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ANTI HYPERGLYCEMIC EVALUATION OF TERMINALIA CHEBULA LEAVES

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Objective: The antihyperglycaemic potentiality of Terminalia chebula leaves has not yet been investigated thoroughly compared to its fruit counterpart. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the hypoglycaemic potentiality of Terminalia chebula Retz leaves both in vitro and in vivo.Methods: Fresh leaves of T. chebula were collected, authenticated and grounded to a fine powder. The powdered material was extracted in methanol. The hypoglycaemic potentiality of the extract was accessed in vitro using enzyme alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase. The antihyperglycaemic activity of the methanol extract active fraction was accessed in vitro and in vivo. The active fraction thus obtained was partially characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis.Results: The crude leave methanol extract of Terminalia chebula demonstrated 100% α glucosidase inhibition with IC50–0.956±0.342 mg/ml compared to standard drug acarbose. Oral administration of the active fraction to diabetic rats loaded with maltose significantly (P<0.05) retarded the postprandial spike of blood glucose level compared to standard drug acarbose. Partial characterization of the fraction reveals the presence of hydrosoluble tannin gallic acid.Conclusion: The study provides an in vitro and in vivo rationale evidence of Terminalia chebula leaves to retard postprandial hyperglycemia.
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ANTI HYPERGLYCEMIC EVALUATION OF TERMINALIA CHEBULA LEAVES
Original Article
JAYASHREE DUTTA*
Department of Biotechnology, Gauhati University 781014
Email: jshrdtt@gmail.com
, MOHAN CHANDRA KALITA
Received: 27 Jul 2018 Revised and Accepted: 26 Sep 2018
ABSTRACT
Objective: The antihyperglycaemic potentiality of Terminalia chebula leaves has not yet been investigated thoroughly compared to its fruit counterpart.
Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the hypoglycaemic potentiality of Terminalia chebula Retz leaves both in vitro and in vivo.
Methods: Fresh leaves of T. chebula were collected, authenticated and grounded to a fine powder. The powdered material was extracted in
methanol. The hypoglycaemic potentiality of the extract was accessed in vitro using enzyme alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase. The
antihyperglycaemic activity of the methanol extract active fraction was accessed in vitro and in vivo. The active fraction thus obtained was partially
characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis.
Results: The crude leave methanol extract of Terminalia chebula demonstrated 100% α glucosidase inhibition with IC500.956±0.342 mg/ml
compared to standard drug acarbose. Oral administration of the active fraction to diabetic rats loaded with maltose significantly (P<0.05) retarded
the postprandial spike of blood glucose level compared to standard drug acarbose. Partial characterization of the fraction reveals the presence of
hydrosoluble tannin gallic acid.
Conclusion: The study provides an in vitro and in vivo rationale evidence of Terminalia chebula leaves to retard postprandial hyperglycemia.
Keywords: Terminalia chebula, Postprandial hyperglycemia (PPHG), α amylase, α glucosidase, Active fraction (f5)
© 2018 The Authors. Published by I nnovare Academic Sciences Pvt Ltd. This is an open-ac cess article u nder the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22 159/ijpps.2018v10i11.28167
INTRODUCTION
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by high blood
glucose level. Diabetes mellitus is caused due to relative or absolute
deficiency of insulin or resistance to the action of insulin at the cellular
level [1]. The abnormalities in metabolism of carbohydrate protein and
fat are due to a deficient action of insulin on target tissues resulting from
insensitivity or lack of insulin [2]. In developing countries, diabetes
mellitus type 2 represents near about 90% of total people with diabetes.
The percentage is much higher in developing countries [3]. One of the
prominent and early symptoms of diabetes mellitus type 2 is
postprandial hyperglycemia (PPHG). Postprandial hyperglycemia has
been identified as an independent risk factor for developing
cardiovascular disease in patients with or without diagnosed diabetes.
