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Using Aquaponic, Hydroponic and Aeroponis systems for gladiolus production

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The main objective of this research is to study the effect of source of nutrients and water flow rate to know the possibility of producing gladiolus plants depending on the nutrients existing in effluent fish farm as compared with the gladiolus production using standard nutrient solutions. To achieve that was studied the effect of source of nutrients (effluent fish water and nutrient solution), flow rate (1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 l h-1 in hydroponic system and of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 l h-1 in aeroponic system) on the following parameters: plant height, mean length of a spike and nitrate content in plant. The obtained results indicated that the plant height increased in effluent fish farm over those of nutrient solution. The plant height was increased with increasing the flow rate. The mean length of a spike increased in effluent fish farm over those of nutrient solution. The mean length of a spike was increased with increasing the flow rate. The nitrate content significantly increased in effluent fish farm over those of nutrient solution. The nitrate content decreased with increasing the flow rate.
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Middle East Journal of Agriculture
Research
ISSN 2077-4605
Volume : 07 | Issue : 04 | Oct.-Dec. | 2018
Pages:1885-1894
Corresponding Author: Agina Effat A., Hort. Dept., Fac. Agric., Benha University, Egypt.
1885
Using Aquaponic, Hydroponic and Aeroponic systems for gladiolus production
Agina Effat A., Mohamed S.M., Ali S.A. and L.A. EL-Khayat
Hort. Dept., Fac. Agric., Benha University, Egypt.
Received: 10 May 2018 / Accepted 26 June 2018 / Publication date: 30 Dec. 2018
ABSTRACT
This investigation was carried out during successive season of 2016 in the Experiment station
of Horticulture Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Benha University. The main objective of this
research is to study the effect of source of nutrients and water flow rate to know the possibility of
producing gladiolus plants depending on the nutrients existing in effluent fish farm as compared with
the gladiolus production using standard nutrient solutions. To achieve that was studied the effect of
source of nutrients (effluent fish water and nutrient solution), flow rate (1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 l h-1 in
hydroponic system and of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 l h-1 in aeroponic system) on the following parameters:
plant height, mean length of a spike and nitrate content in plant. The obtained results indicated that the
plant height increased in effluent fish farm over those of nutrient solution. The plant height was
increased with increasing the flow rate. The mean length of a spike increased in effluent fish farm
over those of nutrient solution. The mean length of a spike was increased with increasing the flow
rate. The nitrate content significantly increased in effluent fish farm over those of nutrient solution.
The nitrate content decreased with increasing the flow rate.
Keywords: Aquaponic, Aquaculture, Hydroponic, Aeroponic, gladiolus.
Introduction
Gladiolus is one of the world’s leading floral crops and remains highly popular as their
beautiful inflorescences are available in an array of colours (Katoch et al., 2003; Aebig et al., 2005).
Gladiolus is the largest genus of the family Iridaceae, comprised of some 255 species, which are
found in Africa, Europe and the Middle East (Williams et al., 1986; Takatsu et al., 2001). Gladiolus
and other tall geophytes have traditionally been used for cut-flower production or garden subjects
(Caixeta-Filho et al., 2000).
Many studies of commercial-scale hydroponic, aeroponics and aquaponics production showed
the potential positives role for those new technologies in the sustainable food security. Those
agricultural farming systems could be one sustainable alternative to provide different type of produces
that it requires less water, less fertilizer and less space which will increase the yield per unit area
(AlShrouf, 2017).
Aquaponic is the combined culture of fish and plants in recirculation systems. Nutrients, which
are excreted directly by the fish or generated by the microbial breakdown of organic wastes, are
absorbed by plants cultured hydroponically. Fish feed provides most of the nutrients required for plant
growth. As the aquaculture effluent flows through the hydroponic component of the recirculation
system, fish waste metabolites are removed by nitrification and direct uptake by the plants, thereby
treating the water, which flows back to the fish-rearing component for reuse (Turkmen and Guner,
2010).
Hydroponics is growing plants without soil (Dan, 2007), or defined as the science of growing
plants using a solution of suitable nutrients instead of soil (Hydroponics Gardening Information,
2007). Plants in hydroponics grow up to two times faster with higher yields than with conventional
soil farming methods due to high oxygen levels to the root system, optimum pH levels for increased
nutrient and water uptake and optimum balanced and high grade nutrient solutions (Anonymous,
2007; Ghazvini et al., 2007; Infoplease, 2007; ShamanShop, 2007).
