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Abstract

The lack of economic information for management of longleaf pine, a forest type that once dominated the landscape in the southeastern United States, can be a major barrier to landowners to planting this species. This study compares the economic performance of even-aged longleaf pine with loblolly pine. We assume that a longleaf pine stand produces timber, water yield, wildlife habitats and pinestraw raking, while a loblolly pine stand is managed exclusively for timber production. For both species, future timber prices are uncertain and harvest decisions will be made following an optimal adaptive harvest strategy. Our findings show that investing in longleaf pine plantations is not generally an economically attractive option compared to loblolly pine for landowners. On average, the land expectation value for loblolly pine is $4610 ha −1 higher than the land expectation value of longleaf pine. Stronger markets for water yield ($0.04-$0.073 k-liter −1) can favor the competitiveness of longleaf over loblolly pine. In the absence of increased payments for water production, landowners require financial incentives between $235-$642 ha −1 over 15 years, to switch from planting loblolly to longleaf pine. When water payments are included ($0.03-$0.0 k-liter −1), incentives between $173-320 ha −1 are required to plant longleaf instead of loblolly pine.

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... Incorporating RCW and carbon benefits did increase the monetary value for longleaf ($1,700/ha) but failed to provide higher financial returns than slash pine ($2,400/ha). While water yield has been part of longleaf pine growth and yield models, only Susaeta and Gong (2019) used water yield benefits with payments for forest products and biodiversity for comparing profits across loblolly and longleaf pines and concluded that water yield benefits would provide higher benefits to landowners for both selected species, but it would still require incentives ranging from $235/ha and $642/ha over 15 years to switch from loblolly to longleaf pine plantations. ...
... Only a few studies study base longleaf pine in the same system as other southern pines, and even fewer studies that focus on the integration of payments of roundwood products and ecosystem services (Alavalapati et al., 2002;Johnsen et al., 2009;Mills and Stiff, 2013;Susaeta and Gong, 2019). It is vital to study the economics of major pine species under the same set of assumptions for informing family forest landowners in Southern United States who own about 60% of total forestlands in the region (Wear and Greis, 2012). ...
... In the baseline scenarios, water yields were relatively higher due to shorter optimal rotation ages. Susaeta and Gong (2019) reported LEVs that ranged between $2,352/ha and $11,195/ha for loblolly pine with water yield, timber, and wildlife income, while Glenn (2012) reported values that ranged between $1,143/ha and $1,494/ha when considering income from timber and wildlife. Our LEVs for loblolly pine with timber, hunting lease, net stored carbon, and water yield income ranged between $1,813 and $4,6259/ha with rotation age ranging between 21 and 25 years. ...
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During the early 1900s, nearly 37 million hectares of land in the Southern United States were under longleaf pine ( Pinus palustris ) relative to the current area of 1.6 million hectares. This study compares the economics of southern pines (longleaf, loblolly ( Pinus taeda ), and slash ( Pinus elliottii )) to facilitate the decision making of family forest landowners and design suitable financial incentives for increasing the area under longleaf pine in the region. We simulated six growth and yield scenarios for selected southern pines over three site indices in the Lower Coastal Plain of South Georgia. We estimated land expectation values (LEVs) of each scenario for the three cases, i.e., payment for forest products, payment for forest products and net carbon storage, and payment for forest products, net carbon storage, and net water yield. Our findings show that pine straw income significantly increases the LEV of longleaf pine. The financial risk of growing longleaf pine is lower than that of other southern pines. Existing financial support through various governmental incentives or additional monetary support for ecosystem services provided by longleaf pine ecosystems is needed to increase the area under longleaf pine in the Southern United States, in general, and in South Georgia, in particular. However, a need exists to reevaluate the conservation values provided by longleaf plantations considering expected shorter rotation ages due to the income provided by pine straw markets in Southern United States.
... Higher quality aquatic and terrestrial habitat and biodiversity values [5,40,41,47] Lower quality aquatic and terrestrial habitat and biodiversity values [5,40,41,47] Timber Less fiber and timber production [6,23,48] More fiber and timber production [6,23,48] Carbon Lower rate of carbon sequestration with lower risk of release due to severe wildfire [40,43] Higher rate of carbon sequestration with higher risk of release due to severe wildfire [40,43] Regarding sustainability, low density LLP stands are also more resilient, with superior fire, insect, disease, and drought resistance [41,43,46,49]. Long leaf pines are somewhat slower growing compared to other southern pines, which affects carbon sequestration rates, but lower risk of tree mortality also means a lower risk of accidental carbon release [6,34,44,46]. ...