Studies have shown that PPHG, instead of Fasting glucose, is a significant
predictor of subsequent myocardial infarction and death in patients with
newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus type 2 [4]. Drug with mild α amylase
inhibition is considered as preferable for treatment of postprandial
hyperglycaemia since the side effects related to very high inhibition of
pancreatic α-amylase such as flatulence, abdominal distension, and
diarrhoea etc caused by intake of drug acarbose, results in abnormal
fermentation of undigested carbohydrate by of colon bacteria mark
limitation in its use [5]. Therefore, α-glucosidase inhibitors are
considered as better therapeutic to control the PPHG spike in diabetes
mellitus type 2. Terminalia is a genus of large trees of the flowering plant,
family Combretaceae, comprising around 100 species distributed in
tropical regions of the world. Being a native plant of South East Asia, the
dried ripe fruit of Terminalia chebula has traditionally been used to treat
various aliments including diabetes [6-9]. Though several studies were
conducted earlier upon the fruit part of T. chebula, the literature survey
reveals that there is no previous report on the hypoglycaemic evaluation
of the leaf part of the plant T. chebula, both in vitro and in vivo. Hence, in
the current study, the leave methanol extract of the plant was used to
access its hypoglycaemic potentiality in vitro and in vivo.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Chemicals and reagents
Alpha-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.20) porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase
enzyme (3.2.1.1) and alloxan monohydrate were procured from
Sigma Co. USA. Standard drug acarbose was purchased from a
nearby pharmaceutical shop of Guwahati. For estimating the blood
glucose level, Glucometer Select Onetouch was used. All solvent
used in this study were of analytical grade.
Collection of plant material
Fresh leaves of Terminalia chebula Retz were collected from nearby
areas of Gauhati University. The plant material collected was
authenticated in the Department of Botany, Gauhati University,
Guwahati with reference No. Herb/Bot/GU/2015/123 Terminalia
chebula Retz family-Combretaceae (Acc. No.18084). Voucher
specimens of the collected plant were deposited at Department of
Botany, Gauhati University.
Preparation of plant extract
Collected leaves were shade dried, grounded to the fine powder and
extracted subsequently in methanol, using a Soxhlet apparatus. The
crude extract was concentrated using a rotary evaporator (BUCHI R II).
The semisolid extract obtained was then stored at 4 °C until the assay.
In vitro Alpha amylase inhibition assay of T. chebula extract
α-amylase inhibition was determined using the modified version of
the method according to Bernfield [10]. Briefly, 100 µl of test extract
was allowed to react with 200 µl of the porcine pancreatic alpha-
amylase enzyme (Sigma Aldrich-3176) of 0.5unit/ml and 100 µl of 2
mmol of sodium phosphate buffer (pH 6.9). After 20 min of
incubation at 37 °C, 100 µl of 1% potato starch solution was then
added. The same was performed for the blank, where 200 µl of an
enzyme was replaced by the buffer. After incubation for 15 min, 500
µl of 3, 5 Dintro salicylic acid reagents were added to both control
and test. They were kept in a boiling water bath for 10 min. The
absorbance was recorded at 540 nm using a UVVIS
spectrophotometer and the percentage of inhibition of alpha-
amylase enzyme was calculated using the formula.
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
ISSN- 0975-1491 Vol 10, Issue 11, 2018
Dutta et al.
Int J Pharm Pharm Sci, Vol 10, Issue 11, 43-48
44
Where ΔA is the absorbance of the control reaction, ΔA sample is
absorbance of the test sample reaction.
ΔA control = Absorbance TestAbsorbance Blank ΔA sample
Absorbance TestAbsorbance Blank
Positive controls and suitable reagent blank were simultaneously
carried out and subtracted. The Inhibition percentage (%) was
plotted against sample concentration (2, 4, 6, 8, 10 mg/ml) and a
logarithmic regression curve was obtained to calculate the IC50.
In vitro Alpha-glucosidase inhibition assay of T. chebula extract
α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of all collected plant extract were
conducted according to standard protocol [11]. 100 µl of plant
extract was allowed to react with 100 µl of 20 mmol pNPG (p-
Nitrophenyl α-D glucopyranoside, Himedia RM 10294). To that
mixture, 2.2 ml of 100 mmol phosphate buffer at pH 7.0 was added
and then incubated for 10 min at 37 °C. The reaction was initiated by
addition of 100 µl of alpha-glucosidase from Saccharomyces
cerevisiae (Sigma, G5003) solution (1 mg/0.1 ml). It was followed by
15 min incubation at 37 °C. 2.5 ml of 200 mmol Na2CO3 was added
later, to stop the reaction. The absorbance of p Nitrophenol released
from PNPG was measured in Spectrophotometer at 400 nm. The
inhibition percentage of α-glucosidase activity was calculated by the
following equation:
Where, ΔA is the absorbance of the control reaction, ΔA sample is
absorbance of the test sample reaction.
