Conference PaperPDF Available

STORYTELLING AND ITS IMPACT ON EFFECTIVENESS OF ADVERTISING

Authors:
  • Akademia Ekonomiczno-Humanistyczna w Warszawie (University of Economics anf Human Sciences in Warsaw)

Abstract

Nowadays, it is recognized that consumers expect brands not only to have basic functions, but also emotions, experiences and values which they can identify with. For this reason, interesting stories can be noticed in commercials, referred to as storytelling. The aim of the article is to analyze the possibilities of using storytelling as an activity increasing the effectiveness of an advertising message based on the available results of research related to its perception. In the article the cognitive-critical method of analyzing the subject-related literature has been applied. The authors outline the basic conditions for applying storytelling and trends related to the structure of advertising stories, and present selected research results related to the assessment of its impact on the recipients of the message. These results show the high performance of advertisements using storytelling.
ICoM 2018 8th INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MANAGEMENT
694
STORYTELLING AND ITS IMPACT ON EFFECTIVENESS
OF ADVERTISING
Beata Zatwarnicka-Madura1 , Robert Nowacki2
1Rzeszow University of Technology, Poland
Faculty of Management
2University of Finance and Management in Warsaw, Poland
Faculty of Management and Finance
Abstract: Nowadays, it is recognized that consumers expect brands not only to have basic functions, but also
emotions, experiences and values which they can identify with. For this reason, interesting stories can be noticed
in commercials, referred to as storytelling. The aim of the article is to analyze the possibilities of using
storytelling as an activity increasing the effectiveness of an advertising message based on the available results of
research related to its perception. In the article the cognitive-critical method of analyzing the subject-related
literature has been applied. The authors outline the basic conditions for applying storytelling and trends related to
the structure of advertising stories, and present selected research results related to the assessment of its impact on
the recipients of the message. These results show the high performance of advertisements using storytelling.
Keywords: advertising, advertising message, advertising effectiveness, storytelling
Introduction
With the development of competitive phenomena in modern markets, the need to look for more and
more effective marketing communication tools is increasing. On the one hand, they evolve towards the
use of more and more technically advanced communication channels, and on the other one towards
making the content of the messages more attractive (Wiażewicz, Zatwarnicka-Madura 2016,
Zatwarnicka-Madura 2017, Witek 2016). One of such solutions is storytelling which is identified with
narrative advertising. Its significance increases especially in times of widespread crisis of trust in
advertising - thanks to its authenticity it influences the realignment of the transmitted content.
The term storytelling was formulated in 2003 by Henry Jenkins. Jenkins referred to the definition of a
new way of telling stories using different types of media, methods and viewpoints. It is a form focusing on
the message contained in many communication channels where there are various but mutually
complementing contents ultimately outlining an extensive message composed of several interacting
elements. In the understanding of Jenkins, transmedia storytelling is also a skillful reference to other stories,
motifs or characters and their location in the stories they create. In this context storytelling is a way of
communicating a particular idea with the use of narrative, focused primarily on stimulating the attention of
the recipient in the multitude of messages reaching him, increasing practically from day to day (Mistewicz
2011, p. 16; Czarniawska 1997, p.17-23). The content can change, mainly thanks to the audience inspired
by it, who add new threads, thus influence the development of the story.
The aim of the article is to analyze the possibilities of using storytelling as an activity increasing
the effectiveness of an advertising message based on the available results of research related to its
perception. The authors outline the basic conditions for applying storytelling and trends related to the
construction of advertising stories, and present selected research results related to the assessment of its
impact on the recipients of the message.
Storytelling a story structure and trends
Storytelling has been part of human culture for thousands of years. It is a powerful and an enduring
means of communication (Alterio 2003). Signs of storytelling were found in the Pyrenees Mountains,
in the Lascaux Caves dating 15,000 to 13,000 BC (Lockett 2007). Signs of storytelling can be found in
all primitive and ancient cultures. In the absence of written language, older cultures used animal skins,
cave walls, stones, wood and even sand to draw, communicate and preserve their stories with pictures
and symbols. Some of the earliest stories focused on epic events as can be found in the early civilizations
of Greece and India.
ICoM 2018 8th INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MANAGEMENT
695
Green et al. (2015, p. 112) define storytelling as "oral communication, structured around a logical
sequence of events, utilizing human and/or animal characters, with personalities and emotional
qualities, presented with voice, gesture and facial expression". Storytelling or the narrative approach is
increasingly becoming a core element in influence processes such as education, teaching, leadership,
culture, history, marketing and its facets and a whole range of other functionalities across the
multitudes of human activities (Kadembo 2012, p. 221). Yang (2013, p. 146) found that by triggering
emotional reactions, “storytelling is more persuasive than statements or quantitative information”.