... Higher quality aquatic and terrestrial habitat and biodiversity values [5,40,41,47] Lower quality aquatic and terrestrial habitat and biodiversity values [5,40,41,47] Timber Less fiber and timber production [6,23,48] More fiber and timber production [6,23,48] Carbon Lower rate of carbon sequestration with lower risk of release due to severe wildfire [40,43] Higher rate of carbon sequestration with higher risk of release due to severe wildfire [40,43] Regarding sustainability, low density LLP stands are also more resilient, with superior fire, insect, disease, and drought resistance [41,43,46,49]. Long leaf pines are somewhat slower growing compared to other southern pines, which affects carbon sequestration rates, but lower risk of tree mortality also means a lower risk of accidental carbon release [6,34,44,46]. ...
Article
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Private forests in the southeastern US are critical for providing a variety of ecosystem services, including timber production and water resource protection. Restoration of longleaf pine (LLP) forests and savannas tends to enhance some ecosystem services, including water supply, over timber production. A variety of payments for watershed services (PWS) strategies have emerged to address the market failure associated with private forests and public water supply. The nature of these programs suggests that biodiversity protection may be a positive externality, or third-party benefit, to water resource protection. This paper uses a critically engaged research approach and expert interviews to investigate how PWS programs may help prevent land use change and promote LLP restoration. We also offer recommendations on how to sustain emerging efforts to implement PWS strategies while including LLP restoration objectives.
... This study specifically focused on the effects of initial fuel loading on the burning characteristics of loblolly pine needles (Pinus taeda). Loblolly pine needles were selected as the fuel for this study because the range of loblolly pine covers more than 6.3 million ha of the Southeastern United States and more hectares are planted of it each year in the US than any other species [7,8]. The Southeastern United States also has one of the lowest mean fire intervals with fires occurring every two to six years on average [9]. ...
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Wildland fires present a threat to both the environment and to homes and businesses in the wildland urban interface. Understanding the behavior of wildland fires is crucial for developing informed risk management techniques, such as prescribed burning, to prevent uncontrolled fires, which devastate communities globally. In this work, an optically accessible facility was developed combining traditional and optical diagnostic techniques to study the combustion of wildland fuels. This facility was then used to study the burning characteristics of loblolly pine needles (Pinus taeda). Mass loss rate, flame temperature, propagation rate, flame geometry, and OH* chemiluminescent flame intensity were measured for fuel loadings of 0.98, 1.31, and 1.63 kg/m². Mass loss rate increased linearly with fuel loading. The flame propagation rate increased slightly with fuel loading while approaching an asymptotic value. The flame height and surface area increased more significantly with fuel loading, but also approached asymptotic values. Flame depth increased slightly with fuel loading, and throughout the duration of the test. The flame intensity and flame temperature did not change significantly with fuel loading.
... Although prescribed fire reduces the risk of damaging wildfire and promotes forest restoration and wildlife habitat, This study specifically focused on the effects of initial fuel loading on the burning characteristics of loblolly pine straw (Pinus taeda L.). Loblolly pine straw was selected as the fuel for this study because its range covers more than 6.3 million ha of the Southeastern United States and more hectares are planted of it each year in the US than any other species [5,6]. The Southeastern ...
Thesis
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Wildland fires present a threat to both the environment and to homes and businesses in the wildland urban interface. Understanding the behavior of wildland fires is crucial for developing informed risk management techniques, such as prescribed burning, to prevent uncontrolled fires, which devastate communities globally. In this work, an optically accessible facility was developed combining traditional and optical diagnostic techniques to study the combustion of wildland fuels. The developed testing facility was then used to measure the burning characteristics of loblolly pine (\textit{Pinus taeda}) straw. Mass loss rate, flame temperature, propagation rate, flame geometry, chemiluminescent flame intensity, and pollutant emissions from the fire were measured for fuel loadings of 0.98, 1.31, and 1.63~\si{kg/m^2}. Mass loss rate was found to increase with fuel loading. The flame propagation rate was found to increase slightly while approaching an asymptotic value. The flame height increased more significantly with fuel loading, but also approached an asymptotic value. Flame length was found to increase slightly with fuel loading, and throughout the duration of the test. Flame surface area was found to increase linearly with fuel loading, indicating that the flame length may be increasing in a way that compensates for the asymptotic nature of the flame height. The flame intensity and flame temperatures did not change significantly, suggesting they are driven by the chemical kinetics of the pine straw combustion rather than the physical arrangement of the fuel bed. Carbon monoxide emissions were found to increase significantly with fuel loading, while sulfur dioxide increased only slightly, and nitrogen oxides remained near zero. It was concluded that most mass loss is due to flaming combustion in the leading flame front. The results presented here can be used to inform prescribed burning practices to reduce the risk of uncontrolled fire, manage ecosystem health, and as useful validation data for wildland fire modeling codes currently under development.