Aeroponics is a plant culture technique in which mechanically supported plant roots are either
continuously or periodically misted with nutrient solution (Barak et al., 1996). It is actually a
subgroup of hydroponics. The international union of soil-less culture defines aeroponics as a system
where roots are continuously or discontinuously in an environment saturated with fine drops (a mist or
Middle East J. Agric. Res., 7(4): 1885-1894, 2018
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aerosol) of nutrient solution (Nugali et al., 2005). The basic principle of aeroponics is to grow plants
in a closed or semi-closed environment by spraying the plant's roots with a nutrient rich solution
(Mbiyu et al., 2012).
Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fish have an ability to withstand a wide range of
environmental stresses, reproduce easily, have an early sexual maturity (Ross, 2000), and currently
have success in integrated agriculture–aquaculture systems (Rakocy, 1997). Tilapia are a rich source
of protein (20.08 g 100 g-1) and energy (96 kcal 100 g-1) with a high moisture content (78.08 g 100 g-1)
(USDA, 2005).
The objective of this study was to examine the possibility of culturing gladiolus in hydroponic
and aeroponic system with integrated culture of tilapia fish comparison with nutrient solution to
increase the flower production in a limited space and determine the growth of gladiolus plants.
Materials and Methods
This investigation was carried out during successive season of 2016 in the Experiment station
of Horticulture Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Benha University.
Gladiolus corms were sown on 18/4/2016 in peat moss on the pots (5cm diameter and 5cm
height). The pots were watered daily using water with (Hoagland and Arnon, 1950) solution. The
small plants remained in the nursery until 19/6 /2016 then they were removed carefully and settled in
the experimental tanks.
1. System Description
Figure (1) and figure (2) illustrates the design of the experimental.
Fig. 1: The experimental set up which the source of solution used the water discharged from the fish
farm.
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Fig. 2: The experimental set up which the source of solution used the stock nutrient solution.
2. Fish breeding
Nile tilapia fingerlings (Oreochromis niloticus), were purchased from a commercial hatchery
located in Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt. The experimental fish were apparently healthy. They
were carefully transferred to the lab and kept for a conditioning period of 14 days. A total number of
200 tilapia fingerlings with an average body weight of 15± 0. 08 g/fish were stocked in the
experimental units at a rate of 200 fish/tank (100 fish /m3). Tilapia fingerlings were additionally fed a
commercial diet with 30% of crude protein at a rate of 3% of total biomass per day.
Table 1: Chemical composition of the experimental diet:
%
Feed ingredients
16 Fish meal
28 Yellow corn
40 Soybean meal
10.5 Wheat bran
2.5 Vegetable oil
3 Vitamin- mineral premix (1)
100 Sum
Chemical analysis (%) of the basal diet on dry matter basis
92.56 Dry Matter ( DM )
4.44 Ether Extract ( EE )
30.18 Crude protein ( CP )
9.33 Crude Fiber
10.12 Ash
45.93 NFE
4766.55 Gross Energy (kcal/ kg diet )
3. Nutrient solution
Nutrient solution is circulated in closed system. The tank of the nutrient solution system 500 liter
capacity was used for collecting of drained solution by gravity from the end of the units. The amount
of chemicals used in the second system as described by (Hoagland and Arnon 1950).
Two sources of solution were used
A. Stock nutrient solution.
B. Water discharged from the fish farm.
- Intermittent flow (15 minute "on" and 15 minute "off") as described by (Benoit and Ceustemans,
1989).
Experiment was devoted to study the comparison between water discharged from the fish farm
and stock nutrient solution and their effect on plant growth in hydroponic system and aeroponic
system with different flow rates on gladiolus plants production.
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Three water flow rates 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 L plant-1h-1 were used in hydroponic system (adjusted by
calibration) , three water flow rates 0.5, 1.0 and 1,5 L plant-1h-1 were used in aeroponic system The
treatments were arranged in randomize complete block design in three replications.
Table 2: Chemical composition of Hoagland and Arnon solution.
Mass mgl-1
Formula Chemical
136.0 KH2PO4
Potassium dihydrogen phosphate
505.0 KNO3
Potassium nitrate
1180.0 Ca(NO3)2.4H2O
Calcium nitrate
492.0 MgSO4.7H2O
Magnesium sulfate
40.0 Fe-EDDHA
Iron chelates
1.81 MnCl2.4H2O
Manganese chloride
0.22 ZnSO4.7H2O
Zinc sulfate
0.08 CuSO45H2O
Copper sulfate
2.86 H3BO3
Boric acid
0.02 H2MoO4.H2O
Molybdic acid
Statistical Analysis
The data were statistically analyzed using MSTAT-C software. The mean comparisons among
treatments were determined by New Least Significance Differences (New L.S.D) at 5% level of
probability (Snedecor and Cochran, 1982).