Storytelling in a logical and coherent way presents and organizes consecutive facts, beginning with the
introduction of the events (stories), through orientation, complication to the end solving the existing
problem (Labov 1997, p. 207-215). Interactions between the characters of a story build its
attractiveness in the eyes of recipients. The story itself is the basic way to convey its own perspective and
perceived values. It enables the transfer of complex emotions thanks to its structure. The narrated stories
focus on the emotional aspect, not the rational one. The emotional aspect of the story is effective due to
the characteristics of consumers (Byun 2016). Most of the content stored in human consciousness is
associated with a series of short stories, and is not fragmentary (Hong Kun, Byueong-hyun, Jae Young
2017, p. 288). At the same time, as Stafford and Day write (1995, p. 57) “Whether the message is
categorized as emotional versus rational, thinking versus feeling, or transformational versus
informational, its effectiveness is believed to depend on whether brand choice within a product class is
logical and rational or based largely on affect”. Hence, developing adequate typologies of message
appeals has been viewed as important for devising product advertising strategy (Padget, Allen 1997, p. 54).
Nowadays storytelling can be considered as one of the strategic tools of market communication
allowing harmonious and consistent in essence transferring the idea in such a way as to stand out from
other similar products or services, while building a positive image of the brand (Fog et al. 2013, p. 43)
referring to emotions (Stopczyńska 2016, p. 322). For this purpose, various archetypes of myths
associated with brands are used (Kosson 2014, p. 176-206).
Storytelling is used in ads around the world, but to different degrees. The research company
(Kantar Millward Brown 2017) conducted research in 14 countries on mainstream TV. Overall, 42%
were ‘story’ ads; but this varied widely by country. In Brazil, Kenya, Poland, the UK, and the US
stories were used in over 50% of ads. In Australia, China, and South Korea stories we used in under
30% of ads. On both Facebook and YouTube the proportions were similar with 39% being story ads.
Story is an oral or written performance involving two or more people interpreting past or
anticipated experience (Boje 1991, p. 111). In this definition, stories do not require beginnings,
middles, or endings, as they do in more formal and restrictive definitions (Bruner 1990, pp. 43-59;
Gepbart 1991, p. 35, Boje 1995, p. 1000).
Narratives make things easier to remember and understand (Baddeley 1999; Storytelling...). Words
can trigger memories and emotions. Just verbally describing an intense situation is enough to activate
areas of the brain that deal with emotional responses (Wallentin et al. 2011). Listening to a story
activates the brain areas involved in imagining scenarios (Abdul Sabar et al. 2014).
Quesenberry and Coolsen (2014, p. 437-454) conducted a two-year analysis of 108 Super Bowl
commercials to investigate what makes an ad successful. They realized that the success of 30-second
commercials is the result of using the scheme of five-act Shakespeare plays. Already in 335 B.C.,
Aristoteles began to develop dramatic theory, and his theories were expanded by German novelist and
play writer Gustav Freytag, into what is known as Freytag’s Pyramid used by Shakespeare and others.
This Pyramid consists of 5 acts: exposition, complication (rising action), climax, reversal (falling
action), and a dénouement (moment of release). Analysing the Super Bowl commercials, Quesenberry
and Coolsen found that ads with more acts (a more complete story with a plot) achieved higher ratings.
According to Znanewitz, Gilch (2016, p. 32), there are the following criteria for effective
storytelling in marketing:
- The right story (true core) - The story must represent the core of the organization. Best based on the
history of the organization, or from experiences of its members or other stakeholders;
- Entertainment and excitement - Aligned with up-to-date trends that are relevant to the target group;
- Uniqueness - Different from the marketing stories of other organizations;
- Conciseness - Can be summarized in a few sentences;
- Simplicity - The story is simple, not too complex. Stringent plot, sparse details, letting the recipient
be a co-creator;
ICoM 2018 8th INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MANAGEMENT
696
- Connectivity - Gaps, open ends, incomplete background information, so as to let the recipient
become a co-creator;
- Brand persona - Use archetypes for quick and easy connection with the audience. An archetype has
to fit the brand personality.
From video to VR, social media and beyond, there is a host of mediums through which a brand can
tell their story - and many ways to do so. One can distinguish 6 storytelling trends marketing leaders
should know about (www1):
- Data-driven storytelling. It is predicted that by 2020, 1.7 megabytes of data will be created every
second, for each person on earth. Digital data will create sophisticated stories, and it will be
extremely efficient. The data to create visually stunning stories will be able to process information
much faster, and brands will be able to grab attention;
- Mini-ads. To be competitive in today's digital landscape, companies are considering innovative
ways to connect with consumers and deliver their message as part of their digital strategy. A visual
medium keeps on growing amongst marketing teams as a way to tell the tale of a brand or product.