... Under the no base scenario, we expect ~50,000 hectares of conversion from forest to other land use types, and of the remaining forest, very little is projected to remain in late open conditions due to frequent clear-cutting and dense replanting on private timberlands(Figure 8). Estimates for the types of management occurring on private timberlands and timber values were based onSusaeta and Gong (2019). 8. Projected longleaf pine forest condition classes at Eglin Air Force Base across the current management, no management and no base scenarios in years 2031-2035. ...
Technical Report
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We developed a density management diagram (DMD) for longleaf pine (Pinus palustris P. Mill.) using data from Forest Inventory and Analysis plots. Selection criteria were for purity, defined as longleaf pine basal area (BA) that is 90% or more of plot BA, and even-agedness, as defined by a ratio between two calculations of stand density index. The diagram predicts stand top height (mean of tallest 40 trees/ac) and volume (ft 3/ac) as a function of quadratic mean diameter and stem density (trees/ac). In this DMD we introduce a "mature stand boundary" that, as a model of stand dynamics, restricts the size-density relationship in large-diameter stands more than the expected self-thinning trajectory. The DMD is unbiased by geographic area and therefore should be applicable throughout the range of longleaf pine. The DMD is intended for use in even-aged stands, but may be used for uneven-aged management where a large-group selection system is used. Use of the diagram is illustrated by development of density management regimes intended to create and maintain stand structure desirable for the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis).
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The field of forest economics has expanded rapidly in the last two decades, and yet there exists no up-to-date textbook for advanced undergraduate-graduate level use or rigorous reference work for professionals. Economics of Forest Resources fills these gaps, offering a comprehensive technical survey of the field with special attention to recent developments regarding policy instrument choice and uncertainty. It covers all areas in which mathematical models have been used to explain forest owner and user incentives and government behavior, introducing the reader to the rigor needed to think through the consequences of policy instruments. Technically difficult concepts are presented with a unified and progressive approach; an appendix outlines the basic concepts from calculus needed to understand the models and results developed. The book first presents the historical and classic models that every student or researcher in forest economics must know, including Faustmann and Hartman approaches, public goods, spatial interdependence, two period life-cycle models, and overlapping generations problems. It then discusses topics including policy instrument choice, deforestation, biodiversity conservation, and age class based forest modeling. Finally, it surveys such advanced topics as uncertainty in two-period models, catastrophic risk, stochastic control problems, deterministic optimal control, and stochastic and deterministic dynamic programming approaches. Boxes with empirical content illustrating applications of the theoretical material appear throughout. Each chapter is self-contained, allowing the reader, student, or instructor to use the text according to individual needs.
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A three-way treatment design is used to compare contingent valuation response formats. Respondents are asked to value an endangered species (the red-cockaded woodpecker) and the restoration of its habitat following a natural disaster. For three question formats (open-ended, payment card, and double-bounded dichotomous choice), differences in survey response rates, item non-response rates, and protest bids are examined. Bootstrap techniques are used to compare means across formats and to explore differences in willingness to pay (WTP) distribution functions. Convergent validity is found in a comparison of mean WTP values, although some differences are apparent in the cumulative distribution functions. Differences across formats are also identified in item non-response rates and proportion of protest bids. Overall, the payment card format exhibits desirable properties relative to the other two formats.
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Management decisions should be based on the sequentially revealed information concerning prices, growth, physical damages etc. Future flexibility is valuable in a stochastic world and should be optimized. Stochastic dynamic programming, stochastic scenario tree optimization, and optimization of adaptive control functions with stochastic simulation of the objective function are relevant alternatives.