Results and Discussion
1. Vegetative growth parameters:
1.1. Plant height
Data presented in Table (3) show the effect sources of nutrient and flow rates on plant height of
gladiolus plants on hydroponic and aeroponic system. The highest value of 89.00 cm on hydroponic
system was obtained at a flow rate of 2.0 l/h, while the lowest value of 82.67 cm was obtained at a
flow rate of 1.0 l/h in nutrient solution. On the other hand, the highest value of 91.33 cm was found at
a flow rate of 2.0 l/h, while the lowest value of 87.67 cm was found at a flow rate 1.0 L/h in water
discharged from the fish farm. On aeroponic system the highest value of 90.33 cm was obtained at a
flow rate of 1.5 l/h, while the lowest value of 86.00 cm was obtained at a flow rate of 0.5 l/h in
nutrient solution. On the other hand, the highest value of 93.00 cm was found at a flow rate of 1.5 l/h,
while the lowest value of 86.00 cm was found at a flow rate of 0.5 l/h in water discharged from the
fish farm. The plant height was increased with increasing the flow rate.
1.2. Number of leaves per plant
Data presented in Table (3) show the effect of sources of nutrient and flow rates on number of
leaves per plant of gladiolus on hydroponic and aeroponic system. The highest value of 5.67 on
hydroponic system was obtained at a flow rate of 2.0 l/h, while the lowest value of 5.00 was obtained
at a flow rate of 1.0 l/h in nutrient solution. On the other hand, the highest value of 6.33 was found at
a flow rate of 2.0 l/h, while the lowest value of 5.33 was found at a flow rate of 1.0 l/h in water
discharged from the fish farm. On aeroponic system the highest value of 7.67 was obtained at a flow
rate of 1.5 l/h, while the lowest value of 6.00 was obtained at a flow rate of 0.5 l/h in nutrient solution.
On the other hand, the highest value of 7.67 was found at a flow rate of 1.5 l/h, while the lowest value
of 6.33 was found at a flow rate 0.5 l/h in water discharged from the fish farm.
1.3. Mean length of a leaf
Data presented in Table (3) show the effect sources of nutrient and flow rates on mean length of
a leaf of gladiolus on hydroponic and aeroponic system. The highest value of 49.67 cm on hydroponic
system was obtained at a flow rate of 2.0 l/h, while the lowest value of 45.33 cm was obtained at a
flow rate of 1.0 l/h in nutrient solution. On the other hand, the highest value of 51.67 cm was found at
a flow rate of 2.0 l/h, while the lowest value of 48.00 cm was found at a flow rate of 1.0 l/h in water
discharged from the fish farm. On aeroponic system the highest value of length of a leaf (52.00 cm)
was obtained at a flow rate of 1.5 l/h, while the lowest value of length of a leaf (47.67 cm) was
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obtained at a flow rate of 0.5 l/h in nutrient solution. On the other hand, the highest value of length of
a leaf (56.00 cm) was found at a flow rate of 1.5 l/h, while the lowest value of length of a leaf (50.33
cm) was found at a flow rate of 0.5 l/h in water discharged from the fish farm.
1.4. Fresh weight of leaves
Data presented in Table (3) show the effect of sources of nutrient and flow rates on fresh
weight of leaves of gladiolus on hydroponic and aeroponic system. The highest value of 23.00 gm. on
hydroponic system was obtained at a flow rate of 2.0 l/h, while the lowest value of 21.33 gm. was
obtained at a flow rate of 1.0 l/h in nutrient solution. On the other hand, the highest value of 26.33 gm.
was found at a flow rate of 2.0 l/h., while, the lowest value of 22.33 gm. was found at a flow rate of
1.0 l/h in water discharged from the fish farm. On aeroponic system the highest value of 26.33 gm.
was obtained at a flow rate of 1.5 l/h, while the lowest value of 23.33 gm. was obtained at a flow rate
of 0.5 l/h in nutrient solution. On the other hand, the highest value of 28.67 gm. was found at a flow
rate of 1.5 l/h, while the lowest value of 25.33 gm. was found at a flow rate 0.5 l/h in water discharged
from the fish farm.