Companies actively using video benefit from 41% more web traffic than non-users;
- Customer-led storytelling. Consumers have various platforms to share their thoughts and opinions.
92% of people admitting to trust them in traditional advertising claim that the brand should provide
customers with an opportunity to tell their stories. This will help to increase engagement, build
trust and hugely expand the reach;
- Philanthropic storytelling. Customers require transparency and want to know more about
companies, how they run business, how they treat their employees, how handle their products.
Therefore, brand storytelling needs to be clear, concise and honest;
- Immersive storytelling. According to over 200 million virtual reality headsets will be sold by 2020.
Augmented reality is becoming an interesting tool for brands to convey their message and get
people invested;
- Dark social. It`s this type of social sharing that can’t be tracked accurately, for example, the data
that isn’t registered up by web analytics platforms.
Research on the effectiveness of storytelling in advertising - review-of-Literature
Numerous studies on narrative advertising and storytelling show their effectiveness in influencing
the recipient. Ads that tell stories are able to involve and entertain consumers and, more important, are
able to communicate and model how products may be used to create meaning (Escalas 2004).
A variety of research has been done related to this issue, among others: drama ads (Deighton, Romer,
McQueen 1989), narrative processing (Escalas 2004; Adaval, Wyer 1998), narratives vs. self (Escalas,
Bettman 2000; Polkinghorne 1988).
Research on the effectiveness of storytelling shows that its use has a positive effect on selected
communication and behavioral effects, in particular on (Hajdas 2011, pp. 121; Smith 1995; Tun 1989;
Polyorat, Alden, Kim 2007; Adaval, Wyer 1998; Matilla 2000 ):
- awareness of the advertisement - a narrative advertisement, i.e. the one that gives information about
the product in the form of a story, generates higher indicators of the awareness of the advertisement
than a physical advertisement, that is, providing facts or direct descriptions of product features and
benefits;
- perception of quality - narrative advertising builds a more positive perception of the quality of
services and products than physical advertising;
- attitude towards advertising - narrative advertising builds more positive attitudes than physical
advertising;
- shopping intentions - narrative advertising builds higher purchase intentions of services than
physical advertising and higher purchase intentions of products;
- engagement in the content of advertising - narrative advertising builds a higher commitment to its
content than in-kind advertising.
Based on the results of research, M. Górska claims that "advertisements containing the form of a
story in the visual layer were better evaluated and remembered by the respondents. Therefore, the best
degree of agreement between the level of verbal and pictorial narrative is the best" (Szewczyk 2010).
Other research outcomes showed that even a short brand story included on FMCG packaging had a
ICoM 2018 8th INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MANAGEMENT
697
positive impact on consumers’ affective, attitudinal, product value, and behavioral intention responses
to the brand (Solja, Liljander, Söderlund 2018; Cholewa-Wójcik, Kawecka 2015).
The results presented by Simanjuntak, Napitupulu i Situmeang (2016) showed that differences in
brand attitude between conditions exist. High involved consumers who have time available are more
positive towards the brand after reading the story than consumers that lack motivation and/or time. For
the latter, factual information about the brand is equally effective. Furthermore, the level of
involvement moderates the effect of time on brand attitude. The more involved the consumer is, the
more important it is that they have time to elaborate on the brand story.
The research conducted by West (2015) showed that 55% of people would consider buying from a
brand in the future if they really loved a story. This was particularly true for participants aged 18-24,
35-44, 45-54 and 55+. West found also that “sequencing ads together in a way that tells a brand story
leads to better outcomes than a sustained message focused solely on driving an action”.
Discussion
Storytelling can mean different things to different people, which creates opportunities and needs for
conducting a wide variety of research on this topic. The presented results of the source research show,
first and foremost, the high effectiveness of storytelling in influencing the recipients. It is mainly about
higher purchasing intentions, positive attitudes towards advertising and higher commitment to the
content of advertising.
It is worth noting, however, that advertisers do not fully appreciate the advantages of storytelling.
Research conducted among Polish enterprises indicate that they prefer displaying typically rational
arguments in advertisements, most often associated with product attributes or price, the most
motivating to purchase. At the same time, they are aware that the emotional arguments are more
popular with the recipients, which is also confirmed by the consumers themselves (Nowacki,
Strużycki 2011, pp. 133-177). Advertisers are also not flexible in terms of shaping the content and
form of advertising messages - less than 5% declare their propensity for pro-innovative activities in
this area (Nowacki 2015, p. 125), which may pose barriers to the development of storytelling in the
Polish advertising reality.
