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Rotundine

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Abstract

Rotundine is a kind of organic alkaloid with analgesic activity extracted from traditional Chinese medicinal plant named Corydalis rhizoma. It has been used in a lot of countries as an alternative to anxiolytic and sedative drugs of the benzodiazepine group and analgesics such as opiates. Rotundine has potent effects on the central nervous system but has nothing to do with opioid receptors. Therefore, it has little addiction effects. Recent studies also found other pharmacology effects of Rotundine, such as cardiovascular protective effects and antitumor effects. Because of its low toxicity and less adverse reactions, Rotundine has attracted a lot of attention in pain management. It has great market prospects and deserves further development and utilization.

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Costochondritis (ChC), especially chronic ChC, typically manifests as spontaneous vague pain in anterior chest area and often occurs in adolescents for unknown reasons; it has prevented many collegiate athletes from participating in physical training and competitions. A 21-year-old female collegiate taekwondo athlete suffering from chronic chest pain was sent by her coaches for diagnosis and treatment. Seated motion palpation was used to identify spontaneous and motion-involved pain areas. Palpation in the supine position was used to initially rule out breast diseases. X-ray, electrocardiogram, and cardiac Doppler ultrasound were used in conjunction with myocardial enzyme testing to rule out lung and cardiovascular diseases. The patient was treated using herbal medicines applied via an external patch. The medicine was comprised of Rhizoma Corydalis and borneol, and the treatment lasted for seven weeks. For five weeks patches were applied at a frequency of two or three times per day, followed by a two-week period of once per day. The patient reported that the pain was relieved after two weeks of external herb use, and the autonomic chest pain had resolved. Re-examination after one month showed that her upper limb range of motion was close to normal, and her psychological burden had almost disappeared. It is possible to seek more active medicinal treatment and more practical external products for young athletes who is suffering chronic ChC that affects the sport training and competitive performances. Please cite this article as: Zhang B, Jiang Y, Cheng CS, Lin H, Guo YP. External application of two unrestricted herbal medicines to treat costochondritis in a young collegiate athlete: A case report. J Integr Med. 2020; Epub ahead of print.
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The tetrahydroprotoberberines (THPBs) are compounds isolated from Chinese herbs that possess a unique pharmacological profile as D2 dopamine receptor antagonists and D1 receptor agonists. l-Tetrahydropalmatine (l-THP) and l-stepholidine (SPD), members of the THPB family, were shown to have potential clinical use in the treatment of pain. However, their mechanism of action is not clear. In the past decades, Chinese scientists have made a great deal of effort to explore the mechanisms by which the THPBs and its analogues elicit antinociception and their potential utility in treating drug abuse. It is now clear that the antinociception produced by l-THP is related to inhibition of D(2) dopamine receptors. The present review focuses on the recent progress made in understanding the mechanisms of l-THP- and l-SPD-mediated antinociception and the sequel of drug addiction.
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