ΔA control = Absorbance TestAbsorbance Blank ΔA sample =
Absorbance TestAbsorbance Blank
A dose-dependent alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase inhibitory
activities were measured using an increasing concentration of plant
sample (2, 4, 6, 8, 10 mg/ml) and the IC50 was calculated, IC50
For oral glucose tolerance test experimental animals were divided
into two groups, normal and diabetic comprising of three subgroups
consisting of six rats (n=6) in each group; In the Normal
experimental group, three subgroups were there. Group I, Normal
control rats received normal saline (5 ml vehicle); Group II, Normal
rats treated with Plant extract in normal saline (300 mg/kg body
weight); Group III, Normal rat treated with acarbose in normal
saline (10 mg/kg body weight). Diabetic experimental groups: three
subgroups were there. Group I, Diabetic control rats receiving
normal saline (vehicle); Group II, Diabetic rat treated with plant
extract in normal saline (300 mg/kg body weight). Group III,
Diabetic rat, treated with acarbose in normal saline (10 mg/kg body
weight). Thirty min after administration of vehicle (Normal saline),
plant extract and acarbose respectively, all rats were given orally,
glucose (2 g/kg body weight). The Postprandial blood glucose levels
were measured before (0 min) and at 30, 60 and 120 min using a
glucometer. Postprandial blood glucose curves of experimental rats
were plotted and compared with those of control rats.
Oral maltose tolerance test
Six days after performing the glucose tolerance test, maltose
tolerance test was performed in the same group of rats. The
procedure for performing the maltose tolerance test was similar
with glucose tolerance except that instead of glucose, maltose
(3g/kg body weight) was orally administrated to all groups of rats,
30 min after administration of the plant extract.
Oral starch tolerance test
Six days after performing the maltose tolerance test, starch
tolerance test was performed in the same group of rats. Starch
(3g/kg body weight) was orally administrated to all groups of rats,
30 min after administration of the plant extract.
Bioassay-guided fractionation and partial characterization of
crude methanol extract of T. chebula leave
The crude methanol extract of T. chebula leaves was subjected to
column chromatography using silica gel 60120 mesh for the
isolation of bioactive antidiabetic principles. The column (300 x 18
mm diameter) was packed with slurry of silica and petroleum ether
and kept for overnight. Next morning plant sample (crude methanol
extract of T. chebula leaves in powder form) was loaded over the
packed column with the help of a spatula. The column was eluted
with a solvent of increasing polarity. All fractions were analyzed in
Merck TLC plates (20 cm x 20 cm) using a different proportion of
hexane and ethyl acetate as mobile phase. Obtained fractions were
tested for their in vitro hypoglycemic property using alpha-amylase
and alpha-glucosidase enzymes using the same protocol mentioned
earlier. The fraction showing highest in vitro hypoglycemic activity
was finally accessed for its maltose tolerance in vivo in an alloxan-
induced diabetic rat model using the pre mention protocol. The
isolated active fractions or band was further characterized using
FTIR analysis for the identification of the active principle group
involved in retarding the postprandial hyperglycemia.
denotes that concentration of plant extract that is required to inhibit
50% of enzyme activity.
Induction of diabetes to experimental animal model
Wistar rats (150-220 g) of either sex were used in this study. The
rats were purchased from Assam veterinary college, Guwahati and
Department of Zoology, Gauhati University. The animals were
maintained under standard laboratory conditions at 25±2 °C and a
normal photoperiod of 12h light and 12h dark cycle. The animals
were made free access to water and standard diet. The experimental
protocol was approved by Institutional ethical committee (Number
IACE/PER/2015/01) of Gauhati University. Rats overnight fasted
were given a single intraperitoneal injection of 155 mg/kg body wt.
alloxan monohydrate (Sigma, USA) dissolved in freshly prepared
normal saline (0.9%). Animals with fasting blood glucose over 200
mg/dl, five days after alloxan administration were considered
diabetic and were further taken for experimental studies.
Oral carbohydrate tolerance test of MeOH extract of T. chebula
leaves
Oral glucose tolerance test
Statistical analysis
The results obtained were expressed in mean±SEM. The studied
groups were compared using ANOVA test and Post Hoc Turkey HSD
analysis was done to compare the mean. Values were considered to
be significant when the p-value was less than 0.05.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
When accessed for α-amylase inhibitory activity at the concentration
of 10 mg/ml, a mild inhibition of 70.46% was demonstrated by the
extract compared to standard drug acarbose 80.21%. Whereas in
case of enzyme alpha-glucosidase the same leave extract
demonstrated a remarkable 100% inhibition compared to standard
drug acarbose with 85.34% with a very minimum IC50 value of
0.956±0.342 mg/ml (table 1).