Conclusion
The considerations presented do not exhaust the problem of the effectiveness of storytelling as an
advertising tool. They are rather a foundation for further research on this issue, especially that in the
Polish market conditions the problem is still relatively poorly recognized. Considering the diversity of
forms and possibilities of using storytelling, research challenges should be taken to determine future
directions of storytelling usage in advertising.
The first research area may be to test the value of different story categories among different
audience segments. Another potential area is an identification of the scale of different kinds of
advertising stories involving different types of consumers. It would also be reasonable to recognize the
perception of storytelling in a visual and linguistic context. It is also worth paying attention to the
varied possibilities of presenting advertising stories in various media. An interesting issue would also
be to compare their reception. An important factor differentiating the perception of storytelling can
also be the characteristics of recipients considered not only in the context of objective demographic
variables, but above all the significance of more subjective psychological, cultural or behavioral
variables.
The results of such research may be a kind of a signpost for business practice, how to use
storytelling as an alternative to traditional formats of advertising messages, while maximizing the
effectiveness of its impact.
ICoM 2018 8th INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MANAGEMENT
698
References
Abdul Sabar N.Y., Xu Y., Liu S., Chow H., Baxter M., Carson J., Braun A.R. (2014), Neural correlates and network
connectivity underlying narrative production and comprehension: A combined fMRI and PET study, “Cortex”,
No. 57, pp.107-127.
Adaval R., Wyer R.S. (1998), The role of narratives in consumer information processing, “Journal of Consumer
Psychology”, No. 7, pp. 207-245.
Alterio M. (2003), Using Stories to Enhance Student Learning, "The Higher Education Academy",
http://desarrollodocente.uc.cl/images/Alterio_M._2003.pdf (22.03.2018).
Baddeley, A.D. (1999), Essentials of human memory, Psychology Press, New York.
Boje D.M. (1991), The storytelling organization: A study of storytelling performance in an office supply firm,
“Administrative Science Quarterly”, No. 36 pp. 106-126.
Boje D.M. (1995), Stories of the Storytelling Organization: A Postmodern Analysis of Disney as “Tamara-land”,
„Academy of Management Journal”, No. 4, Vol. 38, pp. 997-1035.
Bruner J. (1990), Acts of meaning, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.
Byun Ch-B. (2016), A Narrative Strategy of Storytelling Advertising Videos: Heineken’s Case,”Culinary Science
& Hospitality Research”, No. 1, Vol. 22, pp. 9-18.
Cholewa-Wójcik A., Kawecka A. (2015), The Influence of Effectiveness of Packaging Elements on the Consumers'
Preferences with the Use of Marketing Eye-Tracking Technique, Modern Management Review”, No. 1, Vol. XX,
pp. 49-61
Czarniawska B. (1997), Narrating the organisation: Dramas of institutional Identity. University of Chicago Press,
Chicago.
Deighton J.R, Romer D., McQueen J. (1989), Using drama to persuade, “Journal of Consumer Research”, No. 16,
pp. 335-343.
Escalas J.E., (2004), Narrative processing: building connections between brands and the self, Journal of Consumer
Psychology”, No. 14, pp. 169-180.
Escalas J.E., Bettman J.R. (2000), Using narratives to discern self-identity related consumer goals and motivations,
[in:] The why of consumption: Contemporary perspectives on consumer motives, goals and desires, pp. 237-258,
Routledge & Kegan Paul, New York.
Fog K., Budtz Ch., Munch Ph., Blanchette S. (2013), Storytelling. Narracja w reklamie i biznesie, Saatchi & Saatchi,
Warszawa.
Gephart R.P. Jr (1991), Succession sense making and organizational change: A story of a deviant college president, “Journal of
Organizational Change Management”, No. 3, Vol. 3, pp. 35-44.
Greene H., Koh K., Bonnici J., Chase J. (2015), The Value of Storytelling in the Marketing Curriculum, "Journal of the
Academy of Business Education", pp. 111-128.
Hajdas M (2011), Storytelling - nowa koncepcja budowania wizerunku marki w epoce kreatywnej, "Współczesne
Zarządzanie", No. 1, pp. 116-123.
Hong Kun Ch., Byueong-hyun M., Jae Young K. (2017), Analysis on Consumer Behavior Model for Storytelling
Advertising of High-Tech Products: Focusing on Identification and Empathic Response, “International Journal of
Applied Business and Economic Research”, No. 14, Vol. 15, pp. 285-294.
Kadembo E. (2012), Anchored in the story: The core of human understanding, branding, education, socialisation and
the shaping of values, “The Marketing Review”, No. 3, Vol. 12, pp. 221-231.
Kantar Millward Brown (2017), Storytelling, http://www.aaaa.org/wp-content /uploads/2017/08/Kantar-Millward-
Brown-Storytelling-advertising-2017.pdf (22.03.2018).