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Public preference for native forest ecosystems is on the rise throughout the world because of their valuable market outputs, i.e., timber and nontimber products, and nonmarket outputs such as biodiversity, ecological services, and aesthetics. As a result, restoration of native forest ecosystems has become an important component of sustainable forest management (Stainback and Alavalapati 2004). Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) forests are one of the most biologically diverse native ecosystems in North America, supporting hundreds of plant and animal species. When Europeans first colonized North America, forests dominated by longleaf pine covered vast areas of the southeastern Coastal Plain. At that time longleaf pine forests may have existed on close to 36 million hectares (Landers et al. 1995). Due to landscape changes brought on by colonization, agricultural expansion, and population growth over the past several centuries, longleaf pine today covers only a small fraction of its historical range.
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The Indian Ocean Tsunami focused world attention on societal responses to environmental hazards and the potential of natural systems to moderate disturbance effects. Coastal areas are critical to the welfare of up to 50% of the world's population. Coastal systems in the southern United States are adapted to specific disturbance regimes of tropical cyclones (hurricanes) and fire. In August and September 2005, Hurricanes Katrina and Rita caused what has been termed the most costly natural disaster in U.S. history, including an estimated $2 billion to $3 billion in damage from wind alone. A total of 2.23millionha of timberland in the coastal states of Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama was damaged. Although financial loss estimates are incomplete, there is little doubt that these hurricanes caused extensive damage and their effects on the landscape will linger for years to come. Crafting a strategy for incorporating large, infrequent disturbances into a managed landscape such as the forested coastal plain of the southern U.S. must balance the desirable with the possible. We advance an adaptive strategy that distinguishes event risk (hurricane occurrence) from vulnerability of coastal forests and outcome risk (hurricane severity). Our strategy focuses on managing the disturbance event, the system after disturbance, and the recovery process, followed by modifying initial conditions to reduce vulnerability. We apply these concepts to a case study of the effects of recent Hurricanes Katrina and Rita on forests of the coastal plain of the northern Gulf of Mexico.
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A modified Hartman model was developed to investigate the economic potential of silvopasture as a means of restoring longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) on private land. Specifically, the model was used to investigate the impact of payments to the landowner for sequestering carbon and the effect of lengthening the rotation to produce red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) habitat. The results suggested that silvopasture is more profitable than either traditional ranching or traditional forestry. Further, it was found that, carbon payments increased the profitability, optimal rotation age and optimal tree density for both silvopasture and traditional forestry. In addition, extending the rotation to 60 years to produce red-cockaded woodpecker habitat is less costly with silvopasture than with traditional forestry. These results suggest that silvopasture may be an attractive land use option for landowners who desire to restore longleaf pine on their land.
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[from CRC Press] Ecological Restoration and Management of Longleaf Pine Forests is a timely synthesis of the current understanding of the natural dynamics and processes in longleaf pine ecosystems. This book beautifully illustrates how incorporation of basic ecosystem knowledge and an understanding of socioeconomic realities shed new light on established paradigms and their application for restoration and management. Unique for its holistic ecological focus, rather than a more traditional silvicultural approach, the book highlights the importance of multifaceted actions that robustly integrate forest and wildlife conservation at landscape scales, and merge ecological with socioeconomic objectives for effective conservation of the longleaf pine ecosystem.
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Assessment of forest carbon storage dynamics requires a variety of techniques including simulation models. We developed a hybrid model to assess the effects of silvicultural management systems on carbon (C) budgets in longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) plantations in the southeastern U.S. To simulate in situ C pools, the model integrates a growth and yield model with species-specific allometric and biometric equations and explicitly accounts for the impacts of both thinning and prescribed fire. To estimate the ex situ C pool, the model used the outputs of merchantable products from the growth and yield model with current values of forest product conversion efficiencies and forest product decay rates. The model also accounts for C emissions due to transportation and silvicultural activities. Site productivity (site quality) was the major factor controlling stand C density followed by rotation length. Thinning reduced C sequestration, as the slow growth rate of longleaf pine reduced the potential of C sequestration in forest products. Prescribed burning reduced average C stock by about 16–19%, with the majority of the reduction in the forest floor. In a comparison of longleaf pine C dynamics with slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm.), both species reached a similar average C stock at age 75 years, but when averaged across the whole rotation, slash pine sequestered more C. Nevertheless, for medium quality sites, C sequestration was similar between thinned 75-year rotation longleaf pine and unthinned 25-year rotation slash pine. This longleaf pine plantation C sequestration model, based on empirical and biological relationships, provides an important new tool for developing testable research hypotheses, estimating C stocks for regional assessments or C credit verification, and for guiding future longleaf pine management.