Table 1: Alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase inhibitionsIC50 value calculation of Terminalia chebula leaves and standard drug
acarbose, values are expressed as mean±SEM (n=3)
Studied
plant
Alpha amylase IC50
Value (mg/ml)
Acarbose (mg/ml)
Alpha glucosidase
IC50 value (mg/ml)
Acarbose (mg/ml)
Terminalia
06.09±0.342
05.09±0.028
0.956±0.342
01.50±0.072
chebula
leaves
Dutta et al.
Int J Pharm Pharm Sci, Vol 10, Issue 11, 43-48
45
Oral carbohydrate tolerance test
The effect of the crude extract of T. chebula leaves, and acarbose on
oral carbohydrate tolerance test was performed in both normal and
alloxan-induced diabetic rats using monosaccharide (glucose),
disaccharide (maltose) and polysaccharide (starch).
Oral glucose tolerance test
A total of 36 rats were used for the carbohydrate tolerance test.
The postprandial glucose variation was measured by loading
both the experimental groups with glucose (2 gm/kg body
weight). In glucose tolerance test, we found that the oral
administration of acarbose (10 mg/body weight), 30 min before
oral administration of glucose to 16 h fasted normal and diabetic
rats were capable of suppressing the postprandial blood glucose
level at 60 and 120 min compared to methanol extract of T.
chebula leaves (fig. 1 and 2).
Fig. 1: Oral glucose tolerance test in diabetic control (DC),
values expressed as the mean±SEM (n=6)
Fig. 2: Oral glucose tolerance test in normal control (NC). Values
expressed as the mean±SEM (n=6)
Oral maltose tolerance test
A week after performing the oral glucose tolerance test, all the three
groups were loaded with maltose (3 gm/kg body weight). In maltose
tolerance test, oral administration of methanol extract of T. chebula
leaves (300 mg/kg b. w) to diabetic rats significantly (*P<0.05)
suppressed the rise of postprandial blood glucose level compared to
the standard drug acarbose (fig. 3 and 4).
Fig. 3: Oral maltose tolerance test in Diabetic control (DC),
values expressed as the mean±SEM (n=6). *P<0.05 compared
with standard drug acarbose
Fig. 4: Oral maltose tolerance test in normal control (NC), values
expressed as the mean±SEM (n=6)
Oral starch tolerance test
A week after performing the maltose tolerance test, all the three
groups were loaded with starch (3 gm/kg body weight). In starch
tolerance test, oral administration of standard drug acarbose (10
mg/kg body weight), 30 min before oral administration of glucose to
normal and diabetic rats was showed higher capability of
suppressing the postprandial blood glucose level at 60 and 120 min
compared to methanol extract of T. chebula leaves (fig. 5 and 6).
Fig. 5: Oral starch tolerance test in diabetic control (DC), values
expressed as the mean±SEM (n=6)
Dutta et al.
Int J Pharm Pharm Sci, Vol 10, Issue 11, 43-48
46
Fig. 6: Oral starch tolerance test in normal control (NC), values
expressed as the mean±SEM (n=6)
Bioassay-guided fractionation of crude methanol extract of T.
chebula leaves
The crude methanol extract being the most efficacious extract was later
subjected to column chromatography for isolation of the active fraction
using a different solvent system of increasing polarity. The column
chromatography of crude methanol extract of T. chebula leaves using
different solvent systems yielded 18 fractions. The collected fractions
were later combined into six main fractions based on the Rf (Retention
factor) value obtained by analytical thin layer chromatography. The in
vitro enzyme inhibition study revealed that Fraction 5 (f5) demonstrated
moderate alpha-amylase inhibition (IC5042.86±0.56 µg/ml) compared
to acarbose (IC5045.06±1.01 µg/ml). However, the active fraction (f5)
showed highest (P<0.01) alpha-glucosidase inhibition with a very
minimum IC50 value of 39.58±0.98 µg/ml compared to acarbose (IC50
55.56±1.07 µg/ml) (fig. 7 and 8).
Fig. 7: Alpha amylase inhibition of selected six fractions, values
are expressed as mean±SEM (n=3)
Due to its mild alpha-amylase and high alpha-glucosidase
inhibition activity, the fraction (f5) further selected for in vivo
study in alloxan-induced diabetic rat model. In vivo maltose
tolerance test of (f5) revealed that the leaves of T. chebula was
capable of retarding the postprandial hyperglycemia significantly
(*P<0.05, **P<0.01) from 245 mg/dL (reading taken at 30 min) to
172 mg/dL (reading taken120 min) interval of time (fig. 9)
compared to acarbose (230 mg/dL to 197 mg/dL) during the
studied time interval (fig. 10).