Kosson G. (2014), Podaj dalej, czyli jak stworzyć porywającą opowieść dla marki, Słowa i Myśli, Lublin.
Labov W. (1997), Some Further Steps in Narrative Analysis, “Journal of Narrative and Life History”, No. 1-4,
pp. 207-215.
Lockett M. (2007), The Basics of Storytelling, http://www.mikelockett.com/downloads/History%20of%20 Storytelling.pdf
(25.02.2018).
Matilla A.S. (2000), The Role of Narratives in the Advertising of Experiential Services, “Journal of Service Research”,
No.1., Vol. 3. pp. 35-45.
Mistewicz E. (2011), Marketing narracyjny. Jak budować historie, które sprzedają. One Press, Gliwice.
Nowacki R. (2015), Innovativeness of advertising activities in the Polish market - advertisers’ abilities and recipients’
perception, Acta Scientiarum Polonorum. Oeconomia”, No. 2, Vol. 14, pp. 119-130.
Nowacki R., Strużycki M. (ed.) (2011), Reklama w procesach konkurencji, Difin, Warszawa.
Padget D, Allen D. (1997), Communicating Experiences: A Narrative Approach to Creating Services Brand Image,
“Journal of Advertising”, No. 4, Vol. 26. pp. 49-62.
Polkinghorne D. (1988). Narrative knowing and the human sciences, State University of New York Press, New York.
Polyorat K., Alden D.L., Kim E.S. (2007), Impact of Narrative versus Factual Print Ad Copy on Product Evaluation:
The Mediating Role of Ad Message Involvement, „Psychology & Marketing”, No. 6, Vol. 24, pp. 539-554.
Quesenberry K.A., Coolsen M.K. (2014), What Makes a Super Bowl Ad Super? Five-Act Dramatic Form Affects
Consumer Super Bowl Advertising Ratings, “Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice”, No. 4, pp. 437-454.
Simanjuntak M., Napitupulu L., Situmeang F. (2016), Storytelling and Brand Attitude: The Role of Consumers' Level
of Involvement and Available Time, “Advanced Science Letters”, No. 12, Vol. 22, pp. 4448-4451.
ICoM 2018 8th INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MANAGEMENT
699
Smith M.C. (1995), Age Differences in Memory for Narrative and Expository Print Advertisements, "European
Advances in Consumer Research", Vol. 2, pp. 109-112.
Solja E., Liljander V., Söderlund M. (2018), Short brand stories on packaging: An examination of consumer responses,
“Psychology & Marketing”, No. 4, Vol. 35, pp. 4294-4306.
Stafford M.R., Day E. (1995), Retail Services Advertising: The Effect of Appeal, Medium, and Service, “Journal of
Advertising”, No. 1, Vol. 24. pp. 57-71.
Stopczyńska K. (2016), Wykorzystanie storytelling w kreowaniu wizerunku marki w social media, “Handel Wewnętrzny”,
No. 3(362), Vol. 62, pp. 317-328.
Storytelling why and how does it work? Marketing, Science 2017-06-28, http://notchcommunications.co.uk/
storytelling-why-and-how-does-it-work/ (09.03.2018).
Szewczyk Ł. (2010), Storytelling w budowaniu marki, https://media2.pl/reklama-pr/71909-Storytelling-w-budowaniu-
marki.html (22.03.2018).
Tun P.S., (1989), Age Differences in Processing Expository and Narrative Text, „Journal of Gerontology”, No. 1,
Vol. 44, pp. 9-15.
www1 - https://digitalmarketinginstitute.com/the-insider/20-09-17-6-ways-brands-can-boost-their-storytelling (12.03.2018).
Wallentin M., Nielsen A.H., Vuust P., Dohn A., Roepstorff A., Lund T.E. (2011). Amygdala and heart rate variability
responses from listening to emotionally intense parts of a story, “NeuroImage”, No. 58, pp. 963-973.
West T. (2015), Brand Storytelling with Sequential Advertising on Facebook, http://www.stateofdigital.com/brand-
storytelling-sequential-advertising-facebook/ (22.03.2018).
Wiażewicz J., Zatwarnicka-Madura B. (2016), Fashion Blogs as the Information Sources about Trends and New
Products in Fashion Management, "Polish Journal of Management Studies", No.1, Vol. 14, pp. 214-225.
Witek L. (2016), Cause Related Marketing: the demographic-social qualities of consumers and their attitudes towards CRM,
[in:] Formankova S. (ed.), Trends of Management in the Contemporary Society, 6th International Conference on
Management, Brno, Czech R, pp. 205-208.
Yang C. (2013), Telling tales at work: An evolutionary explanation, “Business Communication Quarterly”, No. 2,
Vol. 76, pp. 132-154.