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The optimal harvest decision policy for even-aged stand management when timber price follows a first-order autoregressive process is investigated. It is proved that the expected present value of an even-aged stand at any age is an increasing and convex function of the timber price in the previous year, provided that the maximum age the stand is allowed to grow is sufficiently high. The optimal decision rule at each age depends on the current annual timber growth, the price autocorrelation coefficient, and the discount rate. A critical annual timber growth rate is defined by the timber price autocorrelation coefficient and the discount rate. When stand age is low such that the annual growth rate is higher than this critical rate, it is optimal either to wait independent of the observed price or to harvest the stand when the observed price is relatively low. At higher ages when the annual timber growth rate is lower than the critical rate, there exists an age-dependent reservation price and it is optimal to harvest when the observed price is equal to or greater than the reservation price. The optimal harvest policy when timber price process is random walk has similar properties. A simulation method for determining the optimal decision rules is developed. The effects of price autocorrelation coefficient on the optimal harvest policy and on the expected gain of adaptive decision making are examined using an example.
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With growing populations fueling increased groundwater abstraction and forecasts of greater water scarcity in the southeastern United States, identifying land management strategies that enhance water availability will be vital to maintaining hydrologic resources and protecting natural systems. Management of forested uplands for lower basal area, currently a priority for habitat improvement on public lands, may also increase water yield through decreased evapotranspiration (ET). To explore this hypothesis, we synthesized studies of precipitation and ET in coastal plain pine stands to develop a statistical model of water yield as a function of management strategy, stand structure, and ecosystem water use. This model allowed us to estimate changes in water yield in response to varying management strategies across spatial scales from the individual stand to a regional watershed. Results suggest that slash pine stands managed at lower basal areas can have up to 64% more cumulative water yield over a 25-year rotation compared to systems managed for high-density timber production, with the greatest increases in stands also managed for recurrent understory fire. Although there are important uncertainties in the magnitude of additional water yield and its final destination (i.e., surface water bodies vs. groundwater), this analysis highlights the potential for management activities on public and private timber lands to partially offset increasing demand on surface and groundwater resources.
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A 2006 comprehensive survey for the forestry practices costs for 10 common forestry practices in the south is presented. This survey provides the current costs and cost changes from 1952 to 2006. Forestry practices include the mechanical site preparation, planting, prescribed burning, chemical treatment, fertilization, general fire protection, timber cruising, timber marking, pre-commercial thinning, and custodial management. The results of these may be used as a standard reference for forestry financial analysis.
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AssrnAcr.-We aged over 1350 Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) cavity trees and a comparable number of randomly selected trees. Resulting data strongly support the hypothesis that Red-cockaded Woodpeckers preferentially select older trees. Ages of recently initiated cavity trees in the Texas study areas generally were similar to those of cavity trees initiated during the last several decades. In effect, the birds are continuing to select the oldest trees from a pool of trees of increasing age. This suggests that the current average age of cavity trees on these sites (85-130 yrs) may not provide optimum cavity
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Because of volatility in demand, timber prices tend to fluctuate from year to year. Timber owners know today's price but are uncertain about tomorrow's prices. Traditional Faustmann harvesting ignores these random annual price fluctuations and prescribes harvests on the basis of expected prices. In this paper, we adapt an asset sale model to forestry and solve for the optimal schedule of reservation prices. When current price is above the reservation price, owners should cut that age class, otherwise they should wait another year. This flexible price harvest policy significantly increases the present value of expected returns over the more rigid Faustmann model. For. Sci. 34(2):359-372.
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We examined the worldwide literature on biodiversity in forest plantations for the indicator organism assessed, species composition (native versus exotic), tree species diversity, and appropriateness of the comparisons made. Fifty percent of the studies used invertebrates, 36% birds, 6% mammals, and 6% vascular plants as bioindicators. We found that 76% of the existing literature compares exotic plantation forests to native/natural forests, 9% of studies compare native plantations to native/natural forests, and 3% examine plantations to plantations. Lower biodiversity in plantation forest compared to other forests was reported by 94% of the reviewed studies. However, some studies indicate higher biodiversity in plantation forests compared to other land uses such as agriculture. We argue that much of the literature reporting lower biodiversity in plantation forests is based on inappropriate comparisons. We suggest more appropriate approaches to assessing the effects of plantation forests on biodiversity.
Article
This paper analyzes the optimal harvest age of a forest if the forest provides a flow of valuable services while standing in addition to the value of the timber when it is harvested. A basic conclusion is that the presence of recreational or other services provided by a standing forest may well have an important impact on when or whether to harvest.