Fig. 8: Alpha-glucosidase inhibition of selected six fractions,
values are expressed as mean±SEM (n=3), **
P<0.01 when
compared with standard drug acarbose
Fig. 9: Maltose tolerance test of F5 in diabetic rats, *P<0.05,
**
P<0.01 when compared to normal control. A = Acarbose, f5 =
Fraction 5, NC = Normal control, NS = Not significant, values are
expressed as mean±SEM (n=6)
Fig. 10: Maltose tolerance test of F5 in normal rats. * P<0.05,
**P<0.01 when compared to diabetic control. A = Acarbose, f5 =
Fraction 5, NC= Not significant, values are expressed as
mean±SEM (n=6)
The fraction (f5) demonstrated better result than acarbose in a
diabetic group, however, when accessed in normal rat loaded with
maltose, it was not found to be significant when compared
statistically. The IR spectrum of the fraction exhibited broadband in
the range, 30003500 cm-1 which are generally attributed to the-OH
Dutta et al.
Int J Pharm Pharm Sci, Vol 10, Issue 11, 43-48
47
stretching while the band observed at 1652 cm-1 corresponds to C=O
stretching (fig. 11). The bands observed in the range, 2833.99-
2947.68 contributes to alkane C-H bond, 1540.54-1652.691500
cm-1 are the due presence of N-H bonding, 1418.14-1506.68 are
due to alkane C-H bond, while the ones at 1113.97 are due to ester
linkage and that of 1000 cm-1 to 500 cm-1
are assigned to aromatic
C-H bending vibration. The FTIR analysis demonstrated the
presence of several functional groups in the most active fraction
(f5). Thin layer chromatographic separation of (f5) yielded
another subfraction (f5a). The subfraction on HPLC analysis
revealed the presence of the gallic acid as a major constituent (fig.
12 and 13).
Fig. 11: FTIR spectra obtained for the active fraction (f5)
Fig. 12: HPLC spectra of gallic acid standard
Fig. 13: HPLC spectra of gallic acid isolated from T. chebula Retz leaves
Diabetes mellitus is one of the fast-growing health problems in both
developing and developed nations.
Postprandial hyperglycemia that occurs due to impaired glucose
tolerance (IGT) is alone a factor to double the risk of cardiovascular
disease (CVD) [12-15]. There are many previous reports on the
potentiality of the fruit part of T. chebula to inhibit enzyme alpha-
glucosidase [16-18]. Several earlier studies conducted on the fruit
part of T. chebula demonstrated potent maltase inhibitory activity
due to the presence of three active ellagitannin (chebulanin,
chebulagic acid and chebulinic acid [19]. Plant-derived hydrolyzable
tannin is known to be responsible for varied pharmacological
Dutta et al.
Int J Pharm Pharm Sci, Vol 10, Issue 11, 43-48
48
activity including antidiabetic [2024]. Gallic acid being one of the
widely spread hydrolyzable tannins of T. chebula possess very high
antioxidant and hypoglycemic property [25, 26]. Recent studies
indicate that plant-derived ploy phenols, because of its antioxidant
and anti-inflammatory properties, attribute maximum towards the
hypoglycemic effect via several modes like reduction of the
intestinal absorption of dietary carbohydrate, improvement of β-cell
function, improvement of insulin action, modulation of the some
enzymes involved in glucose metabolism [2730]. The enzyme α
glucosidase inhibitors fall under one of the categories of oral
hypoglycemic agents that are generally used for the treatment of
diabetes. α-glucosidase inhibitory compounds are abundant in
nature, and those with very promising inhibitory potentiality can be
clinically employed for treating diabetes mellitus type 2.
CONCLUSION
The present study concludes that a leaf of T. chebula is a potential
inhibitor of enzyme alpha-glucosidase that plays a crucial role in
intensifying the postprandial hyperglycemic condition. In future,
more vigorous and authentic screening of ethnic knowledge-based
antidiabetic plants is needed to be done, for the development of
some effective bio formulations. Such formulations in the coming
future will definitely combat metabolic syndrome like diabetes and
complications associated with the disease.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
Authors are thankful to Advanced level Institutional Biotech HUB,
Department of Biotechnology, Gauhati University for providing the
instrumentation and infrastructure facility for performing the research
work. Authors are also thankful to Dr. G. C Sharma, curator, Department
of Botany, for identification and authentication of the plant material.
