch” leading to post-internship graduate unemployment. Due to the number of factors, including the skills mismatch problem, the transition from higher education to full-time employment is difficult for many graduates. Received: 30 November 2021 / Accepted: 11 February 2022 / Published: 5 March 2022
... Therefore, the role of universities is to effectively create highly qualified graduates by offering adequate educational quality in accordance with the current industry and market expectations through the programs offered. Oluwajodu et al. (2015) conducted a survey of jobless graduates, newly hired individuals, and bank sector managers on the difficulties considered to be the reasons for graduate unemployment, they identified skill mismatch, institution attended, and varied employer expectations as major barriers. ...
... Graduate employment is still an issue, since it wastes limited human capital, which is dependent on the economy in the long run (Oluwajodu et al., 2015). From an employer's perspective, practical skills and competences have become more valuable, while cognitive and intellectual skills have become secondary (Bondarouk & Dorst, 2015). ...
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ABSTRACT University programs prepare students with skills and knowledge for the workforce and employment, and graduates gain professional qualifications that are recognized and respected worldwide. The phrase "education is essential" is an understatement because education is the most effective weapon for improving, expanding, and developing the human race's life. It is a tool that can be used to bring about a total change in society and improves the quality of a person by refining the knowledge, skills, abilities, personality, and attitude of graduates. Additionally, providing higher chances and opportunities for those who are unemployed. The main objective of university programs is to transform students into critical and logical thinkers through enhancing their learning skills, behavior, and lifetime empowerment. Given the current state of the labor market, universities must increasingly focus on employability and prepare students for jobs. Attending university programs not only provides students with in-depth topic knowledge, but also necessary information, skills, and attitudes that make graduates more likely to succeed in their chosen employment. This paper presents a review of the literature in an attempt to seek employers’ perspectives about programs offered by universities and graduates’ employability in meeting the needs of the industry. The high unemployment rate is disproportionate to the number of graduates churned by universities across the globe even prior to the pandemic. Limitations of this paper lies in the lack of previous research on the topic of university programs and employability. The findings in this paper could shed lights on the importance of university programs as powerful tools necessary to foster skills and knowledge required to improve graduates' employability. Key words: Employability, University programs, education, employment, employers
... Statistics South Africa (2016) highlights that both developing and developed countries are encountering this challenge. Th is is as a result of the global fi nancial crisis experienced in 2009 which led to a long-term unemployment, particularly amongst individuals between the ages of 15-35 years (Oluwajodu and Greyling, 2015). In the future, the state is unlikely to change, looking at the trend globally, indicating 12.7 % youth unemployment in 2017, 12 Th e International Labour Organisation (ILO, 2020:44) indicates that the unemployment rate of the youth in North Africa is at 30 % compared to an aggregate rate of 12.5 % in South Africa. ...
... In Sub-Sahara Africa, in contrast, this cohort unemployment rate was 8.7 %. In South Africa, this challenge is rather acute (Oluwajodu and Greyling, 2015). Concerning StatisticsSA (2019) fourthquarter labour force report, there was approximately 10.3 million youth in South Africa, of which 40.1 % were unemployed and not in education or training, 55 % possess matric certifi cates, 58.10 % are graduates. ...
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For the last 3 decades, youth unemployment has been a major challenge in South Africa. Education and training has been considered as a solution to this challenge in the country. The South African Government introduced skills development programs focusing on the youth to reduce unemployment and poverty. However, the youth unemployment among the skilled has been persistent. Given this background, an attempts is made in this study to evaluate the effectiveness of the National Youth Service Program (NYSP) in skill development of unemployed Graduates in the North West Province of South Africa and determine stakeholder involvement in the conceptualization, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of the skills development program. The research methodology used in this study was both quantitative approach aimed to fill in the knowledge gap, which is achieved through critical reading and analysis of what other researchers have identified, and qualitative method. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to collect data. Questionnaires were self-administered to obtain primary data from (90) graduates and (10) stakeholders who took part in the NYSP. Th e main finding of the study indicates that 83 % of the NYSP graduates are unemployed since completing the skills development program in the 2017 fiscal year. The study alluded that lack of stakeholder participation and commitment in the NYSP was attributed to the high rate of NYS graduate unemployment. Stakeholder engagement and participation will also play a critical role in ensuring that learners completing the skills development program are linked to employment opportunities and are self-reliant. The study recommends that stakeholder identification should take place before the program is being implemented.
... South Africa experiences increasing general unemployment as exemplified by 24.2% of the adult population in 2011, and 25.2% in 2013 (Oluwajodu et al., 2015) and 32.5% in 2020 (StatsSA, 2020). Graduates have been affected by unemployment too. ...
... Beyond good grades, employers also require other important skills such as communication, leadership and management, which are developed through administration or academic assistance positions, representation on student bodies or work experience (Oluwajodu et al. 2015;Pauw et al. 2006). Only a few students, especially those from Metro such as Rito and Ndiyafhi, seemed aware of these demands. ...
... Beyond good grades, employers also require other important skills such as communication, leadership and management, which are developed through administration or academic assistance positions, representation on student bodies or work experience (Oluwajodu et al. 2015;Pauw et al. 2006). Only a few students, especially those from Metro such as Rito and Ndiyafhi, seemed aware of these demands. ...