Article
Non-timber benefits and timber price uncertainty are two factors that can significantly affect forestry decisions. This paper examines the joint effects of these two factors on the optimal time to harvest an even-aged stand. Assuming that non-timber benefits are a function of stand age and that timber prices at different time points are uncorrelated, we show that the optimal strategy is to harvest when the observed price is greater than an age-dependent reservation price. Non-timber benefits affect the opportunity cost and the expected benefit of delaying the harvest at each age and, therefore, may affect the optimal reservation price. Numerical results are presented for example stands of Scots pine, where non-timber benefits are proportional to the standing timber stock. The results show that incorporating the non-timber benefits into the reservation price model significantly increases the optimal reservation prices and the land expectation value. However, the effects are smaller than when price uncertainty is ignored in the decision model.
Article
Previous studies have reported significant gains from adaptive harvest strategies when future timber prices are uncertain. For the final harvest decision in even-aged stand management, the adaptive strategy typically means that a stand is harvested only when the timber price is high, whereas low prices are avoided by postponing the harvest. Such a harvest behavior may have significant impacts on the future timber price process, which in turn affects the landowner’s profits. Moreover, it would certainly affect the timber-based industry and consumers. This paper assesses these impacts in a hypothetical timber market, using the Faustmann rule as a benchmark. The results show that changing from the Faustmann rule to the reservation price strategy (RPS) reduces the harvest and thereby pushes up the price level. The RPS significantly reduces the short-run price variations. In the long-run, both the mean and the variance of the timber price tend to stabilize: Depending on the anticipated price variations underlying the RPS, the expected timber price may be close to, or much higher than, the benchmark level, and the variance of price can be very large or very small. The welfare effect of RPS is small. While the RSP increases the landowners’ profits, it reduces the consumer surplus by approximately the same amount.
Article
We analyze the effect of catastrophic risk on forest investment decisions by employing a forest-level model where the output price is specified to follow a stochastic process. We then incorporate a Poisson jump process to reflect the occurrence of catastrophic events. It is found that the presence of catastrophic risk always results in a reduced production value but an increased investment threshold for a forestry project. However, depending on the assumption regarding the option—whether the right to invest can be maintained after the occurrence of such an event—the degree and pattern of the effect are different.
Article
The longleaf pine ecosystem is one of the most biologically diverse in North America, supporting hundreds of plant and animal species. Because of its timber and many non-timber benefits, there is strong interest among forestry professionals, conservation groups, and the public at large in restoring longleaf pine ecosystems. However, many landowners are reluctant to grow longleaf pine on their lands on a commercial basis because the economic returns from longleaf pine timber production are usually less than those of slash pine. In this study, we develop a model that determines the profitability of longleaf and slash pine timber production after consideration of carbon sequestration, habitat for the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker, and other amenity benefits. Results suggest that internalizing carbon sequestration benefits and red-cockaded woodpecker habitat benefits alone is not enough for landowners to switch from slash pine to longleaf. Additional payments of $16 to 33 per ha per year, reflecting extra amenity benefits associated with longleaf pine relative to slash pine, make longleaf production financially competitive. Incentives that reflect carbon, biodiversity, and amenity benefits associated with longleaf production may be the optimal way of restoring longleaf pine ecosystems on rural private lands in the US South.
Pine Plantations and Wildlife in the Southeastern United States: An Assessment of Impacts and Opportunities. U.S Department of the Interior National Biological Service
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Allen, A., Bernal, Y., Moulton, R., 1996. Pine Plantations and Wildlife in the Southeastern United States: An Assessment of Impacts and Opportunities. U.S Department of the Interior National Biological Service, pp. 32 Information and Technology Report 3.
Invasive pests-insects and diseases
  • Duerr
Duerr, D., Mistretta, P., 2013. Invasive pests-insects and diseases. In: Wear, D., Greis, J. (Eds.), The Southern Forest Futures Project: Technical Report. U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Asheville, NC, pp. 407-508 General Technical Report SRS-178.
Species deployment strategies for the southern pines: site specific management practices for the flatwoods of Georgia and Florida
  • Fox
Fox, T.R., 2004. Species deployment strategies for the southern pines: site specific management practices for the flatwoods of Georgia and Florida. In: Dickens, E.D., Barnett, J.P., Hubbard, W.G., Jokela, E. (Eds.), Slash Pine: Still Growing and Growing. U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Ashville, NC Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS-76.