1.5. Dry weight of leaves
Data presented in Table (3) show the effect of sources of nutrient and flow rates on dry weight
of leaves of gladiolus plants on hydroponic and aeroponic system. The highest value of 5.63 gm. on
hydroponic system was obtained at a flow rate of 2.0 l/h, while the lowest value of 5.23 gm. was
obtained at a flow rate of 1.0 l/h in nutrient solution. On the other hand, the highest value of 5.83 gm.
was found at a flow rate of 2.0 l/h, while the lowest value of 5.37 gm. was found at a flow rate of 1.0
l/h in water discharged from the fish farm. On aeroponic system the highest value of 5.97 gm. was
obtained at a flow rate of 1.5 l/h, while the lowest value of 5.73 gm. was obtained at a flow rate of 0.5
l/h in nutrient solution. On the other hand, the highest value of 6.33 gm. was found at a flow rate of
1.5 l/h, while the lowest value of 5.87 gm. was found at a flow rate of 0.5 l/h in water discharged from
the fish farm.
Table 3: Effect of sources of nutrient and flow rates on some vegetative growth parameters of
gladiolus plants in hydroponic and aeroponic system.
Dry weight of
leaves (gm.)
Fresh weight
of leaves
(gm.)
Mean length
of a leaf (cm)
Number of
leaves per
plant
Plant
height
(cm)
5.23 21.33 45.33 5.00 82.67 1.0
Flow rate l/h
Nutrient
solution
Hydroponic
system
5.27 22.00 47.67 5.33 85.67 1.5
5.63 23.00 49.67 5.67 89.00 2.0
5.37 22.33 48.00 5.33 87.67 1.0
Water fish
farm 5.50 24.67 51.67 6.00 88.67 1.5
5.83 26.33 51.67 6.33 91.33 2.0
5.73 23.33 47.67 6.00 86.00 0.5
Nutrient
solution
Aeroponic
system
5.73 24.67 50.33 7.00 88.00 1.0
5.97 26.33 52.00 7.67 90.33 1.5
5.87 25.33 50.33 6.33 86.00 0.5
Water fish
farm 5.97 27.33 53.00 7.33 91.67 1.0
6.33 28.67 56.00 7.67 93.00 1.5
2. Flowering growth parameters
2.1. Number of florets per spike
Data presented in Table (4) show the effect sources of nutrient and flow rates on number of
florets per spike of gladiolus on hydroponic and aeroponic system. The highest value of 9.00 on
hydroponic system was obtained at a flow rate of 2.0 l/h, while the lowest value of 8.33 was obtained
at a flow rate of 1.0 l/h in nutrient solution. On the other hand, the highest value of 12.67 was found
at a flow rate of 2.0 l/h, while the lowest value of 10.00 was found at a flow rate 1.0 l/h in water
discharged from the fish farm. On aeroponic system the highest value of 7.33 was obtained at a flow
rate of 1.5 l/h, while the lowest value of 5.33 was obtained at a flow rate of 0.5 l/h in nutrient solution.
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On the other hand, the highest value of 8.00 was found at a flow rate of 1.5 l/h, while the lowest value
of 5.67 was found at a flow rate of 0.5 l/h in water discharged from the fish farm.
2.2. Mean length of a spike
Data presented in Table (4) clarify the effect of sources of nutrient and flow rates on mean
length of a spike of gladiolus on hydroponic and aeroponic system. The highest value of 61.33 cm on
hydroponic system was obtained at a flow rate of 2.0 l/h, while the lowest value of 55.00 cm was
obtained at a flow rate of 1.0 l/h in nutrient solution. On the other hand, the highest value of 64.00 cm
was found at a flow rate of 2.0 l/h, while the lowest value of 62.67 cm was found at a flow rate 1.0 l/h
in water discharged from the fish farm. On aeroponic system the highest value of 63.67cm was
obtained at a flow rate of 1.5 l/h, while the lowest value of 57.00cm was obtained at a flow rate of 0.5
l/h in nutrient solution. On the other hand, the highest value of 66.33cm was found at a flow rate of
1.5 l/h, while the lowest value of 64.67cm was found at a flow rate of 0.5 l/h in water discharged from
the fish farm.
Table 4: Effect of sources of nutrient and flow rates on some flowering growth parameters of
gladiolus plants in hydroponic and aeroponic system.
Number of
days to first
flower
opening
Dry
weight of
florets
(gm.)
Fresh
weight of
florets
(gm.)