AUTHORS CONTRIBUTIONS
Jayashree Dutta has designed and performed the experiments. M. C
Kalita assisted in the preparation of the manuscript. Both the
authors have read and approved the content of the manuscript.
ABBREVIATION
T. ChebulaTerminalia chebula, FTIRFourier transform infrared
spectroscopy, HPLC High-performance liquid chromatography,
MeOH-Methanol, TLCThin layer chromatography, f5–Fraction 5,
PPHGPostprandial hyperglycemia, IC50Half-maximal inhibitory
concentration, CVDCardiovascular diseases, IGTImpaired glucose
Intolerance.
CONFLICT OF INTERESTS
The authors declare no conflicts of interest
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... Alloxan monohydrate was prepared in 0.9% of sodium chloride with a pH of 7. [10] DM was induced in rats with a single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan (155 mg/kg). [11] An oral administration of 5% glucose (2 mL) was given after 10 min of alloxan injection to prevent hypoglycemia in rats. [12] Rat BG levels were measured daily using a digital glucometer (Easy Touch®). ...
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The antioxidant capacity of Artocarpus altilis leaf extract may offer protection against stress oxidative-induced damage to pancreatic cells. This study aimed to examine the effect of Artocarpus leaf extract on pancreatic islets structure, blood glucose (BG), and insulin serum levels in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes mellitus was induced in rats with an intraperitoneal injection of alloxan (155 mg/kg). Rats’ BG levels were measured daily. Only rats with BG >250 mg/dL (n = 25) proceeded to receive different treatments: placebo, Artocarpus leaf extract at the dose of 100, 200, or 400 mg/kg, or insulin 6 IU/200 g. All treatments were administered daily for 14 days before blood and pancreatic tissue samples were collected. Five healthy rats (n = 5) were included to serve as normal controls. The result shows that alloxan-induced atrophy of pancreatic islets and Artocarpus leaf extract administration at all given doses reduced the severity of pancreatic islet’s atrophy. However, only at 400 mg/kg dose, Artocarpus leaf extract significantly reduced rats’ BG level (P < 0.05), similar to that of insulin-treated rats. Artocarpus leaf extract, especially at 100 and 400 mg/kg doses, also improved insulin serum levels compared with placebo treatment (P < 0.05). In conclusion, Artocarpus leaf extract protected rats’ pancreatic islets against alloxan-induced damage. This protection could improve the BG and insulin serum levels in Artocarpus-treated rats.
... The fruits of plant Terminalia chebula, belonging family Combretaceae was used for the study of antidiabetic activity. This study is based on formulation and evaluations of the tablets made from methanolic extract of fruit of Terminalia chebula and alloxan is used to induce diabetes in rats [2] Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia by improper secretion of insulin or insulin resistance, or both and associated with abnormalities in carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism; and result in chronic complication including microvascular, macro vascular and neuropathic disorder [3]. The vast majority of diabetic patient is classified into two categories: Type 1 diabetes caused by an absolute deficiency of insulin, or type 2 diabetes defined by the presence of insulin secretion [4]. ...
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According to WHO, the prevalence of diabetes is likely to increase by 35%. Currently there are over 150 million diabetics worldwide and this is likely to increase to 300 million or more by the year 2025. International Diabetes Federation (IFD) estimates the total number of diabetic subjects to be around 40.9 million in India and this if further set to rise to 66.9 million by the 2025. In view of the above discussion this study was undertaken to investigate antidiabetic activity of herbal tablet of Terminalia chebula in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Solid pharmaceutical dosage formulations using a novel dry plant extract (Terminalia chebula fruits) using various excipients i.e.carbopol, lactose, gelatin, magnesium stearate and dicalcium phosphate by the wet granulation was reported to the statically significant. The present communication deals with the evaluation of formulated tablets (weight variation, friability and hardness and disintegration time). Diabetes was induced in Wistar albino rats (170-200g) by a single dose (I.P.) of alloxan monohydrate (150mg/kg) dissolved in normal saline, treatment were given orally for 21days and blood glucose level was estimated on Two different batches of herbal tablets of Terminalia chebula extract (carbopol & gelatin) were studied for blood glucose level in two different groups of animals. Oral administration of Terminalia chebula tablet having carbopol to diabetic rats at a dose of 200mg/kg body weight to wistar rats in a significant reduction in biochemical parameters in alloxan diabetic rats, and the best formulation according to disintegration time. Thus our investigation clearly shows that the Terminalia chebula tablet has antidiabetic effects.