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This book explores learning outcomes for low-income rural and township youth at five South African universities. The book is framed as a contribution to southern and Africa-centred scholarship, adapting Amartya Sen’s capability approach and a framework of key concepts: capabilities, functionings, context, conversion factors, poverty and agency to investigate opportunities and obstacles to achieved student outcomes. This approach allows a reimagining of ‘inclusive learning outcomes’ to encompass the multi-dimensional value of a university education and a plurality of valued cognitive and non-cognitive outcomes for students from low-income backgrounds whose experiences are strongly shaped by hardship. Based on capability theorising and student voices, the book proposes for policy and practice a set of contextual higher education capability domains and corresponding functionings orientated to more justice and more equality for each person to have the opportunities to be and to do what they have reason to value. The book concludes that sufficient material resources are necessary to get into university and flourish while there; the benefits of a university education should be rich and multi-dimensional so that they can result in functionings in all areas of life as well as work and future study; the inequalities and exclusion of the labour market and pathways to further study must be addressed by wider economic and social policies for ‘inclusive learning outcomes’ to be meaningful; and that universities ought to be doing more to enable black working-class students to participate and succeed. Low-Income Students, Human Development and Higher Education in South Africamakes an original contribution to capabilitarian scholarship: conceptually in theorising a South-based multi-dimensional student well-being higher education matrix and a rich reconceptualisation of learning outcomes, as well as empirically by conducting rigorous, longitudinal in-depth mixed-methods research on students’ lives and experiences in higher education in South Africa. The audience for the book includes higher education researchers, international capabilitarian scholars, practitioners and policy-makers.
... Beyond good grades, employers also require other important skills such as communication, leadership and management, which are developed through administration or academic assistance positions, representation on student bodies or work experience (Oluwajodu et al. 2015;Pauw et al. 2006). Only a few students, especially those from Metro such as Rito and Ndiyafhi, seemed aware of these demands. ...
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Until now there has not been a systematic, integrated, longitudinal mixed-methods South African investigation of the multi-dimensional dynamics or factors shaping and/ or inhibiting low-income students’ capabilities to access, participate and succeed in a variety of higher education institutions, and to move on to work or further study. Nor do we have much research on rural students or rural universities (although see Mgqwashu et al. 2020; Naidoo et al. 2020; Timmis et al. 2019; Trahar et al. 2020). The Miratho Project for the first time offers fine-grained detail derived from talking to students about how they understand and experience disadvantage, equity and educational quality and about how higher education can foster or frustrate the agency and decision-making processes that empower them to change their own lives and those of others. While statistics tell of the broad trend of inequalities in South African higher education, our research fills a lacuna about the past experiences and day-to-day realities of undergraduates from low-income households. We offer a rich and nuanced account of how these students grew up, how they made the decision to go to university, and got in; how they survived and studied and nourished their aspirations; and, how they are now sustaining or trying to sustain their aspirations for a better life, including social mobility.
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Background: Before the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in early 2020, the unemployment rate in South Africa was at its highest in history at 29.1%. During the COVID-19 pandemic to date, unemployment rose even higher to 35.3%. In this context, there has been an increase in the number of unemployed health professionals in South Africa. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the employment rates of newly graduated South African audiologists and identify the challenges in obtaining and maintaining employment for audiologists in South Africa. Methods: A descriptive online survey design was used. Participants were recruited online through professional association webpages using the snowball sampling technique. All qualified audiologists registered with the Health Professionals Council of South Africa were eligible to participate. Results: A total of 132 audiologists completed the survey. In the first-year postgraduation, 16% of the participants were unemployed, and this increased to 19% in the second-year postgraduation. In the majority (81%) of employed participants, almost a fifth (19%) were working within non-audiology/healthcare fields. The most common workplace challenges reported were remuneration (37%) followed by lack of resources (18%), workload (18%), work environment (10%), working hours (9%) and, lastly, interprofessional relationships (8%). Conclusion: Findings from this study are the first to document employment rates amongst South African audiologists. These findings have the potential to influence the critical discourse on hearing healthcare human resource planning, hearing healthcare labour capacity and potential for growth in the South African context post-COVID-19.
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The primary objective of this study was to investigate the self-perceived competencies acquired by humanities graduates at a South African university. This self-assessment enables graduates to assess their strengths and weaknesses regarding their competencies and estimate their employability. The secondary objective was to measure the employment status of humanities graduates. The study followed a quantitative approach using a cross-sectional survey design. The convenience sampling method was used since the self-administered questionnaire was distributed to graduates at two graduation ceremonies. Independent samples t-tests were done to compare the mean scores on the six dimensions of the competencies scale between gender, schools and degrees. Chi-square tests were done to establish whether there are associations between gender, faculty schools, degrees and employment status. Spearman rank-order correlation was performed to measure the correlations between the six factors of the competencies scale. The six individual competencies that scored the highest means were: “(1) tolerance, appreciation of different points of view, (2) written communication skills, (3) critical thinking, (4) English language proficiency, (5) working in a team, and (6) taking responsibility for decisions”. A follow-up study should be done among employers to determine what competencies they require from humanities graduates.
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This paper uses essentialism and human capital theory to argue that South Africa’s public universities are expected to contribute towards the production of national human capital and development. It also uses research output performance, academic staffing profile, and knowledge contributions to critical scientific fields such as mathematics and engineering to demonstrate that South Africa’s public universities have made negligible progress over the past 15 years. The paper deduces that these public universities have not made noticeable inputs to the national human capital development in the specific scientific fields, which the national labour market and economy needs. Instead, South Africa’s public universities’ relatively greater contribution has continued to be in social sciences and humanities when national development required chartered accountants, medical doctors, and engineers. The paper makes a conclusion that all these failures are explicable through the politics that have infiltrated the leadership of South Africa’s public higher education sector and the visionary deficits. As a recommendation, the paper notes that remedial measures can only start with the extrication of the public higher education sector from the ruling party and government politicking, which would allow university leadership the necessary ‘academic freedom’ to ensure that these institutions focus on the essentialist approaches.
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