Zatwarnicka-Madura B. (2017), Źródło przekazu w reklamach telewizyjnych kosmetyków, "Handel Wewnętrzny",
No. 5(370), Vol. 63, pp. 394-402.
Znanewitz J., Gilch K. (2016), Storytelling A guideline and an application in the Bundeswehr’s (personnel) marketing,
“Transfer: Werbeforchungs & Praxis”, No. 4, pp. 30-35.
... The emotional areas of a human body activate when something verbally is described [68]. Whereas, the content created visually grabs more attention [66]. The consumers (i.e., audience in our case) expect a company or the source to tell clear and concise information regarding a brand; they also expect that it should be honest [66]. ...
... Whereas, the content created visually grabs more attention [66]. The consumers (i.e., audience in our case) expect a company or the source to tell clear and concise information regarding a brand; they also expect that it should be honest [66]. Previous research on the effectiveness of storytelling has shown that narrative advertising generates higher awareness, higher commitment to the content, and higher purchase intention [69][70][71]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Storytelling content is where the facts are conveyed by emotion and that make people more engaged and want to take action or change their surroundings. Stories fascinate people and can easily be remembered compared to the facts alone. The much hyped feature "stories" of Instagram, a trendy social media platform, has become a game-changer for influencer marketing. The present study extends reactance theory in the context of Instagram's millennial users. Previous researchers have tested the effectiveness of the stories feature of this particular social media platform. Therefore, in line with the earlier studies, we propose a sequential mediation model that investigates the effect of storytelling content (made by Instagram Influencers) on audience engagement using two sequential mediation mechanisms of relatability and trust. Data were obtained using a cross-sectional study design from 273 millennial users of Instagram. Our results justify the direct and indirect hypothesized relationship through Process Macros. We found that relatability and trust play a significant role in building a strong relationship between storytelling content and audience engagement. Ultimately, the research findings suggest that professionals should be more creative while making the content on Instagram to engage the millennial market. Moreover, this research has tried to fill the gap in the literature on Instagram "stories" as an advertising platform.
Conference Paper
This paper investigates the impact of personalized advertisements on purchase intention through attention and trustworthiness. Businesses will have to forecast customer expectations from metrics like customer lifetime value, customer engagement, and customer social influence. As internet users in India have become huge in numbers, consumers do their research online before purchasing, except for Giffen goods. So, it becomes mandatory for firms to reach out to their prospective clients even before they contact the point of sale. One of the ways through which the businesses can establish an initial connection with the customer is personalized advertisements. This can be possible with the collection of personal, engagement, behavioral, and attitude data. A business website, internet, and social media activities are reliable sources where the firms get their information. For a country like India, the problematic situation is when viewers/consumers feel that their privacy is compromised because of such tracking. On the contrary, customers might not even pay attention to advertisements due to their ongoing social media activity. Based on cross-sectional data collected from 235 people, this paper thus tries to addresses these problems associated with personalized Ads and their impact on consumer behavior. This paper mainly focuses on tracking data from social media activities.
Article
TV advertisements are multimodal and can effectively unfold social meanings through the representation of narratives and storytelling. To explore the social meanings through the multimodal narrative construction in the visuals of TV advertisements, this article analyses a Pakistani TV advertisement featuring Shan Thematic 2020's #MoreThanJustACook. It is argued that a multi-perspective approach can significantly facilitate interpreting the social meanings of visual texts. Therefore, the current study draws on social semiotics by Kress & van Leeuwen for its analytical framework, along with Ryan’s narratological insights and Fog et al.’s storytelling elements. The investigation of multimodal narrative processes in the TVC unveils physical and psychological behaviours of the actors in the visuals, which represent social relationships through the description of a family from a Pakistani socio-cultural context. The story in the visual composition of the TVC aims to promote the idea of strong family ties, gender roles and women empowerment. This paper contributes towards knowledge on the application of multimodal socio-semiotic and narrativity theories. It is hoped that the proposed analytical approach can serve as a foundation for effective multimodal narratives in TV advertisements. (Eprint: https://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/WZZ8GZZZZKAWS3KN5ZWH/full?target=10.1080/10350330.2022.2043723)
Article
Full-text available
The public’s perception towards brands varies from one to another. Consumers’ purchasing behaviours keep changing over the years, and people are no longer interested with a one-way flow of communication when it comes to purchasing, or in simpler words, consumers “don't like to be sold”. Brand story is one of the strongest marketing strategies that most of the big companies apply to grow their business as well as to portray a good company image. Studies show that the influence of brand story is powerful in building a positive brand image, for it can empower and motivate the audience, convey purpose, and enhance customers' purchasing experience. The purpose of this paper is to identify the respondents’ perception of brand story, to ascertain their levels of perceived brand image, as well as to examine the relationship between the perception of brand story and perceived brand image. A survey through the use of a questionnaire was carried out, and 384 respondents participated, and the results indicate a significant value on the relationship between the influence of brand story and perceived brand image.