Chapter
Natural products in the form of secondary metabolites have been applied for healing several ailments since prehistoric times. Secondary metabolites obtained from the medicinal plants are one of the main sources used as antidiabetic medicines. Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic orders remarked by hyperglycemia and disturbances in carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolic processes. Diabetes is connected with insufficient insulin secretion by pancreatic β-cells or dubious insulin activity in insulin signal transduction. Plants can produce secondary metabolites with the help of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). PGPR in colonies induce plant development by synthesizing indole-3-acetic acid, cytokine, and gibberellin hormones, making the soil rich in mineral nitrogen and also combating pathogenic microorganisms to protect their host plants. There is an indirect connection between PGPR and diabetes treatments. The vital role of PGPR in secondary metabolite production is making plants rich in bioactive compounds which consequently act as antidiabetic drug molecules. Many research papers have been published regarding ethnopharmacology of antidiabetes plants, but the involvement of PGPR in diabetes management still remained to be researched. The chapter consolidates the articles published in indexed journals describing the role played by PGPR in medicinal plants to produce bioactive compounds as secondary metabolites and their effectiveness in amending diabetes interventions.KeywordsDiabetesRhizobacteriaSecondary metabolites
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Mistletoes or benalu in bahasa Indonesia is a semi-parasitic plant that also known as medicinal plant. It used in t raditional/alternative medicine such as for for cough, diabetes, hypertension, cancer, diuretic, smallpox, ulcer, skin infection and after child-birth treatment. There are many species of mistletoes in Indonesia. Dendrophthoe pentandra (L.) Miq. is one of the Indonesian mistletoes species that commonly found grew on many different species of host plant. In this paper we reported in vitro toxicity, antioxidant and antidiabetes activities of MeOH and water extracts of D. pentandra grew on four different host plants (Stelechocarpus burahol, Spondias dulcis, Annona squamosa and Camellia sinensis). Toxicity was measured using brine shrimp lethality test (BSLT). Antioxidant activity was measured using DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Antidiabete s activity was measured using a-glucosidase inhibitor assay. The results show that all mistletoe s extracts tested (MeOH and water extracts) were non-toxic and show significant antidiabetes activity, whereas for antioxidant activity, only MeOH extracts show significant activity. Therefore, it is suggest that D. pentandra extracts are potential source for natural antioxidant and antidiabetes compounds.
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The present review focused on plant extracts or phytochemicals role in diabetes management has been tried by many researchers. I have attempted to compile a list of total 419 plant species belongs to 133 families have been used for in-vitro and in-vivo studies. The plant extract or phytochemicals have involved in decreasing or increasing or stimulating different mechanisms in reducing diabetes and they have been listed in tabular form. By this review, few molecules are used in diabetes management and they possess molecular mechanisms or involved in signal transduction to initiate the insulin production or utilization of blood glucose level bring down to normal stage. The researchers have used different parts of the plant extracts or individual phytochemicalsfor antidiabetic activities. This review brings the researcher data on antidiabetic activities of different plant extracts role in reducing of diabetic problems.
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Medicinal plants have been considered valuable and cheap source of unique phytoconstituents which are used extensively in the development of drugs against various diseases. A large proportion of the world population, especially in the developing countries relies mainly on the traditional system of medicine. The use of plants and plant products in medicines is getting popularized because the herbal medicines are cheap and have natural origin with higher safety margins and lesser or no side effects. Terminalia chebula Retz. (T. chebula) belongs to the family Combretaceae and is one of the most important medicinal plants used in medicines of ayurveda, siddha, unani and homeopathy. It is called the "King of Medicines" in Tibet and is listed first in the Ayurvedic material medica because of its extraordinary power of wound healing and a wide spectrum of medicinal properties. T. chebula possesses antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antidiabetic, antimutagenic, antioxidant, antiulcer and wound healing properties. It also prevents cardiac damage and is used for the treatment of kidney disease. It is a mild, safe and effective laxative in traditional medicine. T. chebula and its phytoconstituents have therapeutic effect with no toxicity. T. chebula is an active ingredient of the well known herbal preparation, Triphala, which is used for the treatment of enlarged liver, stomach disorders and pain in eyes. This review gives a bird's eye view on the biological and pharmacological properties of various extracts and isolated phytoconstituents of T. chebula to enrich our knowledge about this plant.