Mean
length of a
spike (cm)
Number
of florets
per spike
60.00 1.60 9.60 55.00 8.33 1.0
Flow rate l/h
Nutrient solution
Hydroponic
system
63.00 2.03 10.23 57.33 8.33 1.5
65.33 2.17 11.07 61.33 9.00 2.0
62.67 2.50 11.13 62.67 10.00 1.0
Water fish farm 64.67 2.70 11.57 63.00 11.00 1.5
68.00 2.90 12.20 64.00 12.67 2.0
63.33 2.20 10.00 57.00 5.33 0.5
Nutrient solution
Aeroponic
system
64.67 2.27 10.67 60.33 6.33 1.0
67.67 2.47 11.40 63.67 7.33 1.5
62.00 2.70 11.53 64.67 5.67 0.5
Water fish farm 64.67 2.90 11.90 64.67 6.67 1.0
68.33 3.17 12.47 66.33 8.00 1.5
2.3. Fresh weight of florets
Data presented in Table (4) explain the effect of sources of nutrient and flow rates on fresh
weight of florets of gladiolus on hydroponic and aeroponic system. The highest value of 11.07 gm. on
hydroponic system was obtained at a flow rate of 2.0 l/h, while the lowest value of 9.60 gm. was
obtained at a flow rate of 1.0 l/h in nutrient solution. On the other hand, the highest value of 12.20 gm.
was found at a flow rate of 2.0 l/h, while the lowest value of 11.13 gm. was found at a flow rate 1.0
l/h in water discharged from the fish farm .On aeroponic system the highest value of 11.40 gm. was
obtained at a flow rate of 1.5 l/h, while the lowest value of 10.00 gm. was obtained at a flow rate of
0.5 l/h in nutrient solution. On the other hand, the highest value of 12.47 gm. was found at a flow rate
of 1.5 l/h, while the lowest value of 11.53 gm. was found at a flow rate 0.5 l/h in water discharged
from the fish farm .
2.4. Dry weight of florets
Data presented in Table (4) represent the effect of sources of nutrient and flow rates on dry
weight of florets of gladiolus plants on hydroponic and aeroponic system. The highest value of 2.17
gm. on hydroponic system was obtained at a flow rate of 2.0 l/h, while the lowest value of 1.60 gm.
was obtained at a flow rate of 1.0 L/h in nutrient solution. On the other hand, the highest value of
2.90 gm. was found at a flow rate of 2.0 l/h, while the lowest value of 2.50 gm. was found at a flow
rate of 1.0 l/h in water discharged from the fish farm. On aeroponic system the highest value of 2.47
gm. was obtained at a flow rate of 1.5 l/h, while the lowest value of 2.20 gm. was obtained at a flow
rate of 0.5 l/h in nutrient solution. On the other hand, the highest value of 3.17 gm. was found at a
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flow rate of 1.5 l/h, while the lowest value of 2.70 gm. was found at a flow rate of 0.5 l/h in water
discharged from the fish farm .
2.5. Number of days to first flower opening
Data presented in Table (4) show the effect of sources of nutrient and flow rates on number of
days to first flower opening of gladiolus plants on hydroponic and aeroponic system. The highest
value of 65.33 on hydroponic system was obtained at a flow rate of 2.0 l/h, while the lowest value of
60.00 was obtained at a flow rate of 1.0 l/h in nutrient solution. On the other hand, the highest value
of 68.00 was found at a flow rate of 2.0 l/h, while the lowest value of 62.67 was found at a flow rate
1.0 l/h in water discharged from the fish farm. On aeroponic system the highest value of 67.67 was
obtained at a flow rate of 1.5 l/h, while the lowest value of 63.33 was obtained at a flow rate of 0.5
L/h in nutrient solution. On the other hand, the highest value of 68.33 was found at a flow rate of 1.5
l/h. While, the lowest value of 62.00 was found at a flow rate 0.5 l/h in water discharged from the fish
farm.
3. Chemical composition parameters
3.1. Total nitrogen percentage
Data presented in Table (5) show the effect of sources of nutrient and flow rates on total
nitrogen percentage of gladiolus plants on hydroponic and aeroponic system. The highest value of
2.13 % on hydroponic system was obtained at a flow rate of 2.0 l/h, while the lowest value of 1.99 %
was obtained at a flow rate of 1.0 l/h in nutrient solution. On the other hand, the highest value of 2.25
% was found at a flow rate of 2.0 l/h, while the lowest value of 2.06 % was found at a flow rate of 1.0
l/h in water discharged from the fish farm. . On aeroponic system the highest value of 2.62% was
obtained at a flow rate of 1.5 l/h, while the lowest value of 2.42% was obtained at a flow rate of 0.5
l/h in nutrient solution. On the other hand, the highest value of 2.59% was found at a flow rate of 1.5
l/h. While, the lowest value of 2.47% was found at a flow rate of 0.5 l/h in water discharged from the
fish farm.