Chapter
The power of digital technologies and social media has transformed the way brands talk to their customers. Contemporary marketing is less about the products we make and the services we offer, but more about the experiences brands create, giving customers numerous stories to tell. This chapter presents a critical review of the interdisciplinary theories of storytelling drawing on narrative philosophy, consumer psychology, research in branding and tourism. While covering the essential elements of a story, it also highlights the shift from predictable bowling to pinball wizardry due to the rapid advancement of digital technology and proliferation of social media in all aspects of our lives. The chapter also draws on the neuroscience’s perspective of how the brain responses to storytelling and reviews different approaches to brand research with associated brand storytelling.
Article
This study aims to examine the storytelling of Apple’s three story-based advertisements, namely Share Your Gift, Real Stories and Welcome Home. It is discovered that the three advertisements position Apple products as the heroes of the stories, contain dramatic or exaggerated events and narrate a universal problem known by the majority of the society. These points then contribute to the three advertisements’ narrative probability and fidelity introduced in Walter Fisher’s (1985b) narrative paradigm. After the analysis, it is found that all the three of Apple’s story-based advertisements discussed in this study contain adequate narrative probability and fidelity, making Apple’s selling message in these advertisements believable.
Article
Full-text available
The paper discusses the concept of branding through storytelling. The aim is also to order the results of research concerning the effectiveness of this method.The author draws attention to the concept of storytelling as a key competence in the era of creativity, describes key components of brand story and indicates examples of brands that use the concept of storytelling. The paper presents the state of research on the effectiveness of the concept of storytelling and identifies areas for further research. Based on the conducted research the author raises the question concerning the future directions of using the concept of storytelling. For the cognitive processes, for instance, it is worth to undertake the research on the influence of storytelling, including such areas as communication and behavioral effects concerning brands, relations with media and public opinion etc. W referacie omówiono koncepcję budowania marki poprzez storytelling. Zwrócono uwagę na koncepcję storytellingu jako jedną kluczowych kompetencji w epoce kreatywnej. Wskazano elementy opowieści marki oraz przykłady marek posługujących się koncepcją storytellingu. Przedstawiono także stan badań nad skutecznością koncepcji storytellingu oraz obszary dalszych badań.
Article
Full-text available
Storytelling in marketing is a method of presenting marketing strategies by embedding them in real-life stories, enabling people to understand and relate to them on an emotional as well as an intellectual level. Due to the relatively low acceptance of traditional commercials, storytelling is becoming an increasingly common marketing tool. But how can one determine whether the tool of storytelling is being used effectively for marketing purposes? Despite the importance of this issue, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, there are no guidelines providing criteria for the evaluation of storytelling in marketing. Our study thus creates a guideline and illustrates its application in a promotional recruitment film of the Bundeswehr’s (German Federal Armed Forces) 2015 campaign “Mach, was wirklich zählt.” (Do what really counts.).
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the paper was to indicate the reasons for visiting or avoiding fashion blogs by Internet users, as well as to learn about blogs readers’ practices related to browsing and following fashion blogs. Moreover, the study aimed to identify differences between Polish and foreign fashion blogs based on Internet users’ opinion. In order to gather the empirical data, an online survey was used by the authors. As a result, 826 questionnaires were completed, 785 were analyzed. The findings revealed that the respondents sometimes bought clothes and accessories which were the same as or similar to those they had previously seen on fashion blogs and this is an important conclusion for marketers responsible for fashion products. Credibility is a factor that greatly affected purchasing decisions of the respondents. Fashion managers ought to, therefore, consider fashion blogs in their strategic management of such products. The most noticeable differences between Polish and foreign fashion blogs, according to respondents, were related to the content of blogs – pictures and brands presented by the bloggers. © 2016, Czestochowa University of Technology. All rights reserved.