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α-Glucosidase inhibitors can be used as a new class of antidiabetic drug. By competitively inhibiting glycosidase activity, these inhibitors help to prevent the fast breakdown of sugars and thereby control the blood sugar level. This study provides a wealth of information about α-glucosidase inhibitors isolated from medicinal plants; this knowledge will be useful in finding more potent antidiabetic candidates from the natural resources for the clinical development of antidiabetic therapeutics.Results411 compounds exhibiting α-glucosidase inhibitory activity were summatized and isolated them from medicinal plants. The compound classes isolated include: terpenes (61) from 14 genus, alkaloids (37) from 11 genus, quinines (49) from 4 genus, flavonoids (103) from 24 genus, phenols (37) from 9 genus, phenylpropanoids (73) from 20 genus, sterides (8) from 5 genus, and other types of compounds (43).Conclusion Compounds with α-glucosidase inhibitory activity are abundant in nature and can be obtained from several sources. They have high α-glucosidaseinhibitory potential, and can be clinically developed for treating diabetes mellitus.Keywordsα-Glucosidase inhibitorInhibitory activityMedicinal plants
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Diabetes is a systemic disease affecting a large proportion of the population worldwide. Hyperglycemia, the major factor responsible for its development, is known to cause both microvascular and macrovascular complications if not controlled in time. Retinopathy is one such microvascular complication of the eye and has been studied extensively. There are biochemical pathways that lead to its progression and are common to other complications, viz. the formation of advanced glycation end products, the activation of protein kinase C, increase in oxidative stress and the polyol pathway. Though there are standard treatments available to manage diabetic retinopathy, there remains a need to explore herbal medicine as an alternative for its treatment. Many herbal preparations alleviating hyperglycemia that are used to treat dia-betes or have insulin sensitizing effects are available in the market. These may help managing diabetic retinopathy, too. Many plants are known to produce inhibitors of advanced glycation end products, the aldose reductase (polyol) pathway, and protein kinase C (PKC). Hence, there is a necessity to evaluate the potential of these plants, focussing on individual phytoconstituents like phenolic compounds.
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Objective: The goal of the present study is to provide an in vitro evidence for potential inhibition of the α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzyme by seven culinary plants of North east India followed by their phytochemical screening. Methods: The different parts (leaves, seeds, bark, and fruit) of the selected plants were chosen for the study. Collected plant parts were a shade dried, powdered, and successively extracted using petroleum ether, acetone, and methanol. The obtained extracts were quantitatively assayed for in vitro α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzyme inhibitory activity. The collected plant materials were screened qualitatively for detection of several bioactive compounds. Results: In our study, we found that among all the screened culinary plants the highest α-amylase inhibitory activity was demonstrated by Dillenia indica Linn. fruit methanol extract with a minimum IC50 value of 02.45 ± 0.305 mg/ml, and the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity was demonstrated by D. indica leaves methanol extract with a very minimal IC50 value of 01.78 ± 0.331 mg/ml compared to the standard drug acarbose IC50 - 05.43 ± 0.280 mg/ml for α-amylase and IC50 - 03.06 ± 0.072 mg/ml for α-glucosidase, respectively. Phytochemical screening reveals the presence of several bioactive groups such as carbohydrate, protein, saponin, tannin, flavonoid, alkaloid, and terpenoids in all studied plants. Conclusion: The study concludes that selected culinary plants of North East India are capable of inhibiting carbohydrate metabolizing enzyme α-amylase and α-glucosidase, and the presence of bioactive compounds in these plants add on the potentiality of these plants to reduce the post-prandial hyperglycemia. © 2016, Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. All rights reserved.
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Diabetes has become the most common metabolic disease worldwide. In particular, type 2 diabetes is the most commonly encountered type of diabetes, which is characterised by the inability of the organism to respond to normal levels of circulating insulin, also called insulin resistance. Current antidiabetic therapy is based on synthetic drugs that very often have side effects. For this reason, there is a continuous need to develop new and better pharmaceuticals as alternatives for the management and treatment of the disease. Natural hypoglycaemic compounds may be attractive alternatives to synthetic drugs or reinforcements to currently used treatments. Their huge advantage is that they can be ingested in everyday diet. Recently, more attention is being paid to the study of natural products as potential antidiabetics. This mini review of the current literature is structured into three main sections focused on: (a) plant extracts, (b) plant biomolecules, and (c) other natural molecules that have been used for their antidiabetic effects. Potential molecular mechanisms of action are also discussed.