3.2. Total phosphorus percentage
Data presented in Table (5) represent the effect of sources of nutrient and flow rates on total
phosphorus percentage of gladiolus plants on hydroponic and aeroponic system. The highest value of
0.469 % on hydroponic system was obtained at a flow rate of 2.0 l/h, while the lowest value of 0.275
% was obtained at a flow rate of 1.0 l/h in nutrient solution. On the other hand, the highest value of
0.453 % was found at a flow rate of 2.0 l/h, while the lowest value of 0.290 % was found at a flow
rate of 1.0 l/h in water discharged from the fish farm. On aeroponic system the highest value of
0.478% was obtained at a flow rate of 1.5 l/h, while the lowest value of 0.291% was obtained at a
flow rate of 0.5 l/h in nutrient solution. On the other hand, the highest value of 0.490% was found at a
flow rate of 1.5 l/h, while the lowest value of 0.283% was found at a flow rate 0.5 l/h in water
discharged from the fish farm.
3.3. Total potassium percentage
Data presented in Table (5) show the effect of sources of nutrient and flow rates on total
potassium percentage of gladiolus plants on hydroponic and aeroponic system. The highest value of
2.48 % on hydroponic system was obtained at a flow rate of 2.0 l/h, while the lowest value of 2.13 %
was obtained at a flow rate of 1.0 l/h in nutrient solution. On the other hand, the highest value of 2.49
% was found at a flow rate of 2.0 L/h. While, the lowest value of 2.16 % was found at a flow rate of
1.0 l/h in water discharged from the fish farm .On aeroponic system the highest value of 2.48% was
obtained at a flow rate of 1.5 l/h, while the lowest value of 2.02% was obtained at a flow rate of 0.5
l/h in nutrient solution. On the other hand, the highest value of 2.53% was found at a flow rate of 1.5
l/h, while the lowest value of 2.15% was found at a flow rate of 0.5 l/h in water discharged from the
fish farm.
3.4. Nitrate content
Data presented in Table (5) illustrate the nitrate content in gladiolus plants grown on
hydroponic system at sources of nutrient and different flow rates at the end of growing period. The
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nitrate was decreased with increasing the flow rate. The nitrate decreased from 113.00 to 108.33
mg.plant-1 in nutrient solution and decreased from 120.67 to 115.33 mg.plant-1 in water discharged
from the fish farm at 1.0 and 2 l/h flow rate, respectively. The rate of nitrate content was more in
water discharged from the fish farm (118.22 mg/plant) than in nutrient solution (110.44 mg/plant). On
aeroponic system at different flow rates at the end of growing period. The nitrate was decreased with
increasing the flow rate. The nitrate decreased from 153.67 to 144.00 mg.plant-1 in nutrient solution
and decreased from 157.67 to 154.33 mg.plant-1 in water discharged from the fish farm at 0.5 and 1.5
L/h flow rate, respectively. The rate of nitrate content was more in water discharged from the fish
farm (155.79mg/plant) than in nutrient solution (148.56 mg/plant).
3.5. Nitrate / protein ratio in plant
Data presented in Table (5) represent the nitrate / protein ratio in plant by gladiolus plants on
hydroponic system grown at sources of nutrient and different flow rates at the end of growing period.
The NO3/protein ratio was increased with increasing the flow rate. The NO3/protein ratio increased
from 8.52 to 8.68% in nutrient solution and increased from 8.53 to 9.03% in water discharged from
the fish farm at 1.0 and 2.0 l/h flow rate, respectively. The rate of nitrate / protein ratio was more in
water discharged from the fish farm (8.78%) than in nutrient solution (8.61%). On aeroponic system
the NO3/protein ratio was increased with increasing the flow rate. The NO3/protein ratio increased
from 9.39 to 9.23% in nutrient solution and increased from 9.79 to 10.02% in water discharged from
the fish farm at 0.5 and 1.5 l/h flow rate, respectively. The rate of the nitrate / protein ratio was more
in water discharged from the fish farm (9.86%) than in nutrient solution (9.51%).
Table 5: Effect of sources of nutrient and flow rates on Chemical composition parameters of
gladiolus plants in hydroponic and aeroponic system.