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Storytelling has received praise from many educators as an effective teaching technique. Assessment has typically been qualitative, focusing on the thoughts, feelings and reactions of listeners; little attention has been paid to improvement in knowledge or learning as measured by standardized assessment instruments (e.g. test bank questions that frequently accompany textbooks – multiple choice, true or false, fill in the blank, etc.) In this paper, 6 different experiments were conducted, each with a control group and a test group. Two different storytelling techniques were tested, the first, well-structured and carefully planned, the second, spontaneous and anecdotal, created spontaneously by the classroom professor in reaction to classroom discussion. Results of the experiments suggest that well planned stories do enhance knowledge and learning, whereas impromptu, anecdotal stories may or may not increase learning outcomes. Keywords: storytelling, anecdotes, learning, experiments
Article
Full-text available
This article explores the adaptive functions of storytelling in the workplace from an evolutionary perspective. Based on the analysis of ethnographic studies on hunter-gatherer and modern work organizations, this article claims that storytelling, as an adapted cognitive device, was selectively retained by natural and sexual selection, because of its survival and reproductive payoff. The narrative production through storytelling is a natural coping mechanism and has been functional in both old and new ways of working life under different ecological conditions. This article also highlights underlying adapted psychological mechanisms of storytelling and discusses some evolutionarily informed practical implications and pedagogical applications.
Article
Full-text available
Grounded in dramatic theory, this study presents an expanded model of dramatic form for empirical investigation of television commercials. A two-year content analysis of 108 commercials found significant association of dramatic form with consumer favorability in Super Bowl advertising rating polls. Results demonstrated that average consumer ratings were higher for commercials that followed a five-act dramatic form and a positive association of the number of acts in commercials with consumer favorability ratings. The paper discusses the relationship of five-act plot development with advertising function as well as the theoretical implications of narrative theory and its impact on consumer response.
Article
The persuasiveness of stories and their influence on consumers have been acknowledged in marketing, particularly within the advertising field. In marketing practice, brand stories are increasingly also appearing on product packages. However, packages differ from ads in significant ways as communication channels; for example, the space for messages on a package is limited by the size of the package. This study reports findings from two experiments comparing consumer responses to fast-moving consumer good (FMCG) packages with and without short brand stories. The findings show that even a short brand story included on FMCG packaging has a positive impact on consumers’ affective, attitudinal, product value, and behavioral intention responses to the brand.
Article
Storytelling is a powerful tool in which brands communicate their story to build a relationship with a consumer. Some research has been done regarding the effects of a brand story on consumers’ attitude towards the brand. However, the assumption being made here, is that consumers are involved with the story and have time to elaborate on it. According to the Elaboration Likelihood Model, these are two important factors to become persuaded. In practice, consumers are exposed to thousands of advertising messages and will not extensively process all the messages. Therefore, consumers’ level of involvement and available time need to be taken into account when explaining the effect of a brand story on brand attitude. No research has examined these factors in the context of storytelling yet. A total of 159 consumers participated in the research. Participants were randomly divided among 5 conditions: high involvement/no time restriction, high involvement/time restriction, low involvement/no time restriction, low involvement/time restriction and a control group. They received different instruction letters, and were asked to read a story about a sock brand “Alfredo Gonzales.” Afterwards, questions followed that assessed consumers’ attitude towards the brand. The results showed that differences in brand attitude between conditions exist. High involved consumers who have time available are more positive towards the brand after reading the story than consumers that lack motivation and/or time. For lowly involved consumers, factual information about the brand is equally effective. Furthermore, the level of involvement moderates the effect of time on brand attitude. The more involved the consumer is, the more important it is that they have time to elaborate on the brand story.
Article
Storytelling or the narrative approach is increasingly becoming a core element in influence processes such as education, teaching, leadership, culture, history, marketing and its facets and a whole range of other functionalities across the multitudes of human activities. By nature human processes are a story told for a purpose; be it, as fun, socialisation, education, business, and so forth. Storytelling, be it narrated consciously or otherwise, tends to have a huge impact on society. It is the contention of this paper that the story is the ultimate in shaping minds and behaviour, and creating perceptions for the clientele or the stakeholders in any human engagement. While some writers might question the authenticity of using the storytelling approach on the pretext that it is not scientific they cannot take away the influence that the story has in shaping the thought process. In any case the human heritage is a story that transcends through generations: evolution, creation, discoveries of places, scientific discoveries or inventions, obituaries, product profiles, organisational profiles, advertisements, etc. Anything that is current, past or future that is narrated encapsulates a story be it past, present or future and each has its own purpose. Marketing has taken on board this notion in most of its facets in communications and brand development though this element does not come out strongly in the marketing literature. A quick check on the marketing literature would not present the notion of storytelling or the narrative as a topic in marketing books other than in the form of case studies. Ultimately the paper emphasises the notion that every influence process involving people is down to a story and no one can deny that socialisation is a story of perpetuating humanity and its facets. Denning (2007a) suggests that there are eight types of stories that serve a range of business related purposes and other facets of life or man's desire to understand or explain the notion of the earth and its dynamics. Boje (2008) articulates how a story defines people, places, products, etc, pointing out that every entity is known by its story in a given context. In view of the pervasive nature of the story it would be appropriate to argue that the story reminds of the past, shapes the present and inspire for the future; hence the story is the life that was, is and will be.