The
NO3/protein
ratio
Nitrate
content
(mg/plant)
Total
potassium
percentage
Total
phosphorus
percentage
Total
nitrogen
percentage
8.52 113.00 2.13 0.275 1.99 1.0
Flow rate l/h
Nutrient
solution
Hydroponic
system
8.62 110.00 2.35 0.341 2.04 1.5
8.68 108.33 2.48 0.469 2.13 2.0
8.53 120.67 2.16 0.290 2.06 1.0
Water
fish
farm
8.76 118.67 2.38 0.375 2.21 1.5
9.03 115.33 2.49 0.453 2.25 2.0
9.39 153.67 2.02 0.291 2.42 0.5
Nutrient
solution
Aeroponic
system
9.61 148.00 2.42 0.369 2.47 1.0
9.53 144.00 2.48 0.478 2.62 1.5
9.76 157.67 2.15 0.283 2.47 0.5
Water
fish
farm
9.79 155.33 2.47 0.382 2.54 1.0
10.02 154.33 2.53 0.490 2.69 1.5
As for the explanation of the enhancing aquaponics is the integration of recirculating
aquaculture and hydroponics in one production system. In an aquaponic unit, water from the fish tank
cycles through filters, plant grow beds and then back to the fish. In the filters, the fish wastes are
removed from the water, first using a mechanical filter that removes the solid waste and then through
a biofilter that processes the dissolved wastes. The biofilter provides a location for bacteria to convert
ammonia, which is toxic for fish, into nitrate, a more accessible nutrient for plants. This process is
called nitrification. As the water (containing nitrate and other nutrients) travels through plant grow
beds the plants uptake these nutrients, and finally the water returns to the fish tank purified. This
process allows the fish, plants, and bacteria to thrive symbiotically and to work together to create a
healthy growing environment for each other, provided that the system is properly balanced.
In aquaponics, the aquaculture effluent is diverted through plant beds and not released to the
environment, while at the same time the nutrients for the plants are supplied from a sustainable, cost-
effective and non-chemical source. This integration removes some of the unsustainable factors of
running aquaculture and hydroponic systems independently. Beyond the benefits derived by this
integration, aquaponics has shown that its plant and fish productions are comparable with hydroponics
and recirculating aquaculture systems. Aquaponics can be more productive and economically feasible
Middle East J. Agric. Res., 7(4): 1885-1894, 2018
ISSN: 2077-4605
1893
in certain situations, especially where land and water are limited. However, aquaponics is complicated
and requires substantial start-up costs. The increased production must compensate for the higher
investment costs needed to integrate the two systems. Before committing to a large or expensive
system, a full business plan considering economic, environmental, social and logistical aspects should
be conducted (Somerville et al., 2014).
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Article
Aquaponics, a combination of aquaculture and hydroponics, is a potential solution for the consequences of global warming and eventual food meagreness. Aquaponics is known to be an efficient method to deal with the wastewater problem associated with aquaculture and nutrient management issues in the hydroponic discipline. However, optimizing the process condition for aquaponics is frequently ambiguous and is often not economically feasible. Farmers face many constraints in maintaining the process. The main reason for this could be the limited scientific knowledge of various aspects of aquaponics. Through this review, we would like to put a limelight on various critical concerns that could be problematic to beginners in aquaponic farming. These could be from choosing the appropriate design of the system to thriving plants free of diseases. Henceforth, we identified research opportunities that have the potential to fill scientific gaps in this field. Our findings suggest that aquaponics could emerge as the future of agriculture if the discussed challenges are addressed appropriately.
Article
Full-text available
Most growing media for strawberries in soilless culture are peat moss, rockwool, coir, perlite or some other mixtures. Clinoptilolitic-zeolite as a cheap substrate may be replaced with commercial substrates due to high buffering and cation exchange capacity (CEC), retaining and releasing K and NH 4 ions. The effects of five different media based on 1:0, 3:1, 1:1, 1:3, 0:1 v/v of perlite and zeolite were evaluated on quantity and quality of strawberry (Fragaria ananassa cv. Camarosa) fruits in soilless culture. Plants were fertilized by nutrient solution containing macro and micronutrients at EC 0.9 -1.4 dS m -1 , pH 5.8. Perlite/zeolite (P/Z) substrates 3:1 and 1:1 ratio (v/v) produced the highest fruit number per plant with 22.23 and 23.05 fruits, respectively, while zeolite alone showed the lowest fruit number. In addition, the greatest crown per plant and fruits yields were recorded on media P/Z 3:1 and 1:1 ratio, while number of flowers, fruits, fruit weight and yield/plant decreased on P/Z 1:3 ratio. Analysis of fruits indicated that highest dry weight (10.23%) total soluble solids (TSS), titrable acids (TA) and their highest ratio (10.57) were measured on P medium, whereas the highest TA was noted on Z and P/Z 1:3 ratio. The amounts of TA on P and mixtures of P/Z at 3:1 and 1:1 ratios showed no significant differences.
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A survey of 255 species from 57 genera representing all the tribes in the Iridaceae has indicated considerable heterogeneity in the distribution of flavonoids and other phenolics in the leaves. Thus the Iridoideae and Tigrideae can be distinguished from other tribes by the regular presence of mangiferin, whereas the Trimezieae and Sisyrincheae can be separated by the absence of flavonols. Again, the Aristeae and Nivenieae are distinguished by the presence of plumbagin, although this quinone does occur in isolated instances in two other tribes. These two tribes also rarely have glycoflavones, which are otherwise almost universally present. Members of the Watsonieae are separated by the fact that only flavonols are present, while the Ixieae have a number of distinctive flavones, notably tricin, acacetin, 6-hydroxyluteolin and scutellarein derivatives. Isophysis tasmanica, the only taxon of the Isophysidoideae, is unusual in having the biflavonoids, amentoflavone and dihydroamentoflavone, with only traces of glycosylflavones. Anthocyanin patterns in the flowers also vary at the tribal level, with acylated pigments being apparently confined to the Irideae. Syringetin, larycitrin and myricetin 3-galactosides were identified in flowers of Gladiolus tristis (Ixieae), whereas glycoflavones were found to predominate in flowers of Iris species (Irideae). These varying patterns may be helpful in placing uncertain genera into their correct tribes. The phenolic pattern of the family as a whole is heterogeneous and shows only a few chemical links with any neighbouring families.
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Mathematical modeling structure was developed to support representative Brazilian bulb growing and trading company’s decision making process, during the Gladiolus production planning activity. The pertinent LP model was focused on client’s bulb requests to be attended and showed interesting results (e.g., profit maximization and suggestions for optimal combinations of types of bulblet and spacing to be planted).
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We obtained information on the genetic relationship in wild Gladiolus species through randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Out of the 140 tested primers, 32 amplified a total of 133 RAPD bands in 33 Gladiolus species. The genetic distance was calculated from the data of these RAPDs, and a dendrogram was generated. Interspecific crosses were carried out in seven combinations within or between clusters, and F1 seedlings were obtained from most combinations. The RAPD analysis showed that these F1 seedlings were real hybrids. The results suggest that RAPD markers are useful for detecting genetic relationships in Gladiolus species, and for interspecific crosses in breeding programs.
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Aeroponics, a soil-less plant culture system in which fresh nutrient solutions are intermittently or continuously misted on to plant roots, is capable of sustaining plant growth for extended periods of time while maintaining a constantly refreshed nutrient solution. Although used relatively extensively in commercial installations and in root physiology research, use of aeroponics in nutrient studies is rare. The object of this study was to examine whether nutrient uptake rates could be calculated for aeroponic systems by difference using measurements of concentrations and volumes of input and efflux solutions. Data were collected from an experiment with cranberry plants (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait. cv. Stevens) cultured aeroponically with nutrient solutions containing various concentrations of ammonium-N and isotopically labelled nitrate-N. Validation of the calculated uptake rates was sought by: (1) evaluating charge balance of the solutions and total ion uptake (including proton efflux) and (2) comparison with N-isotope measurements. Charge balance and proton efflux calculations required use of chemical modelling of the solutions to determine speciation of dissolved phosphate and acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC). The results show that charge balance requirements were acceptably satisfied for individual solution analyses and for total ion uptake when proton efflux was included. Relative rates of nitrate/ammonium uptake determined by difference were in agreement with those determined by isotopic techniques. Additional information was easily obtained from this experimental technique, including evidence of diurnal variation in nutrient uptake, correlation between ammonium uptake and proton efflux, and the relationship between ion concentration and uptake. Use of aeroponic systems for non-destructive measurement of water and ion uptake rates for numerous other species and nutrients appears promising.
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A new method of inoculation of gladiolus with cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) was developed using the Bio-Rad Helios Gene Gun System. This method circumvents the traditional use of aphids to transmit CMV, a virus that is mechanically transmissible to many plant species but only with difficulty to gladiolus. Cartridges containing virus-coated gold microcarriers were prepared and the virus shot into Nicotianabenthamiana leaves and gladiolus corms and cormels. The biolistic procedure successfully transmitted three CMV isolates, two from serogroup I and one from serogroup II. Survival rates of two cultivars of gladiolus cormels and corms in sterile and non-sterile environments were compared. Infection rates of 100% were obtained when as little as 2 microg of virus was used in cartridge preparation. CMV remained viable after the cartridges were stored for many months at 4 degrees C.
Hydroponics, Aeroponic and Aquaponic as Compared with Conventional Farming
  • A Alshrouf
AlShrouf, A., 2017. Hydroponics, Aeroponic and Aquaponic as Compared with Conventional Farming. Abu Dhabi Food Control Authority, R & D Division, AlAin, UAE. American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) ISSN (Print) 2313-4410, ISSN (Online) 2313-4402.